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Screening for cervical cancer: review of administrative arrangements.

Pye, M J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1988 Português
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46.29%
In 1980 a working party was established in Cambridge Health District to review the administrative arrangements for cervical cytology recall using the National Health Service Central Register at Southport. As a result of a number of surveys and ad hoc enquiries it was decided not to continue with the central recall scheme (which was subsequently withdrawn) and not to replace it with any formal centralized local scheme. The decision was based on the apparent failure of the central scheme, the effectiveness of informal systems already in operation locally, and the need to place cervical cancer amongst competing priorities for prevention.

Comparison of Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management in Eight Basins

Blomquist, William; Dinar, Ariel; Kemper, Karin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This study represents an effort toward understanding conditions that affect successful or unsuccessful efforts to devolve water resource management to the river basin level and secure active stakeholder involvement. A theoretical framework is used to identify potentially important variables related to the likelihood of success. Using a comparative case-study approach, the study examined river basins where organizations have been developed at the basin scale and where organizations perform management functions such as planning, allocation, and pricing of water supplies, flood prevention and response, and water quality monitoring and improvement. This paper compares the alternative approaches to basin governance and management adopted in the following river basins: the Alto-Tiete and Jaguaribe River Basins, Brazil; the Brantas River Basin, East Java, Indonesia; the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia, Canada; the Guadalquivir Basin, Spain; the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia; the Tarcoles River Basin, Costa Rica; and the Warta River Basin, Poland. The analysis focuses on how management has been organized and pursued in each case in light of its specific geographical, historical, and organizational contexts and the evolution of institutional arrangements. The cases are also compared and assessed for their observed degrees of success in achieving improved stakeholder participation and integrated water resources management.

A Framework for Evaluating Alternate Institutional Arrangements for Fiscal Equalization Transfers

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.36%
Fiscal equalization programs are fairly common features of intergovernmental fiscal relations in industrial countries. Some developing countries have also recently introduced these programs and still others are contemplating such programs. Institutional arrangements for fiscal equalization vary across countries with wide variations in the form and membership of the relevant decisionmaking bodies. This paper provides a simple neo-institutional economics framework for assessing alternative institutional arrangements for their impacts on simplicity, transparency, and objectivity of the equalization program, as well as transaction costs for various parties involved. Comparing institutional arrangements across different countries is a daunting task. The success of these arrangements depends on a multitude of factors. The success of governance structures for fiscal matters may depend not only on the incentives regime associated with their inner structures but also their interactions with other formal and informal institutions in the country. This paper presents a simple framework to understand these incentives and interactions and draw implications for their impacts on transactions costs for the society as a whole and achievement of societal objectives. An application of these concepts to the specific case of institutional arrangements for fiscal equalization transfers are carried out and the predictions based on the theory are compared with observed experiences in major federal countries. The paper demonstrates that the simple new institutional framework presented here has a significant power for predicting potential impacts. The paper concludes...

Making Benefit Sharing Arrangements Work for Forest-dependent Communities : Insights for REDD+ Initiatives

PROFOR
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.21%
As donors pledge growing support for protecting and managing forests to address climate change, the question of how to pay tropical countries to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation assumes greater urgency. Depending on the detailed implementation of REDD plus at a national and international level, forest nations may be able to secure funding from a range of sources, including donors and multilateral funds (a funded approach) and the voluntary and compliance carbon markets (a carbon markets-based approach). These payments are supposed to act as financial incentives that will engender changes in behavior and policy frameworks, spur the development of appropriate institutional arrangements and needed technologies, and motivate both national and international coordination to achieve REDD plus objectives. These pages provide a brief synthesis of four papers financed by the Program on Forests (PROFOR). All four papers are included in a CD enclosed at the end of this booklet. The papers are: making benefit sharing arrangements work for forest-dependent people: overview of insights for REDD plus Initiative (Chandrasekharan Behr...

A Guide to Government in Afghanistan

Evans, Anne; Manning, Nick; Osmani, Yasin; Tully, Anne; Wilder, Andrew
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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26.57%
This guide has three objectives: First and foremost, it seeks to provide newcomers to the Administrative and political scene in Afghanistan with a basic guide to the structures and processes of government. Second and related, it intends to provide reformers with some understanding of how to work "with the grain" of the existing institutional arrangements. Third, this report seeks to pay tribute to the remarkable people who have kept the system running and who are now reforming it. In pursuing these objectives, this guide attempts to set out these underlying strengths of the public sector, describing the evolution of the Afghan state, the current political context, and the administrative and organizational components of the government. It sets out the legal basis and organizational responsibilities for key fiscal tasks including revenue collection, budget preparation and execution, and accounting and audit. It also describes the organizational structures in the provinces, the way in which the staffing establishment is determined...

Romania : Local Social Services Delivery Study, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.53%
The study seeks to identify institutional, and procedural factors which may facilitate, or hamper the effectiveness of social services, and inter-governmental fiscal arrangements. Based on existing research on decentralization, the success of decentralized service delivery depends on factors, that include the quality of intergovernmental institutions, a stable fiscal framework, and a well established civil society, and social structure. The study focuses on public social services, where local governments play the greatest role, and, throughout the report, the greatest emphasis is on social assistance benefits, and services, addressing those cash benefits which are delivered, and financed by local governments, including national programs such as birth grants, emergency assistance, and the main poverty alleviation program. In education, the study focuses on compulsory, and secondary education, though it does not address specialized secondary education, which is under the purview of central ministries. The study comprises two volumes: volume 1 provides an overview of the issues...

Romania : Local Social Services Delivery Study, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The study seeks to identify institutional, and procedural factors which may facilitate, or hamper the effectiveness of social services, and inter-governmental fiscal arrangements. Based on existing research on decentralization, the success of decentralized service delivery depends on factors, that include the quality of intergovernmental institutions, a stable fiscal framework, and a well established civil society, and social structure. The study focuses on public social services, where local governments play the greatest role, and, throughout the report, the greatest emphasis is on social assistance benefits, and services, addressing those cash benefits which are delivered, and financed by local governments, including national programs such as birth grants, emergency assistance, and the main poverty alleviation program. In education, the study focuses on compulsory, and secondary education, though it does not address specialized secondary education, which is under the purview of central ministries. The study comprises two volumes: volume 1 provides an overview of the issues...

ICSID 2013 Annual Report

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.26%
International investment law and international investment arbitration are relatively new disciplines: the first bilateral investment treaty was signed by Pakistan and Germany in 1959, the first investment treaty offering investor-state arbitration was concluded in 1968 between the Netherlands and Indonesia, the first International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) case was registered in 1972, and the first treaty-based investment case was registered by the Centre in 1987. The Centre itself was established in 1966, along with the coming into force of the ICSID convention. It was the first dispute resolution facility designed exclusively for international investment dispute settlement, and it continues to be the only international facility dedicated to this area. This specialized mandate has allowed ICSID to develop an unparalleled expertise and focus, which benefits disputing parties, arbitrators and contracting states. Cumulatively, ICSID has administered over 430 cases, involving foreign investors from all regions of the world and more than 95 states and state agencies under the ICSID convention and rules. In addition...

Afghanistan Public Sector Pension Scheme : From Crisis Management to Comprehensive Reform Strategy

Sluchynsky, Oleksiy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
After years of dealing with pension policy in crisis management mode, the Government of Afghanistan has begun the process of formulating a national pension policy based on a long-term vision. Until very recently the Government had been focused on short-term policy actions to alleviate growing pressure on the budget. While these measures were necessary, pension policy must take a long term view. Recently, the Government has developed a comprehensive reform package and initiated the process of legal drafting. A reformed system must have clear objectives, be fiscally sustainable, and address needs of various population groups. The final choices will need to be made as to mandate and design and administrative arrangements of the reformed system. The challenge is to ensure that the measures taken in the next few years do not make it more difficult to pursue certain preferred policies later. This paper shows that, according to the financial projections, there is now a window of opportunity for implementing a reform of the system.

Understanding India’s Urban Frontier; What is Behind the Emergence of Census Towns in India?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
According to the latest census of 2011, the urbanization level in India has increased from 27.8 percent in 2001 to 31.2 percent in 2011, and for the first time, the absolute increase in urban population exceeded the increase in rural population. India has different administrative arrangements for rural and urban areas, which are based on the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution of India respectively. Since the census towns (CTs) continue to be governed by rural administrative arrangements this situation raises an additional set of questions, in addition to the nature of economic transformation, related to the trade-offs-between rural and urban status. The report shall try and find answers to the following questions: (a) how does their governance affect the settlements economically and spatially?; (b) what underpins the economic dynamics of these settlements?; and (c) what are the drivers of change in land use and what relationships, if any, are there between agglomeration of settlements and economic and social and governance processes? The report is organized into two main parts. The first part provides a reading of the existing literature on small towns along the three main axis of research: governance...

The constructions of global administrative law

CARMOUCHE, Nuhaila
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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36.32%
Examining Board: Professor Neil Walker, University of Edinburgh (Supervisor) Professor Nehal Bhuta, EUI Professor Susan Marks, London School of Economics Professor Gianluigi Palombella, University of Parma.; Defence date: 21 January 2013; This thesis is devoted to exploring the emerging area of research known as global administrative law as a particular lens from within which to analyse key transformations in the domain of regulatory governance, including the rise of forms of public law about governing in settings now external to the state. In the first section, the thesis attempts to background the idea of global administrative law in broader controversies surrounding the possible role and function of law in an age of global governance. Viewed in this light, it considers the 'procedural' solution offered by the project's participants in response to the challenges of unaccountable and non-inclusive forms of governance. The thesis argues that-far from offering to its audiences a set of theory-neutral descriptors and procedural solutions-the very idea of global administrative law invokes competing understandings over the legitimate methods, aims and purposes of the project, and, in a broader sense, law itself. In light of the fluidity of the normative languages of global administrative law ...

Nicaragua : Pension Reform Proposal

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The study reviews the current social security system, and its characteristics, analyzing the shortcomings of the Old Age, Disability and Survivor's Insurance (IVM) system, based on a defined benefit Pay-as-you-go (PAYG) scheme, no longer viable, given its low payroll taxes, overly generous benefits, and high rates of evasion, all systemic problems, which combined with institutional, and administrative weaknesses of the Instituto Nicaraguense de Seguridad Social (INSS), caused a cash deficit since 1997, and depletion of its reserves for the immediate future. The report explores long term finances, and the rationale for undertaking a systemic reform with mandatory, and defined contributions, based on individual capitalization accounts. It recommends closing the current PAYG system to new entrants, with the proviso for those aged 45-50, to opt for the new system, granting recognition for their acquired rights. General revenues, payroll taxes, and pension fund reserves, or other possible sources, should finance the transition to the new scheme...

Financing and Aid Management Arrangements in Post-Conflict Settings

Schiavo-Campo, S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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36.27%
This note, summarizing the analysis and recommendations of an upcoming CPR Working Paper of the same title, looks at issues related to financing modalities and aid management arrangements in post-conflict situations. It makes a number of recommendations based on a review of several recent case studies, of which four are assessed in detail: West Bank and Gaza, Bosnia and Herzegovina, East Timor, and Afghanistan. It focuses on the lessons of experience on multi-donor trust funds and on the recipient government's aid management architecture in post-conflict settings. This paper is concerned with the specific issues of financing modalities and aid management arrangements in post-conflict situations, and advances a number of recommendations on the basis of a review of several recent cases, among which four are assessed in detail: West Bank and Gaza, Bosnia and Herzegovina, East Timor (Timor-Leste) and Afghanistan. While generally applicable recommendations do emerge from the review, the most important recommendation is to tailor the design and sequencing of financing and aid coordination to the circumstances of the specific case.

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : A Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
This economic and sector work (ESW) report presents an analytical framework of local governance through the lens of accountability. It intends to establish a methodological basis for analyzing linkages between decentralization and accountability and is based on desk reviews and interviews. The main objective of this report is to present a coherent and comprehensive approach for decentralizing countries to achieve a high degree of local government discretion accompanied by robust accountability mechanisms. This report, which is a direct response to this growing interest, presents various social accountability mechanisms that could complement public sector accountability approaches. It also highlights the operational challenges the Bank's projects on local governance reform must often confront. Accordingly, the findings of this ESW provide, in one comprehensive framework, guidance on both macro policy-making and implementation of decentralization reforms.

Decentralization in Madagascar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This paper takes stock of Madagascar's first 10 years of decentralization. As it happened in many other developing countries, particularly in Africa, Madagascar's decentralization process has seen reversals, uncertainties and lack of clarity all along. This explains why Madagascar, despite the experience with decentralization, remains a highly centralized country with only about 3-4 percent of expenditures spent below the center and with very few prerogatives decentralized to the local level. Notwithstanding the structural impediments to decentralization in poor countries, many positive lessons can be drawn from the Madagascar case, which point to the potentials of the decentralization process. This study provides a detailed analysis of local government finances and develops a methodology for measuring local financing needs (local fiscal gap methodology). Based on this analysis, the study argues that a lot can be gained from simplifying administrative arrangements and fiscal relationships. Instead of a full-blown and ambitious decentralization strategy...

Vietnam : Governance and Administration of Social Assistance - A Rapid Assessment and Options for Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The coverage of social assistance in Vietnam is expected to expand over the coming years in line with Government plans for further strengthening social security. This raises the question of whether the governance and administrative arrangements for social assistance at all levels are sufficiently robust to handle a larger program. This note provides a rapid assessment of the arrangements for delivering Vietnam's main social assistance program, social assistance under Decrees 67 and 13, and proposes options for further strengthening in the short and medium term. It aims to make a timely contribution to the ongoing policy discussions about strengthening social assistance as part of the implementation of the Social Security Strategy 2011-2020. The note reflects findings from visits to Ha Giang Province and Ho Chi Minh City in July 2010. It finds that the current delivery mechanisms for social assistance are basic, with limited human resources, no caseload management and no integrated database that would allow tracking of beneficiary numbers. While such basic governance and administrative arrangements may be appropriate for a small program such as social assistance under Decree 67 in the past...

Subnational Administration in Afghanistan, Volume 1. Assessment and Recommendations for Action

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
This report proposes a two-pronged strategy of government action for securing progress in sub-national administration, using the structures, and discipline that form the distinctive heritage of the Afghan state. One strand calls for the center to commit itself to delivering some basic support for provinces, districts, and provincial municipalities, in their functional role as service provider or commissioner, and in their political role as local representative of the unitary state. The second strand of the strategy is comprised of tailored incentives for sub-national administrations, that reflect their institutional and historical roots. The task is to make this de-concentrated system work, through effective incentives at the sub-national level that will entail the provision of valued resources that are triggered by simple measures of administrative effort, not performance, and tailoring the incentives to suit the specific situation of the administration, with distinct differences between the incentives provided to provinces...

Critical Administrative Constraints to Service Delivery : Improving Public Services in Afghanistan's Transformational Decade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Since 2001, the Afghan population's access to basic services has greatly improved in nearly all sectors. School enrolment has increased sharply, with over eight million children currently enrolled in school, of which 39 percent are girls. Current strategies for improving sub-national service delivery focus on delegating greater authority to provincial and district administrations. This report aims to identify administrative constraints in three key sectors of public service delivery, education, health and agricultural extension services. The analysis follows the service delivery chain, from central to provincial, through district to community level, and is particularly concerned to examine service delivery in these three sectors through the window of sub-national governance and its relations to the service delivery mandates of line ministries. The study provides the Government of Afghanistan with recommendations on how to alleviate critical constraints to service delivery at sub-national levels on a sustainable basis...

City-Regions : Emerging Lessons from England

Larkin, Kieran; Marshall, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
The emergence of city-regions in England offers some useful lessons for the World Bank partners in developing countries. The city-region approach, as applied in England touches upon issues of decentralization, intergovernmental fiscal relations, governance, and the need to realign outdated administrative arrangements with a metropolitan area's economic footprint, among other highly relevant topics for rapidly urbanizing cities in developing countries. As a concept, city-regions are designed to promote cross-boundary collaboration across large urban areas. They aim to facilitate horizontal and vertical co-ordination between multiple jurisdictions. They advance the concept of an appropriate spatial scale for economic development functions such as transport, housing and training. They capture urban hinterlands, as well as core cities. This note explains: 1) the emergence of city-regions in England, 2) the current policy framework in England, 3) a case study of Greater Manchester, 4) city-region contracts as a policy tool to codify intergovernmental institutional arrangements...

Erário público, dever de regresso e prescrição administrativa: a indisponibilidade do interesse público vs. a segurança jurídica na ação de ressarcimento proposta pelo Estado; Public treasury, duty to return and administrative prescription: the unavability of public interest vs. certainty in action of remedy motion by the state

Moura, Emerson Affonso da Costa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
A prescrição nas ações de ressarcimento ao Erário propostas pelo Estado é o tema posto em debate a partir da análise do regime jurídico-administrativo, do interesse público, de sua indisponibilidade como o seu epicentro, da prescrição enquanto instituto de preservação da segurança jurídica nas relações privadas e sua função no direito público e, em específico, no direito administrativo, bem como do dever de regresso em caso de violação ao Erário e da controvérsia sobre a existência de prazo prescricional da ação proposta pelo Estado a partir da redação do artigo 37 parágrafo 5º da Constituição Federal de 1988.; The limitation on claims for reimbursement to the state ex chequer proposal is put to debate the issue, from the analysis of the legal and administrative arrangements and the public interest and their unavailability as its epicenter, prescription institute while preserving legal certainty in private relationships and their role in public law, in particular, in administrative law, as well as the obligation to return in case of violation of the public purse and controversy of the existence of equitable toll in the proposed action by the State from the wording of Article 37 paragraph 5 of the Federal Constitution of 1988.