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Transparency, corruption and ICT (illustrated with Portuguese cases)

Dias, G. P.; Moreira, J. M.
Fonte: Philosophy Documentation Center Publicador: Philosophy Documentation Center
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
With this text we discuss – building from two illustrative Portuguese cases – the role and relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the fight against corruption and in the promotion of better transparency and accountability in government. Starting with a consistent definition of corruption and a distinction between political and administrative corruption, we will consider the opportunities introduced by the development of ICT and its growing usage by government and society. Within the text, we refer to the thirty years’ controversy related to the need and proposed locations for the new Lisbon international airport, analyzing the alleged links between politicians and the construction and real estate industries; and examine the local government, that was the object of more than 40% of the corruption investigations in Portugal in the last four years.

Trends in Corruption and Regulatory Burden in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
This study assesses levels and trends in corruption and the administrative burden from government regulation of private firms. It is largely based on the fourth round of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-World Bank Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys (BEEPS) covering over 11,000 firms in 29 countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). The report provides an update of the progress that ECA countries have made since 2005, extends (in certain respects) the analysis of corruption and regulatory burden on firms provided in the earlier Anticorruption in Transition (ACT) reports covering the period from 1999 to 2005, and in several instances provides comparisons of ECA countries to similar countries outside of the region using the World Bank enterprise surveys and other sources of data. Despite making significant progress on administrative bribery overall, corruption is cited more frequently by firms in the region as an obstacle to doing business than any other problem, with the exception of tax rates. In part...

Decentralization (Localization) and Corruption : New Cross-Country Evidence

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This paper attempts to improve the understanding and measurement of decentralization and its relationship with corruption in a worldwide context. This is done by presenting the conceptual underpinnings of such relationship as well as using superior and more defensible measures of both decentralization in its various dimensions as well as corruption for a sample of 182 countries. It is the first paper that treats various tiers of local governments (below the inter-mediate order of government) as the unit of comparative analysis. In contrast, previous analyses erroneously focused on subnational governments as the unit of analysis which yields invalid cross-country comparisons. By pursuing rigorous econometric analysis, the paper demonstrates that decentralization, when properly measured to mean moving government closer to people by empowering local governments, is shown to have significant negative effect on the incidence of corruption regardless of the choice of the estimation procedures or the measures of corruption used. In terms of various dimensions of decentralized local governance...

Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
his volume provides advice on how to institutionalize performance-based accountability, especially in countries that lack good accountability systems. The volume describes how institutions of accountability may be strengthened to combat corruption. The volume is organized into two parts. The first part deals with public management reforms to ensure the integrity and improve the efficiency of government operations. It outlines an agenda for public management reforms and discusses the roles of e-government and network solutions in performance improvements. The second part of the volume provides advice on strengthening the role of representative institutions, such as organs and committees of parliament, in providing oversight of government programs. It also provides guidance on how auditing and related institutions can be used to detect fraud and corruption. The book highlights the causes of corruption and the use of both internal and external accountability institutions and mechanisms to fight it. It provides advice on how to tailor anticorruption programs to individual country circumstances and how to sequence reform efforts to ensure sustainability. This volume presents the latest thinking of leading development scholars on operationalizing such a governance framework. The focus of this volume is creating performance-based accountability and oversight when there is no bottom line. Each chapter addresses an important dimension of such a framework. The four chapters in part I are concerned with integrity and efficiency in public management. The nine chapters of part II are concerned with institutions and mechanisms to hold government to account.

The Many Faces of Corruption : Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level

Campos, J. Edgardo; Pradhan, Sanjay
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76%
This paper explores the use of prototype road maps to identify corruption vulnerabilities, suggests corresponding warning signals, and proposes operationally useful remedial measures in each of several selected sectors and for a selected sample of cross cutting public sector functions that are particularly prone to corruption and that are critical to sector performance. Numerous technical experts have come together in this effort to develop an operationally useful approach to diagnosing and tackling corruption. The many faces of corruption is an invaluable reference for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers engaged in the business of development.

Corruption and Decentralized Public Governance

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
This paper examines the conceptual and empirical basis of corruption and governance and concludes that decentralized local governance is conducive to reduced corruption in the long run. This is because localization helps to break the monopoly of power at the national level by bringing decisionmaking closer to people. Localization strengthens government accountability to citizens by involving citizens in monitoring government performance and demanding corrective actions. Localization as a means to making government responsive and accountable to people can help reduce corruption and improve service delivery. Efforts to improve service delivery usually force the authorities to address corruption and its causes. However, one must pay attention to the institutional environment and the risk of local capture by elites. In the institutional environments typical of some developing countries, when in a geographical area, feudal or industrial interests dominate and institutions of participation and accountability are weak or ineffective and political interference in local affairs is rampant, localization may increase opportunities for corruption. This suggests a pecking order of anticorruption policies and programs where the rule of law and citizen empowerment should be the first priority in any reform efforts. Localization in the absence of rule of law may not prove to be a potent remedy for combating corruption.

Localization and Corruption : Panacea or Pandora’s Box?

Gurgur, Tugrul; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
An extensive literature on the relationship between decentralization (or localization) and corruption has developed in recent years. While some authors argue that there is a positive relationship between decentralization and corruption, others claim that decentralization in fact leads to a reduction in the level of corruption. This important policy question has not yet been laid to rest, since previous empirical work simply uses eclectic regressions and lacks a conceptual framework to discover the root causes of corruption. This paper attempts to fill this void by presenting a framework in identifying the drivers of corruption both conceptually and empirically in order to isolate the role of centralized decision-making on corruption. The following results emerge: 1) For a sample of 30 countries (developing and industrial), corruption is caused by: a lack of service-orientation in the public sector, weak democratic institutions, economic isolation (closed economy), colonial past, internal bureaucratic controls and centralized decision making. 2) Decentralization is found to have a negative impact on corruption, with the effect being stronger in unitary than in federal countries.

Mauritania : Anti-Corruption Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.92%
This report provides analytic support to the National Anti-corruption Strategy (NACS) formulation, offers lessons from international experience on governance and anti-corruption (GAC) policy, and generally supports the Government and its development partners to better understand the phenomenon of corruption in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on the definition and measurement of corruption and the Mauritanian political economy. Chapter 3 focuses on corruption in public procurement. Chapter 4 concentrates on corruption in the courts of law. Chapter 5 deals with the extractive industries. Chapter 6 focuses on corruption from the perspective of the private sector, based on the results of the recent Investment Climate Assessment (ICA). On the basis of the analysis conducted in this report, the single most important message concerns the need for maintaining momentum and pressing ahead with the finalization of ongoing anti-corruption strategic thinking and legislation, and the implementation of already approved GAC laws and measures. Looking forward...

Governance and Anti-corrupton Diagnostics : Guidance and Tools for Implementation, Monitoring, and Assessment in the Field

Recanatini, Francesca; Morgan, Grace; Laghdaf Cheikh Malainine, Mohamed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
This guide focuses on one of the more granular approaches to governance improvement, the governance and anti-corruption diagnostic. Governance and anti-corruption diagnostics are used as an initial strategy to identify the nature of governance problems, to target the key sources or institutions associated with these problems, and to establish a baseline and indicators which can be used to make reforms and to measure progress over time. Increasingly, these diagnostics are becoming sectoral in nature, meaning they are customized to assess governance and anti-corruption in a targeted sector. If conducted properly, the diagnostic process informs and catalyzes stakeholders to demand reform. If repeated periodically, these diagnostics can become useful tools to monitor governance and anti-corruption over time. More specifically, governance and anti-corruption diagnostics: 1) Unbundle corruption by type - administrative, capture of the state, bidding, theft of goods and public resources, purchase of licenses and regulations; 2) Identify both weak institutions (which are in need of reform) and strong institutions (which provide examples of good governance); 3) Assess the cost of each type of corruption on different groups of stakeholders; 4) Provide insight into the relationship between corruption...

Russian Federation : National and Regional Trends in Regulatory Burden and Corruption

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Using data from business environment and enterprise performance survey (BEEPS) and other enterprise surveys, studies have shown that firm entry, growth and productivity are impeded by corruption and overly burdensome regulation. Most of these studies have been based on cross-country data (e.g. Barseghyan, 2008), or country-specific studies of firms in China (e.g. Cai et al., 2011; Cull and Xu, 2005), Mexico (Bruhn, 2011) and other nations. Other studies, however, are specific to Russia (e.g. Yakovlev and Zhuravskaya, 2007). Cross-regional variation in corruption and regulatory burden in Russia are potentially important factors in explaining differential performance in private sector development, income levels and growth rates. The intended audiences of this note are policymakers and policy analysts in the non-governmental organization (NGO) and academic communities who are interested in regulatory reform, corruption, and related aspects of the business environment in Russia. A broad range of evidence shows that overly burdensome regulation and corruption are significant impediments to firm entry...

Road Asset Governance Filter : Case Study of Kazakhstan and Armenia

Queiroz, Cesar; Lopez Martinez, Alejandro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Hommann, Kirsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Building upon the transport governance filter developed by the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) transport team, which identified several thematic principles and actionable indicators on the governance of the transport sector at large, this paper seeks to assess the overall governance performance of the road sector as well as the concrete issues that road administrations should address in order to improve sector governance. A pilot survey was conducted in Armenia and Kazakhstan, in which road sector stakeholders were asked to evaluate more than seventy questions structured along four governance dimensions: (i) transparency, disclosure and accountability of the road agency; (ii) transparent and accessible procurement processes; (iii) financial management system; and (iv) administrative procedures and anticorruption effort. This report starts with an overview of the existing approaches to governance and corruption with a particular focus on the road sector. It then outlines the methodological framework developed under the study to assess the governance challenges facing the road sector...

An anti-corruption strategy for provincial government in Papua New Guinea

Mana, Bui
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Outros Formato: 51170 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This paper examines the causes and characteristics of corruption at the provincial government level in Papua New Guinea. The aim is to develop a holistic education and training approach towards preventing corruption. This approach will incorporate aspects of the ethical framework proposed by the Independent Commission Against Corruption in New South Wales which are relevant to provincial government in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The study of corruption at the provincial government level includes local governments operating at the district level. Both political and administrative corruption are addressed at the provincial level.; no

Policing in the South Pacific Islands: dealing with serious and entrenched corruption

Parry, Stephen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
As Australia's closest neighbours, countries in the South Pacific directly engage Australia's national interests. A number of these nations such as Fiji, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea continue to face significant challenges, including law and order problems, weak institutions, economic decline, lack of employment opportunities, social dysfunction which are heightened by the serious corruption within Government agencies and civil society. Left unattended, these problems present a significant security challenge to Australia and possible destabilisation in the broader region. Such difficulties could also have international implications. Weak governance, poor security infrastructure and general instability make the South Pacific a potentially attractive base for international criminal operations such as drug trafficking, weapons trading, money laundering, and even identity fraud. Developing solutions to curb corruption which can contributes to these serious problems is the purpose of this research report. Corruption in the South Pacific is endemic and infiltrates every level of society . It is present in parliaments, political parties, governments, the public and private sectors and the civil service. However...

"What statistical measures are available for accurately determining levels of corruption in Papua New Guinea?"

Gillespie, Robbie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Corruption is a significant problem globally, representing a substantial barrier to development in many of the world's poorest nations and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is no exception. This paper reviews the approaches to corruption measurement around the world and makes some evaluation of their suitability for use in PNG. Despite the attention given to corruption there is no universally accepted definition. The Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and other agencies define corruption as 'the abuse of public office for private gain'. Given this definition, this paper disaggregates public sector corruption into five categories; administrative or bureaucratic corruption; grand corruption; state capture or influence peddling; abuse of discretion; and improper political contributions. Corruption is inherently difficult to measure, due to its variable and covert nature, but different approaches have been successfully employed to measure aspects of corrupt practices. Of these approaches those of Transparency International (TI) are the most famous. Tl's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) has rated PNG among the most corrupt countries in the world. The CPI is determined by the perceptions of four panels of country experts and thus reveals little specific information regarding corruption in PNG. The CPI is a useful tool in raising awareness of corruption but it is of limited direct use to AusAID activities. Citizen Report Card surveys are another approach to corruption measurement which track citizens experiences of public services. The underlying principle behind Citizen Report Cards is that citizens can provide useful information on the quality of public services as well as problems associated with service providers. The Citizen Report Card methodology is a powerful tool which can reveal administrative/bureaucratic corruption and also energise a populace to demand better services. However most citizens of PNG have little or no experience of public services thus a Citizen Report Card study would be inappropriate in PNG at this stage. Crime victimisation surveys are a bottom up approach to corruption measurement which can be used to capture levels of petty corruption. Community Crime Surveys are already undertaken in PNG but presently only ask respondents their perceptions of corruption. It is recommended that future crime victimisation surveys include questions concerning direct experience of corruption. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) and Quantitative Service Delivery Surveys (QSDS) are also popular tools for measuring corruption. PETS are an audit o the movement of funding through public service providers...

Anti-Corruption Diagnostic for Argentina : An Overview of Three Reports and General Recommendations, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
In mid-1999, the World Bank initiated diagnostic studies of three topics relevant to improving public sector transparency in Argentina. The topics proposed for study--procurement, the detection and investigation of corrupt acts, and the role of public information--were seen to be critical to any Argentine Government program to combat corruption. The three resulting papers (to be attached as Annexes) are synthesized in the present overview which provides a number of specific recommendations for imprvements and a suggested course of action for the future. The research focused almost exclusively on the federal government, but holds lessons for the other levels (provincial and municipal) as well. The report describes the situation prior to the assumption of office by President Fernando de la Rua (December 10, 1999). President De la Rua has begun an anti-corruption program, which is addressing many of the problems identified here. This report does not and cannot assess these new efforts. The attached consultants' reports should be read with that understanding.

Administrative Barriers to Foreign Investment in Developing Countries

Morisset, Jacques; Lumenga Neso, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Recent international experience has shown that excessively complex administrative procedures, required to establish, and operate a business, discourage inflows of foreign direct investment. The authors present a new database on the administrative costs faced by private investors in 32 developing countries. The database is much more comprehensive than the existing sources, as it contains not only information on general entry procedures, such as business and tax registration, but also captures regulation on land access, site development, import procedures, and inspections, The data include measures on the number of procedures, direct monetary costs, and time. The cost of administrative procedures vary significantly across countries. The most important barriers appear to be the delays associated with securing land access, and obtaining building permits, which in several countries, take more than two years. Countries that impose excessive administrative costs on entry, tend to be equally intrusive in firm operations...

Combating Corruption in the Philippines : An Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The war against corruption in the Philippines has taken a fresh turn with the inauguration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001, and the subsequent installation of the new government. Addressing corruption was one of the new administration's announced priorities, but a detailed anticorruption strategy and detailed action plan have yet to emerge. As this report notes, the deterioration of the governance environment in 2000 seems to have taken a heavy toll on investor confidence . The report also notes that several new initiatives were born during 2000-01 as the need for combating corruption was felt more widely and urgently. This need for concrete and visible actions to combat corruption still exists, maybe to a greater degree now than in the past. Chapter 1 discusses the 9-point approach to fighting corruption in the Philippines as proposed by the World Bank in November 1999 which comprises policy reforms and deregulation, reforming campaign finance, increasing public oversight, reforming the budget process...

The Role of Parliaments in Curbing Corruption

Stapenhurst, Rick; Johnston, Niall; Pelizzo, Riccardo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
In most countries, Parliament has the constitutional mandate to both oversee government and to hold government to account; often, audit institutions, ombuds and anti-corruption agencies report to parliament, as a means of ensuring both their independence from government and reinforcing parliament's position at the apex of accountability institutions. At the same time, parliaments can also play a key role in promoting accountability, through constituency outreach, public hearings, and parliamentary commissions.

Measuring Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia : A Critique of the Cross-Country Indicators

Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.85%
This paper assesses corruption levels and trends among countries in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) based on data from several sources that are both widely used and cover most or all countries in the region. Data from firm surveys tend to show improvement in most types of administrative corruption, but little change in "state capture" in the region. Broader, subjective corruption indicators tend to show somewhat greater improvement in ECA than in non-ECA countries on average. A "primer on corruption indicators" discusses definitional and methodological differences among data sources that may account in large part for the apparently conflicting messages they often provide. This discussion concludes that depending on one's purpose, it may be more appropriate to use data from a single source rather than a composite index because of the loss of conceptual precision in aggregation. A second conclusion is that the gains in statistical precision from aggregating sources of corruption data likely are far more modest than often claimed because of interdependence among data sources. The range of detailed corruption measures available in firm surveys are exploited to show that broad, perceptions-based corruption assessments appear to measure primarily administrative corruption...

"Seize the State, Seize the Day" : State Capture, Corruption, and Influence in Transition

Hellman, Joel S.; Jones, Geraint; Kaufmann, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.88%
The main challenge of the transition has been to redefine how the state interacts with firms, but little attention has been paid to the flip side of the relationship : how firms influence the state - especially how they exert influence on, and collude with public officials to extract advantages. Some firms in transition economies have been able to shape the rules of the game to their own advantage, at considerable social cost, creating what the authors call a "capture economy" in many countries. In the capture economy, public officials, and politicians privately sell under-provided public goods, and a range of rent-generating advantages "a la carte" to individual firms. The authors empirically investigate the dynamics of the capture economy, on the basis of new firm-level data from the 1999 Business Environment and enterprise performance survey (BEEPS), which permits the unbundling of corruption into meaningful, and measurable components. they contrast state capture (firms shaping, and affecting formulation of the rules of the game through private payments to public officials...