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Social Assistance in the New EU Member States : Strengthening Performance and Labor Market Incentives

Ringold, Dena; Kasek, Leszek
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This report looks at safety nets in the new member states from the perspective of fiscal impact and effectiveness. Given the limited budgets for social assistance, ensuring that resources are spent well, reach those who need them, and optimize welfare gains and labor market outcomes. This also requires attention to the balance between spending on means-tested antipoverty programs and family benefits and social insurance programs. Because of high levels of pension spending and rapidly aging populations, there is a risk that contributory social insurance spending will crowd out spending on social assistance. Managing the long-term fiscal sustainability of these programs to meet emerging needs is a priority. This paper looks at social assistance within the broader context of social protection. The main focus of the policy discussion is on the guaranteed minimum income programs, which comprise the centerpiece of the social assistance systems in each of the EU8 countries. Child allowances are also discussed...

Romania - Poverty Monitoring Analytical and Advisory Assistance Program : Are the Most Vulnerable Protected?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The rapid economic growth since 2000 has been the main driver of poverty reduction in Romania. However, even under the current positive growth scenario, there are still people who live in poverty, and some who are unlikely to benefit from future growth and thus may continue to be left behind. For these people an effective redistributive social policy and targeted interventions are needed. The purpose of this note is to assist the Ministry of Labor, Family and Equal Opportunities (MLFEO) to analyze and monitor the effectiveness of the main social safety net benefits to fight social exclusion and reduce poverty. To determine the extent to which social transfers offer protection to the poorest groups of the population, the paper uses the last available (2004-2006) rounds of the household budget survey data. The analysis presented here uses the consumption aggregate and the absolute poverty definition presented in the 2003 and 2007 poverty assessments. Three main indicators are used to assess the effectiveness of social protection (SP) programs: coverage (share of population covered by the programs)...

Administrative Barriers to Foreign Investment : Reducing Red Tape in Africa

Emery, James J.; Spence, Melvin T., Jr.; Wells, Louis T., Jr.; Buehrer, Timothy S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation and the World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The book consists of two papers which provide an overview of administrative barriers in Africa, and a very in-depth look at how one country, Mozambique, used a very large foreign investment as a mechanism to begin to tear them down. The first paper is based on a series of country-specific studies on administrative barriers done by Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) and the United States Agency for International Development. These studies covered Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. Each country study relied on review of primary materials, laws, and regulations. The second paper is a detailed look at how the administrative barriers that existed in Mozambique threatened to derail the huge Mozal aluminum smelter that was proposed by South African investors. Not only were the barriers overcome for this special project but also the Government used the knowledge gained in the process to reduce barriers for all investors and establish institutions that could facilitate other investments. The message in both papers is that administrative barriers constitute a significant impediment to foreign direct investment in Africa. Many of the administrative procedures required of investors have no real justification. Removal of unnecessary barriers and streamlining other administrative procedures require detailed efforts by governments involving the exercise of significant political leadership.

Social Investment Funds : An Organizational Approach to Improved Development Assistance

Jack, William
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
This paper examines the design of social investment funds (SIFs) and explores the ways they affect agents incentives to propose, select, and implement good projects. Compared with other forms of decentralized service provision, SIFs possess features of administratively delegated authority and deep political devolution. Where existing political institutions fail to deliver assistance to vulnerable groups, a well-designed SIF may represent a useful administrative alternative. This article reviews several features that provide incentives for both SIF staff and project beneficiaries and concludes with practical guidelines for designing and appraising social investment funds.

A Diverse and Dynamic Region : Taking Stock of Social Assistance Performance in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
East Asia and the Pacific is a particularly diverse region. It includes some of the largest and most populated countries in the world such as China and Indonesia as well as small Pacific islands. Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in undertaking reforms to strengthen social protection systems in the region, not only as crisis response tools. The primary objective of this study is to provide a comparative review of the financing, structure and performance of social protection programs in the East Asia region. The region is very diverse and this study seeks to enhance understanding of regional expenditure patterns in social protection, and to provide insights in the performance of social assistance programs in particular. Regional studies of this kind are challenging for a number of reasons, and this particular study was no exception. The performance of social assistance programs will be measured in terms of coverage, targeting accuracy, generosity of the benefit levels and impacts on poverty and inequality. The report uses data from household surveys to assess the performance of social assistance programs. There are...

From Universal Price Subsidies to Modern Social Assistance : The Political Economy of Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
The efficiency and effectiveness of generalized subsidies as part of a safety net system are questionable. This is because generalized subsidies tend to create distortions in the food and fuel markets and are likely to be regressive and to suffer from significant leakage of benefits to the non-poor, diluting their impact on poverty reduction. They also often have higher administrative costs than cash transfers. The policy response to recent crises highlighted an emerging interest for a transition from food and fuel subsidies toward greater reliance on targeted cash transfer programs in several countries. The transition from a strong reliance on generalized subsidies to more modern and administratively more sophisticated social protection has been witnessed in much of the developing world as countries move from lower to middle income status. However, cutting back subsidies has social as well as political implications, and therefore needs to be managed and implemented appropriately. This paper seeks to examine the implications and aspects of subsidies reform...

Strengthening China's Environmental Protection Administrative System : Analysis and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The Chinese economy has experienced an unprecedented 30-year period of economic growth and development that has delivered enormous social and economic benefits to the people but has had seriously adverse and continuing effects on the state of the environment. The government is well aware of the problem. Over the last five to ten years, environmental objectives have become increasingly important in priorities set under successive national five-year plans. To address these problems, the government has provided increasingly large infusions of capital and implemented a series of administrative reforms. Notwithstanding all these actions, the state of the national environment continues to deteriorate, and further action is clearly needed. This policy note focuses particularly on continuing issues related to the operations of the Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP), including the legal framework under which it operates and its operational relationships with other agencies at the national level and with its counterparts at lower levels of government. This focus is justified given that MEP's effectiveness is critical to the effectiveness of the government's overall environmental objectives. Without an effective MEP...

Uruguay - Strengthening Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Social Policy : Nonlending Technical Assistance Project, Report on Phase 2; Uruguay - Fortaleciendo la evaluacion y el monitoreo participativo de la politica social : Proyecto de Asistencia Tecnica No Reembolsable - informe de la fase two

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The objectives of the Uruguay Nonlending Technical Assistance Project (UY NLTA) were to: (i) evaluate the impact of providing a safety net program's (PANES's) social emergency programs; (ii) inform a dialogue about the future role of social programs and of MIDES as a lead authority responsible for the coordination and oversight of social policy in Uruguay; and (iii) strengthen Ministry of Social Development's (MIDES's) capacity to assess, monitor, and evaluate social policy in Uruguay, with considerable weight given to participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Expected outcomes of the project included: (a) increased efficiency in the implementation of Uruguay's social programs through the consolidation of existing and dispersed databases and the strengthening of MIDES's Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system; (b) increased transparency and strengthened accountability in selected departments through the piloting of a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) approach; (c) stronger engagement of civil society in public sector reform in Uruguay; and (d) informed decisions about the future of social programs under the Plan Nacional de Equidad...

Bangladesh Country Assistance Evaluation, 2001-08

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
Bangladesh is among the World Bank's largest International Development Association (IDA) eligible borrowers, with a country portfolio of 21 active projects and net commitment of $1.9 billion as of FY08. The Bank's strategy has been to support government efforts to improve governance as a cross-cutting goal, while also improving the investment climate and empowering the poor. IDA's strategy for Bangladesh and its program during the period 2001-08 were relevant to the country's development needs, including improving governance and promoting structural reforms in order to consolidate gains in macroeconomic performance, exports, education, and health, and improve the prospects for successful future development. Bank assistance during the FY01-08 period was delivered under the FY01 and FY06 Country Assistance Strategies (CASs) and the FY03 CAS progress report. These largely reflected the Bank's search for more effective support for Bangladesh's efforts to sustain and enhance development, even as success in increasing exports and workers' remittances reduced the country's dependence on foreign assistance...

Colombia : Social Safety Net Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.3%
The recent economic shock provided an incentive for carrying out the analysis of Colombia's safety net of national social assistance. Even though economic growth recovered modestly in 2000, poverty and unemployment remain high, and there has been a decline in some human development indicators. This is partly due to Colombia not having an effective safety net in place, capable to address the social consequences of the crisis. These deficiencies led to the introduction in 2000 of the Red de Apoyo Social (RAS), i.e., Social Support Network. This assessment identifies issues, and recommends options for reform of the social safety net. The country is undergoing an unprecedented economic contraction, and severe fiscal imbalance that will require major reforms, notably to the pension program, before achieving macroeconomic stabilization. Therefore, the report takes into account the complex, and changing socioeconomic conditions, exacerbated by the protracted internal conflict. Such situation calls for supporting institutional viability...

Timor-Leste Social Assistance : Public Expenditure and Program Performance Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste is a young, post-conflict nation endowed with significant oil revenues. Timor-Leste has one of the highest birth rates in the world (2.41 percent population growth) with over 44 percent of the population below 15 years of age (Timor-Leste Census, 2010). Since the 2006 crisis, the Government of Timor-Leste has shown a clear commitment to social assistance. Globally, poverty persistence is closely related to major life-cycle disadvantages resulting in low human capital outcomes, and yet large-scale poverty remains unaddressed by current social protection efforts. This expenditure review and performance evaluation report is part of the technical assistance provided to Timor-Leste's Ministry of Social Solidarity (MSS) in response to the lack of any national level evaluation of the safety nets system since its inception. To that end, this study seeks to assess the social assistance policy, as well as the performance of the main MSS social assistance programs. More specifically, the aims are to: (1) determine whether existing programs are efficient...

Vietnam : Formal and Informal Social Assistance in Metropolitan Cities - A Rapid Assessment

Nguyen, Tam Giang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The expanding coverage of social assistance in Vietnam raises a question of whether relevant arrangements at all levels are sufficiently robust to handle a larger program. This note explores institutional and delivery aspects of formal and informal social assistance in metropolitan cities. It is a result of a rapid assessment of governance and administration of social assistance in metropolitan cities, including interviews with related stakeholders in Ho Chi Minh City in July 2010 and in Hanoi in January 2011. Basically, the existing governance and administrative structures for delivery of Decrees 67/13 assistance in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are characterized by a number of common issues elsewhere in the country, as described in previous studies. In addition, this note finds that while the cities may have resources to self-finance their assistance under Decrees 67/13 and provide significant informal assistance through various channels, their determination of exclusive poverty lines without sound scientific grounds may result in substantial inclusion and exclusion errors in locally funded schemes of aid. Furthermore...

Vietnam : Governance and Administration of Social Assistance - A Rapid Assessment and Options for Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The coverage of social assistance in Vietnam is expected to expand over the coming years in line with Government plans for further strengthening social security. This raises the question of whether the governance and administrative arrangements for social assistance at all levels are sufficiently robust to handle a larger program. This note provides a rapid assessment of the arrangements for delivering Vietnam's main social assistance program, social assistance under Decrees 67 and 13, and proposes options for further strengthening in the short and medium term. It aims to make a timely contribution to the ongoing policy discussions about strengthening social assistance as part of the implementation of the Social Security Strategy 2011-2020. The note reflects findings from visits to Ha Giang Province and Ho Chi Minh City in July 2010. It finds that the current delivery mechanisms for social assistance are basic, with limited human resources, no caseload management and no integrated database that would allow tracking of beneficiary numbers. While such basic governance and administrative arrangements may be appropriate for a small program such as social assistance under Decree 67 in the past...

Tajikistan - Delivering Social Assistance to the Poorest Households

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
During the food, fuel, and financial crises of 2008 and 2009, the Government and donors found themselves without an effective mechanism for channeling assistance to the poor. In 2009, the Government of Tajikistan asked the World Bank to support improvement of its system of social assistance. The World Bank prepared this report to inform its technical and financial support for improvement of social assistance and also to define an initial mechanism for delivering benefits to the poorest households. At present, Tajikistan's system of social assistance exerts almost no downward influence on poverty rates. This note sets forth the case for reform and then presents some specific technical proposals for reforms. To trace the path to reform, this report starts with an assessment of the present system. The other main social assistance program is compensation to needy families whose children attend school. This program pays benefits to selected households if their children enroll in and attend school. The size of the benefit is negligible and is judged too low to influence school attendance. An important step in the reform will be to consolidate the two main social assistance programs...

Pre-trial Procedures in Administrative Justice Proceedings in England and Wales, France, Germany and the Netherlands : A Comparative Study with a View to the Possible Development of Pre Trial Procedures in Administrative Law in Turkey

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Disputes between citizens or businesses and the State about respective rights and duties are at the core of administrative law. The ability for citizens and businesses to hold Government accountable for acting within the rule of law is a key element of good governance. It provides legal certainty and guarantees predictable and rule-based implementation of legal and regulatory frameworks across different sectors. It also provides Government with effective mechanisms to enforce these frameworks. An effective administrative justice system is therefore a crucial element to make sure all players follow the rules of the game. As such, it is an important aspect of a sound investment climate. The Turkish Ministry of Justice has identified the absence of pre-trial procedures in the administrative justice system as a major obstacle to the efficient and effective delivery of judicial services to citizens, businesses, and the state. There are widespread complaints that administrative judges crumble after a heavy workload and that certain types of cases may be more effectively dealt with outside of the courts. This will make dispute resolution for citizens...

Romania : Strengthening Inclusion and Improving Effectiveness for Social Assistance Benefits

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Despite the overall successful picture of sustained economic growth, a significant share of Romanians live in absolute poverty and deep pockets of poverty still remain, pointing to the need of more inclusive and effective social safety nets. During recent years Romania made efforts to redistribute the benefits of growth by keeping constant the share of GDP devoted to social protection; still, the per capita expenditure on the main social assistance benefits is amongst the lowest in EU. Compared with the EU average, Romania has a good mix of targeted/ non-targeted social assistance programs, but they provide only a modest protection of the poor against income vulnerability, and at a relatively high cost. Taken together, the safety net benefits cover 71 percent of the poor. Some key issues and challenges for Romania are: The 'leakages' of social assistance cash transfers has increased, while performance in covering the poverty gap weakened. Spending on poverty targeted programs has decreased relative to GDP and so has the capability of these benefits to adequately cover the basic needs of the poor. The high number of programs and the heterogeneity of the eligibility thresholds/criteria for different benefits translate into a rather fragmented and difficult to monitor system of social assistance benefits. The report describes several policy options or recommendations...

Perceptions of the Judiciary's Performance in Serbia; Results of the Survey with the General Public, Enterprises, Lawyers, Judges, Prosecutors, and Court Administrative Staff

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
With the purpose of providing assistance to government efforts in justice sector reform and modernization, the World Bank conducted two surveys. The first survey was conducted in 2010 in order to collect baseline information on perceptions of the court and prosecutorial performance and expectations from the reform implemented in January 2010. The second, follow-up, survey was conducted in 2013 in order to identify the impact of the first four years (2010 - 2013) of reforms and the expectations from the new national strategy of reform for the period 2014-2018. The surveys aimed to measure perceptions of judicial performance against five core values (efficiency, quality, fairness, accessibility, and integrity - independence and presence of corruption), and to compare the views of multiple stakeholders (court services users - general public and business sector, court services providers -judges, prosecutors and providers of court administrative services, and lawyers as intermediaries between users and providers of court services). The survey also focused on costs of judicial services...

Rules, Roles, and Controls : Governance in Social Protection with an Application to Social Assistance

Bassett, Lucy; Giannozzi, Sara; Pop, Lucian; Ringold, Dena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
The paper develops an operational definition of governance that can be applied to social protection. The 2004 World Development Report (WDR) accountability framework acts as a starting point, defining accountability in terms of a set of principal?agent relationships between policymakers, providers, and citizens. Applying this framework to social protection, the paper looks at three broad areas where the Bank is involved in governance in social protection: rules of the game, including clear criteria for entry and exit of programs; roles and responsibilities, including defining accountability relationships and incentive frameworks across levels of government and institutions involved in social protection; and controls and accountability measures, including the broad set of implementation mechanisms and procedures for ensuring that 'the right benefit gets to the right person at the right time'. The paper applies this framework to social assistance policies and programs, reviews what is currently being done across the Bank in this area...

Gênese da política de assistência social do governo Lula; Genesis of the social assistance policies of Lula\'s government

Mendosa, Douglas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
O objetivo da tese é o de compreender a reestruturação da política de assistência social durante o governo de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003 - 2010). A hipótese que orientou a pesquisa foi a de que essa reestruturação e seus principais redirecionamentos resultaram diretamente das posições e conquistas alcançadas por agentes políticos específicos, os assistentes sociais. Dentre esse conjunto de profissionais destacou-se a liderança de um grupo de professores e pesquisadores de cursos de Serviço Social de universidades públicas e confessionais, em sua maioria formada por militantes do Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT), que soube aproveitar uma janela de oportunidade aberta no primeiro ano do governo Lula, para gerar as alternativas político-administrativas necessárias a fim de que a política de assistência social fosse implantada segundo os princípios e visões que vinham defendendo desde a década de 1980. Ao longo do governo de Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995 - 2002), esses agentes formaram uma visão alternativa a respeito da política de assistência social, em que o Estado deveria assumir o protagonismo nas ações socioassistenciais, uma vez que o direito social à assistência é um dos pilares do sistema de seguridade social criado com a Constituição Federal de 1988. A assistência é definida por eles como proteção social...

A troca de informações fiscais entre os Estados-Membros da União Europeia e a tutela jurídica dos contribuintes

Pereira, Ricardo Jorge Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Dissertação de mestrado em Direito Tributário e Fiscal; No actual cenário económico mundial, as relações comerciais e económicas assumem uma dimensão que extravasa as fronteiras físicas dos Estados, seja pelos agentes que nelas intervêm, seja pelo movimento transfronteiriço de bens, serviços e capitais que originam. No seio da União Europeia, este é um fenómeno bem presente, sendo experienciado por todos os Estados-membros quer nas relações entre si, quer nas relações com países terceiros. Esta realidade tem impacto no domínio da fiscalidade, colocando uma plêiade de novas questões e problemas, como sejam a dupla tributação internacional e a luta contra a evasão e a fraude fiscais, para que urge encontrar respostas e soluções adequadas quer na perspectiva dos Estados, quer na perspectiva dos próprios agentes económicos. No âmbito da União Europeia, têm sido criados instrumentos que visam estabelecer formas de cooperação interestadual no âmbito da fiscalidade, assumindo particular relevância, enquanto modalidade de assistência administrativa mútua em matéria fiscal, a troca de informações fiscais entre os Estadosmembros. Os procedimentos de troca de informações fiscais entre os Estados-membros da União Europeia incidem sobre as actividades transfronteiriças desenvolvidas pelos contribuintes e...