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The Political Economy of Decentralization Reforms : Implications for Aid Effectiveness

Eaton, Kent; Kaiser, Kai; Smoke, Paul J.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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This volume presents a preliminary framework designed to help international development partners consider the relevance of political economy issues for their programmatic support to decentralization and local government reform. The intention is neither to advocate decentralization in general or in any particular form, nor to presume or privilege any particular decentralization objective. Instead, the purpose is to document the potential value of better understanding how (primarily national and intergovernmental) political and institutional dynamics do or could affect the scope for realizing decentralization reforms aligned with commonly advocated service delivery, governance, and poverty reduction goals. The underlying premise is that systematic analysis of these issues can productively complement the dominantly technical diagnostic work typically carried out by development partners. Specifically, development partners can benefit from better understanding the practical significance of motives that drive politicians and bureaucrats to support or oppose reform at various stages of the decentralization process...

Decentralization (Localization) and Corruption : New Cross-Country Evidence

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper attempts to improve the understanding and measurement of decentralization and its relationship with corruption in a worldwide context. This is done by presenting the conceptual underpinnings of such relationship as well as using superior and more defensible measures of both decentralization in its various dimensions as well as corruption for a sample of 182 countries. It is the first paper that treats various tiers of local governments (below the inter-mediate order of government) as the unit of comparative analysis. In contrast, previous analyses erroneously focused on subnational governments as the unit of analysis which yields invalid cross-country comparisons. By pursuing rigorous econometric analysis, the paper demonstrates that decentralization, when properly measured to mean moving government closer to people by empowering local governments, is shown to have significant negative effect on the incidence of corruption regardless of the choice of the estimation procedures or the measures of corruption used. In terms of various dimensions of decentralized local governance...

Decentralization and the Provision of Public Services : Framework and Implementation

Kim, Aehyung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper discusses decentralization (administrative, fiscal and political) of government in public service provision. It aims to facilitate understanding among practitioners, policy makers, and scholars about what decentralization entails in practice compared to theory. A review of the empirical literature and experience of decentralization is presented. The paper highlights issues that policy makers in developing and transitional countries should be aware of when reforming government, considering their unique political and economic environment. The author argues that decentralization produces efficiency gains stemming from inter-jurisdictional competition, enhanced checks and balances over the government through voting at the subnational level, and informational advantages due to proximity to citizens. By contrast, arguments against decentralization include the risk of an increased level of corruption, coordination problems stemming from multiple layers of government, low capacity of subnational government...

Decentralization and Service Delivery

Ahmad, Junaid; Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti; Shah, Shekhar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Dissatisfied with centralized approaches to delivering local public services, a large number of countries are decentralizing responsibility for these services to lower-level, locally elected governments. The results have been mixed. The paper provides a framework for evaluating the benefits and costs, in terms of service delivery, of different approaches to decentralization, based on relationships of accountability between different actors in the delivery chain. Moving from a model of central provision to that of decentralization to local governments introduces a new relationship of accountability-between national and local policymakers-while altering existing relationships, such as that between citizens and elected politicians. Only by examining how these relationships change can we understand why decentralization can, and sometimes cannot, lead to better service delivery. In particular, the various instruments of decentralization-fiscal, administrative, regulatory, market, and financial-can affect the incentives facing service providers, even though they relate only to local policymakers. Likewise, and perhaps more significantly, the incentives facing local and national politicians can have a profound effect on the provision of local services. Finally...

Decentralization and Governance in the Ghana Health Sector

Couttolenc, Bernard F.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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In recent years, many countries, both developed and developing, have engaged in a process of decentralization of health service delivery and/or other functions of the health system. In most cases, decentralization has been adopted to improve accountability to local population, efficiency in service provision, equity in access and resource distribution, or to increase resource mobilization. Ghana has a long history of local government, going back to pre-independence times of the nineteenth century. By 1859 Municipal Councils were established in the major coastal towns of the then Gold Coast. Native Authorities, Councils and Courts were also established to administer law and order under the indirect authority of the colonial government; the limitations of this system was repeatedly put forward in the 1930s and 1940s, and reforms were introduced in 1951 by the Local Government Ordinance (Ahwoi 2010). The government has embarked in a decentralization policy since independence, which was strengthened and amplified by the local government act of 1993 and other legislations. At the present the Government of Ghana (GOG) is committed to strengthen the implementation of decentralization and for that purpose revise and strengthen the policy and regulatory framework governing decentralization. In spite of this long history and successive waves of decentralization reforms...

Decentralization in Africa : Emerging Trends and Progress

Ndegwa, Stephen N.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Decentralization, defined broadly as the transfer of public authority, resources, and personnel from the national level to sub-national jurisdictions, has been a recurrent theme in African countries since independence. In the last decade or so decentralization has gained prominence as an expressed goal or as an actual programmatic pursuit in the context of or as a consequence of two prominent movements affecting the African state. One consists of structural adjustment programs that sought to reform the public sector starting in the 1980s while the other is the ongoing transition toward more democratic and competitive politics. In nearly all African countries, structures of local administration exist but are often subordinated in their legal creation, mandate, and operation to the central state, especially the executive. As elsewhere in the developing world, political and economic liberalization have opened possibilities or at least revived claims for greater decentralization. Major development donors have also pushed decentralization as a pathway to improving governance and service delivery in developing countries.

An Evaluation of Bank Support for Decentralization in Client Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Developing countries have decentralized functions and responsibilities for service delivery to lower levels of government at an increasing pace in recent years. The main reasons for such reforms are often political, but governments adopt them also as a way to improve service delivery and local governance. Typically, after the political decision is made, a country will turn to its development partners including the World Bank for support in implementing the new policies and achieving their development objectives. Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) assessed the effectiveness of Bank support for decentralization between FY90 and FY07 in 20 countries, seeking to inform the design and implementation of future support. Given the difficulties of measuring the results of decentralization, the evaluation used intermediate outcome indicators such as strengthened legal and regulatory frameworks for intergovernmental relations, improved administrative capacity, and increased accountability of sub-national governments and functionaries to higher levels of government and to local citizens to assess the results of Bank support in these 20 cases. To examine potential lessons at a sectoral level...

How-to Note : A Framework to Assess Administrative Decentralization

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.85%
Local governments need to be endowed with administrative autonomy to be able to respond to local needs effectively. The purpose of this note is to clarify components of a well-designed administrative decentralization system and to assist task teams and stakeholders to assess administrative decentralization effort in any given country. There are two main components of an administrative decentralization system: discretion allowed to the local government to direct the business of the local government, and mechanisms to hold the local government accountable for appropriate use of this discretion. The objective of this note is to explain the importance of each of these components. The note also illustrates how these components should be put into practice. Challenges and good practices in implementations in various developing countries are highlighted. The review of study countries shows that local governments in the Philippines and Kerala have the authority to engage in all kinds of procurement contracts.

How Close Is Your Government to Its People? Worldwide Indicators on Localization and Decentralization

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.96%
This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the impact of the silent revolution of the last three decades on moving governments closer to people to establish fair, accountable, incorruptible and responsive governance. To accomplish this, a unique data set is constructed for 182 countries by compiling data from a wide variety of sources to examine success toward decentralized decision making across the globe. An important feature of this data set is that, for comparative purposes, it measures government decision making at the local level rather than at the sub-national levels used in the existing literature. The data are used to rank countries on political, fiscal and administrative dimensions of decentralization and localization. These sub-indexes are aggregated and adjusted for heterogeneity to develop an overall ranking of countries on the closeness of their government to the people. The resulting rankings provide a useful explanation of the Arab Spring and other recent political movements and waves of dissatisfaction with governance around the world.

Peru : The Decentralization Process and its Links with Public Expenditure Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Decentralization in Peru is an ongoing process that is in its infancy and faces key challenges. This study aims to take stock of the process and identify these challenges. The main goal of the report is to help think through these issues with a view of identifying priorities and opportunities for fruitful engagement in this area. Much of the stock-taking serves as an introduction to the topic for the general reader and draws on what has become by now extensive secondary literature. The report distils the key challenges of the decentralization process and adds value in three specific areas. A first distinct contribution of this report is to highlight the importance of political economy factors in explaining the ebbs and flows of the decentralization process. Second, the report provides new data on truly decentralized spending as opposed to deconcentrated as well as on public spending per capita across districts. Third, this report provides a novel analysis of the efficiency of public spending across departments in Peru. The report compiles measures of public sector performance and efficiency for education...

Achieving Accountability Through Decentralization: Lessons for Integrated River Basin Management

Mody, Jyothsna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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46.74%
While decentralization holds out the promise of increased flexibility and efficiency, the preconditions for realizing it are daunting. To draw lessons for productive decentralization in integrated river basin management, this paper surveys the decentralization experience in education, health care, roads, irrigation, and public infrastructure services. Case studies reveal that the prime focus in the design of a decentralized structure must be accountability, based on principles of subsidiarity, transparency, and allocation of property rights. While some debates are sector-specific, others, such as the need for political and financial accountability, the related data requirements, educating stakeholders and potential beneficiaries of the new system, and ensuring effective participation are true of decentralization wherever it is to unfold. In turn, initial conditions and the adaptation of political leadership to suit the historical context determine the success of decentralization. Four issues demand high priority in integrated river basin management. These are (1) overcoming financial inadequacy at the local level; (2) commitment to upgrading skills...

Education Decentralization and Accountability Relationships in Latin America

di Gropello, Emanuela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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46.48%
The author analyzes decentralization reforms in the education sector in Latin America (their status, impact, and ongoing challenges) by making use of the accountability framework developed by the World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People. She starts by identifying three main groups of models according to the subnational actors involved, the pattern adopted in the distribution of functions across subnational actors, and the accountability system central to the model. She then reviews the impact of these models according to the available empirical evidence, and explores determinants of this impact, extracting lessons useful to the design of future reforms. The author concludes that the single most important factor in ensuring the success or failure of a reform is the way the accountability relationships are set to work within each of the models and provides some lessons on how to get these relationships to work effectively. She also provides three main general lessons for selecting "successful" models: (1) avoid complicated models; (2) increase school autonomy and the scope for "client power...

Decentralization and Deconcentration in Morocco : Cross-Sectoral Status Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.48%
This report will look at how the Government of Morocco (GoM) has addressed the issues of decentralization and deconcentration in recent years. It discusses how these processes have affected public policies at the sub-national level and a number of strategic sectors, including agriculture, irrigation, water and waste water, health, education, energy, transport, urban, housing, and solid waste management. Specifically, the report will analyze the current legislative and institutional arrangements governing sub-national accountability, revenue and spending powers, and public service management at the sub-national level and within the strategic sectors. It is to serve as background input for the World Bank team preparing the new Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2010/2013. The Report builds on the findings from project appraisal documents, economic and sector work, policy notes, mission aide memoires, and implementation completion reports already completed by the World Bank.

Decentralization and Local Governance in MENA : A Survey of Policies, Institutions, and Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.85%
Entering the 21st century, the 1999-2000 World Development Report (WDR), identifies two main forces that are shaping the world in which development policy is being defined and implemented: (i) globalization, the increasing worldwide integration of private sector interaction and commercial relationships; and (ii) localization, a process of devolving fiscal and administrative roles and responsibilities from central to sub-national tiers of government. It goes on to note that these global-private and local-public pressures are not only reinforcing, but also challenging traditional paradigms and forms of intergovernmental systems. Political decentralization, often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, aims to give citizens more say in public policy and decision-making. Its advocates assume that decisions made with greater participation will be better informed and more relevant to diverse interests in society than those made only by national political authorities. The concept implies that the selection of representatives from local electoral jurisdictions allows citizens to know better their political representatives and allows elected officials to know better the needs and desires of their constituents. Administrative decentralization aims to redistribute authority...

Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Intergovernmental fiscal relations have advanced over the last decade in the Kyrgyz Republic. Since the previous public expenditure review in 2004, the government of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed a number of policy changes in the area of intergovernmental fiscal relations. These policy changes helped the country to introduce a more transparent and equitable system of local government financing. Still, effective decentralization continues to face challenges. A set of policy recommendations for the government to consider are designed to clarify the role of local government and provide better incentives for improved service delivery. These are based on a review of the four pillars of intergovernmental fiscal relations in Kyrgyz Republic: (i) the expenditure assignment (of who does what); (ii) revenue assignment (with what resources) assignment; (iii) the system of transfers; and (iv) borrowing. In this context, the report is structured as follows: section one gives executive summary. Section two provides a brief description of the institutional context in terms of the structure of government and the elements of political and administrative decentralization. Section three analyzes the delineation of expenditure responsibilities among government tiers. Section four analyzes revenue sources assigned to each tier of government. Section five focuses on the system of intergovernmental transfers. Section six examines subnational public investments and borrowing. In each of these sections main issues and problems are identified in the current system and the desired directions for reform are pointed out.

Service Delivery and Decentralization in Sri Lanka : Assessment and Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This report assesses Sri Lanka's experience with decentralization to date and discusses options for decentralization and implications for service delivery in three sectors: roads, solid waste and health. The selected sectors illustrate the considerations relevant to the decentralization decision and its future direction. The services selected cover a range of central, provincial and local responsibilities in delivery and illustrate how the cause of success or failure of service delivery is rooted in the institutional framework, division of responsibility, funding mechanisms i.e. incentives and accountability. The effective provision of these services requires a clear understanding of the service delivery goals, technical capacity, adequate assets and recurrent inputs to deliver services. Each sector has its particular needs and to some extent can be considered independently, but the political realities effectively require that any constitutionally mandated and elected level of government have some corresponding responsibilities.

Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World : First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008

United Cities and Local Government; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This overall picture of decentralization and local democracy in African countries shows significant progress at the strictly institutional level. No country now publicly opposes the implementation of decentralization policies. Local governments exist in all countries, and elections are held to elect local authorities. The extent of such progress must, however, be set against a number of persistent obstacles that continue to hinder a real progression of decentralization in Africa. Difficulties remain within states concerning the transfer of financial resources needed to match the devolved responsibilities. Local governments also face difficulties in increasing their own resources (aside from state-transfers and grants) at a faster pace. Ensuring the availability of qualified human resources at the local level and improving public access to local services are also fundamental issues of concern.

Descentralización en Colombia, las responsabilidades y autonomía fiscal del municipio de Cajicá; Decentralization in Colombia, responsibilities and fiscal autonomy of the municipality of Cajicá

Cuervo Lamprea, Leonard Fabian; Arévalo Guerrero, Franklin Hernán; Salazar, Jair
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
Português
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En el presente trabajo realiza una reseña histórica del proceso de descentralización en Colombia con un análisis de la competencia, capacidad institucional, interacción en los niveles de gobierno realizando énfasis en la labor del municipio de Cajicá en los años 2011-2013, por tal razón se presenta la evolución del presupuesto del municipio, analizando la fuente de financiación, rubros presupuestales de inversión desde el año 2011 a 2013 que reflejen la capacidad propia para el cumplimiento de sus funciones frente a las necesidades de sus habitantes.; In the present paper makes a historical review of the decentralization process in Colombia with competitive analysis, institutional capacity, interaction making levels of government emphasis on Cajicá work of the years 2011-2013, therefore it is presents the evolution of Cajicá budget, analyzing the source of funding, investment budget lines since 2011-2013 that reflect the municipality's own ability to carry out its functions meet the needs of its inhabitants.

Una mirada crítica hacia un proceso de descentralización; TOWARDS A CRITICAL PROCESS DECENTRALIZATION

Obando Cordoba, Richard H.; Ceron Rincon, Alejandra
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
Português
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46.56%
A inicios de los años Noventa, Colombia concentra sus esfuerzos en descentralizar las responsabilidades del gasto Social del nivel Nacional, cediendo estas misma a la unidades con autonomía político-administrativa territoriales. La descentralización Político-administrativa está ligada íntimamente a la conformación de las leyes dictadas por el poder legislativo, y las cuales han marcado una cadena de acontecimientos de distribución y participación entre la Nación y los territorios. Los desequilibrios producidos bajo el establecimiento de estas leyes han enmarcado las limitaciones del empoderamiento fiscal y político de las entidades territoriales, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo es señalar el ineficiente proceso de descentralización fiscal surtido en Colombia y como el Gobierno Nacional ha transformado el proceso de autonomía de las entidades territoriales, a un proceso meramente de saneamiento de las finanzas fiscales del nivel Nacional.; In the early nineties, Colombia focuses its efforts to decentralize responsibilities Social spending National level, giving the same to the political-administrative units with territorial autonomy. The political-administrative decentralization is closely linked to the formation of the laws enacted by the legislature...

Organización pública del turismo en Venezuela: proceso de descentralización administrativa;

Acevedo, Rafael Rodríguez
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/1996 Português
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Research paper, whose objetive is founded in a methodological diagnosis and evaluation of the structures and funtionality of tourism public organizations in Venezuela, in the light of the administrative decentralization process, attended by the state during the first five years of 90s related to the analysis of juridical-administrative bases and touristic competences.; Trabajo de investigación, cuyo objetivo se fundamenta en el diagnóstico y evaluación de la estructura y funcionalidad de la Organización Pública del Turismo en Venezuela, a la luz del proceso de descentralización administrativa acometida por el Estado durante el primer quinquenio de los anos noventa, en relación con el análisis de las bases jurídico-administrativas afines a las competencias turísticas.