Adult struggling readers are understudied and most evidence-based remedial approaches target youth. This thesis examined relationships among motivation constructs across typical and struggling adult readers. Age was also investigated as a moderator in these relationships. Participants included 198 adults in adult basic education and 138 undergraduate students. Examining the influence of self-efficacy on reading achievement, moderation analyses indicated there were stronger relationships for typical readers. Furthermore, stronger relationships were found for younger participants when moderated by age. Additional regression analyses identified positive relationships between two measures of intrinsic motivation and reading value. This relationship was replicated for avoidance and value. Though age was not uniformly sampled across ability grouping, age did not account for these effects. Despite difficulties with reading, adults still exhibited motivation to engage with texts with equal to greater levels of reading value. Value and intrinsic motivation may have unique developmental courses associated with longstanding reading challenges.
non-peer-reviewed; The traditional definition of literacy was the ability to read and write, however, over time the meaning of literacy has evolved. It now includes being able to use everyday technologies to communicate and handle information, or “digital literacy”. In order to be able to support learners to become digitally literate, adult literacy tutors need to have digital skills themselves.
This research examined the digital competences of literacy tutors, full time, part time staff and unpaid volunteers, and their use of digital technologies in their teaching, in one literacy service in the west of Ireland.
The research used a case study methodology and gathered qualitative and quantitative data through a number of data collection methods including questionnaires, observations, interviews and document analysis.
The study found almost unanimous agreement about the importance of being digitally competent. The respondents expressed higher confidence levels in their traditional ICT skills, email and basic Internet searches than in using newer technologies such as tablets, social media and other Web 2.0 tools. They also expressed their lack of skills in evaluating online information, privacy online and security and copyright matters.
The use of digital technologies in teaching literacy was varied. Some tutors fully integrated the use of digital media and resources into the learning process...
The note summarizes a 1999 evaluation of
adult literacy programs in Uganda, which looked at the
longer-term outcomes of these programs. Four main questions
were addressed: How well do adult literacy students remember
how to read, write, and calculate? To what extent do they
use their skills? Compared with non-literates, what
knowledge of "functional" topics do they exhibit,
and to what extent do they practice what was learnt? Which
are the most effective approaches to literacy teaching, and
what are the comparative costs? Some questions were left
open, such as the treatment of literacy instructors, which
engenders uncertainty towards policy formation, and, the
balance to be sought between general, national curriculum,
and an array of curricula tailored to suit different
interest groups. Evident signals seemed to confirm the
importance of reliable delivery of sound instruction, rather
than methods, and materials, and, as for policy, the strong
signal is that frameworks to encourage active, complementary
partnerships between governments...
Despite the existence of about one
billion illiterates in the world, adult literacy programs
make up 1-5 percent of government or donor budgets, and they
remain severely underfunded in comparison to primary
education. Though dropout and course completion rates
improved in the 1990s, the outcomes of literacy instruction
are still modest and may have improved little since the
1970s. The results may disappoint governments and donors who
expect that once taught, people will have usable skills and
remain literate. The modest results make it hard to increase
coverage and to argue for increased expenditures for this
sector. The results may be due to inefficient instruction
but also to the structure of human memory, which has
important implications for adult literacy acquisition. The
need to learn the rapid recognition of complex patterns
poses problems that are not apparent to people who became
expert readers in their childhood.
Two cognitively oriented methods were
tested in Burkina Faso to help illiterates learn to read
more efficiently. These were (a) speeded reading of
increasingly larger word units and (b) phonological
awareness training to help connect letters to speech.
Learners were given reading tests and a computerized
reaction time test. Although the literacy courses were
shortened by the arrival of rains and government delays, the
piloted methods helped adults read better than those in the
standard "control" classes. Learners enrolled in
the experimental classes performed better on the outcome
tests than did learners enrolled in control classes. Ninety
percent of the possible comparisons between treatment
classes and control classes favored classes receiving
treatments, and 72 percent of the measurements in favor of
treatments were statistically significant. The evidence
suggests that phonological awareness training is
particularly effective in situations where the training
period was short, and that rapid reading was more
advantageous in longer training situations. Overall...
The future sustainability of remote communities is being questioned with increasing frequency. The current state of welfare dependency is fragile. Significant work is being undertaken to develop the capacity of Indigenous communities to govern their own services and adult literacy is clearly seen as a major factor in the participation of Indigenous people in community development and the capacity building processes. Yet little research on adult literacy practices and competence in remote Indigenous communities has taken place in Australia. This paper reports on findings from a collaborative study involving two remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, one in the Top End and the other in the Central Desert. The project, involving a collaboration between the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research and Central Australian Remote Health Development Services, used an ethnographic approach, drawing on ideas developed internationally by anthropologists and linguists associated with the New Literacy Studies to explore the social context of literacy acquisition and use in these communities. In this paper we analyse the findings and explore the implications for training, employment and capacity development in remote Indigenous communities.; no
Fonte: FIU Digital CommonsPublicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
The National Center for Family Literacy (2003a) and the National Even Start Association (2005) have stated that the single most effective and influential factor in increasing student academic achievement is parental involvement. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how participation in adult literacy courses influences parent-child interaction in various educationally related activities known as Interactive Literacy Activities (ILAs). This study investigated ILAs from the mothers‟ perspective, and examines the changes that occur in parental involvement or ILAs when immigrant parents of a limited educational background participate in an adult education program. The principal method of data collection was key informant interviews (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996). Other methods of data collection included observations of parent-child interactions and field observations. Data analysis methods included Memo-ing (Miles & Huberman, 1994), within case analysis and cross-case analysis. Findings demonstrate that changes occurred in the parent-child relationship when mothers of a limited educational background participated in an adult literacy course. When participating in ILAs or English literacy activities related to second language acquisition (including reading and speaking for comprehension and pronunciation)...
The National Center for Family Literacy (2003a) and the National Even Start Association (2005) have stated that the single most effective and influential factor in increasing student academic achievement is parental involvement. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how participation in adult literacy courses influences parent-child interaction in various educationally related activities known as Interactive Literacy Activities (ILAs). This study investigated ILAs from the mothers? perspective, and examines the changes that occur in parental involvement or ILAs when immigrant parents of a limited educational background participate in an adult education program. The principal method of data collection was key informant interviews (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996). Other methods of data collection included observations of parent-child interactions and field observations. Data analysis methods included Memo-ing (Miles & Huberman, 1994), within case analysis and cross-case analysis. ^ Findings demonstrate that changes occurred in the parent-child relationship when mothers of a limited educational background participated in an adult literacy course. When participating in ILAs or English literacy activities related to second language acquisition (including reading and speaking for comprehension and pronunciation)...
This report summarizes lessons learned
and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in
education in Senegal. In 1993, Senegal established a new
policy for literacy programs based on partnership between
civil society and the state: the state ensures policy
leadership, overall coordination, monitoring and evaluation;
the providers (civil society organizations, such as
non-profits, village associations, and language
associations) implement local literacy activities; an
independent contract-managing agency handles contracts and
rapid transfer of funds to providers. The World Bank
financed project achieved the following results, which were
similar to those achieved by the Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA): about 190,000 participants, of
which 87 percent were women, enrolled in literacy classes
over a five-year period; capacity in government and civil
society organizations improved consistently; the dropout
rate averaged 15 percent (much lower than for most adult
literacy programs); most participants achieved learning
mastery levels for reading (although not for math). The
results of the literacy training exceeded target levels.
Learning outcomes systematically improved as a result of two
factors: providers became more experienced; and research led
to improved procedures. The report notes that weak
monitoring and evaluation contributed to the following
shortcomings: re-financing of low-quality providers; lack of
information about impact. As a result of these problems...
The authors analyze the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. They link literacy and earnings with various other factors, including age, gender, family educational background, distance to school, and income. Literacy and age are negatively correlated, suggesting that efforts to strengthen the supply and quality of basic education programs in recent years have succeeded in raising literacy rates. Parents' education is positively associated with literacy. Distance to the nearest primary school, residence in a rural area, and poverty are negatively associated with literacy. Functional literacy appears to be a prerequisite for entering the labor market, which may partly explain the lack of returns to education other than middle school and technical and professional training. The policy implications of this study: Basic education and literacy programs should target girls and poorer households, especially in rural areas.
The purpose of this study is to compare,
and contrast the resource requirements, and effectiveness of
adult literacy programs in Uganda, assess its
implementation, and recommend future policy for the
development of adult literacy education. The report presents
the research, and evaluation background, providing analyses
of effectiveness in terms of both the attainment, and
retention of reading, writing, and arithmetic skills,
including practical knowledge, and attitude changes -
particularly, knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, and care.
It explores the factors affecting the performance of adult
education, the costs of activities, and the extent of local
commitment under the current socioeconomic conditions. The
context of literacy programs in Uganda, and the current
state of both government, and nongovernmental
organizations' programs, are described, emphasizing on
outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, rather than process, or
methodology. Conclusions suggest that while the programs are
helping the government in redressing the imbalance of
Little is known about which of the
skills that make up workers' human capital contribute
to higher earnings. Past empirical evidence suggest that
most of the return to schooling is generated by effects or
correlates unrelated to the skills measured by the available
tests. This paper uses the International Adult Literacy and
the Adult Literacy and Life Skills surveys to obtain
multi-country estimates of the components of the return to
schooling. The results reveal considerable heterogeneity and
a dichotomy between two groups of countries. For a subgroup
of educationally advanced countries, nearly half of the
return to schooling can be attributed to labor
marker-relevant functional literacy skills associated with
schooling, while for a subgroup of less educationally
advanced countries, such skills account for just over 20
percent of the return to schooling, while the return to
schooling mostly reflects the signaling value of schooling.
A significant number of adults in adult literacy programs in Ontario have
specific learning difficulties. This study sought to examine the holistic factors
that contributed to these learners achieving their goals. Through a case study
design, the data revealed that a combination of specific learning methods and
strategies, along with particular characteristics of the instructor, participant, and
class, and the evidence of self-transformation all seemed to contribute to the
participant's success in the program. Instructor-directed teaching and cooperative
learning were the main learning methods used in the class. General
learning strategies employed were the use of core curriculum and authentic
documents, and using phonics, repetition, assistive resources, and using
activities that appealed to various learning styles. The instructor had a history of
both professional development in the area of learning disabilities as well as
experience working with learners who had specific learning difficulties. There
also seemed to be a goodness of fit between the participant and the instructor.
Several characteristics of the participant seemed to aid in his success: his positive
self-esteem, self-advocacy skills, self-determination...
Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults’ success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills.
O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar elementos que permitam construir uma interface entre a pesquisa acadêmica e os programas no campo de Educação Básica de Jovens e Adultos. Serão discutidas contribuições para esses programas, que podem ser encontradas nos resultados das pesquisas qualitativas. Serão utilizados, em especial, dados obtidos de uma investigação, que se estendeu por cinco anos, de um projeto para formação do alfabetizador que visava a análise da interação entre professor e aluno em classes de alfabetização de jovens e adultos. A pesquisa em questão foi realizada em contextos naturais, com o objetivo de compreender uma determinada realidade social e não o estabelecimento de leis gerais. Portanto, a credibilidade dos resultados foi construída por meio da observação de múltiplos contextos e da obtenção de dados, por vários métodos, a partir das diversas perspectivas dos participantes nos contextos observados, por um período prolongado de tempo. Essa base empírica foi utilizada para avaliar as indicações do relatório encomendado pela Unesco ao Instituto Internacional de Alfabetização/Letramento (International Literacy Institute, EFA 2000) para apresentação no Fórum sobre Educação Mundial...
Este artigo examina as hipóteses teóricas e os resultados empíricos de três perspectivas distintas que orientam a pesquisa em alfabetização de adultos. É baseado em uma revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema, cuja maior parte apareceu em livros e periódicos em língua inglesa. As perspectivas são: alfabetização como uma habilidade básica descontextualizada; alfabetização como prática social imersa em condições locais (letramento); e alfabetização (letramento) como ferramenta para o empowerment individual e coletivo, especialmente de mulheres. As divergências encontradas referem-se: ao conceito de alfabetização/letramento, ao potencial atribuído à alfabetização para o desenvolvimento nacional e melhoria das condições sociais, à possibilidade de uma medida padronizada válida das habilidades de alfabetização, ao papel dos mediadores no processo de alfabetização e ao poder do contexto na determinação do letramento como uma prática estável. As convergências existem ao se considerar os programas de alfabetização como de difícil implementação e carentes de comprometimento político a longo prazo, de capacitação adequada de professores e de recursos financeiros apropriados aos objetivos declarados de alfabetização. Da perspectiva do empowerment de mulheres...
Estas notas são reflexões pessoais baseadas em longa experiência no campo da educação de jovens e adultos: as revisões e os debates globais, e um grande número de relatórios e estudos em programas de instrução de adultos em países em vias de desenvolvimento.; These notes are personal reflections based on long experience from the field, global reviews and debates, and a large number of reports and studies on adult literacy programmes in developing countries.; Ces notes sont des réflexions personnelles basées sur une longue expérience dans le domaine de l'Éducation avec des jeunes et adultes, les révisions, les débats internationaux et un grand nombre de rapports d'études, concernant les programmes d'éducation des adultes, dans des pays en voie de développement.
Este trabalho revisa o conceito de auto-estima em alfabetização de adultos com base na noção de face, ou imagem doself, que é pública e se relaciona à expectativa dos indivíduos de serem reconhecidos e autônomos. Em alfabetização de adultos, a auto-estima, entendida na perspectiva das faces, não pode ser vista como algo a ser elevado para satisfazer desejos cuja referência é somente o indivíduo. Impõe-se revisar o conceito considerando a recorrência do seu uso em alfabetização de adultos. Os dados foram coletados em entrevistas áudio-gravadas com sete alfabetizandos, em duas salas de aula do Projeto Brasil Alfabetizado do Município de Recife. As respostas analisadas sugerem o desejo de autonomia dos entrevistados1 em relação às práticas cotidianas da escrita e demonstram que, no processo da alfabetização, as mudanças na esfera das suas identidades ocorrem em meio a conflitos e tensões gerados pelas expectativas pessoais e sociais dos aprendizes. ; Este trabajo revisa el concepto de autoestima en alfabetización de adultos con base en la noción de faz, o imagen del self, que es pública y se relaciona a la expectativa de los individuos de ser reconocidos y autónomos. En alfabetización de adultos, la autoestima...
O texto tem como objetivo analisar criticamente a proposta inicial de alfabetização de adultos de Freire, fundamentando-a em princípios linguísticos e filosóficos. Toma como base empírica a produção escrita de um grupo de alfabetizandos para análise do processo de aquisição da escrita e da leitura do mundo evidenciada em seus textos. Uma das contribuições deste trabalho é a análise crítica da concepção de escrita de Freire como ato criador, um dos aspectos mais intrigantes de sua teoria do conhecimento na relação com o papel dos alfabetizandos como sujeitos criadores.; The goal of this article is to critically analyze, based on linguistic and philosophical principles, Freire’s initial proposal for adult literacy. It uses as an empirical basis the written production of a group of literacy students, to analyze the acquisition process of writing and of reading the world, as shown in their texts. One of the contributions of this study is the critical analysis of Freire´s concept of writing as an act of creation, one of the most intriguing aspects of his theory of knowledge in relation to the role of learners as creative subjects.
Literacy levels are increasingly important in health care because professional nurses and other health care professionals often use written health education materials as a major component in patient education. In South Africa, no current instrument is available to assess the literacy levels of patients in the primary health care setting, though several instruments have been developed and validated internationally. The purpose of this paper was to adapt and validate the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Revised (REALM-R) to the South African context. The REALM-R is a short instrument that is designed to rapidly screen clients in the primary health care setting for low health literacy. A modified Delphi-technique was used to measure the judgement of a group of experts for the purpose of making a decision. Eight experts in the field of Nursing Science were selected purposively to obtain the most reliable consensus. Data was collected by means of a self-report whereby participants responded to a series of questions posed by the researcher. Descriptive statistics was used for analysing data. The REALM-R was adapted to the South African context to ensure that the literacy level of South African clients is measured with an appropriate instrument.