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Gender in Russia : A Review of Literature (Based on Domestic Publications, 1993-2003)

World Bank
Fonte: Moscow: Alex Publishers Publicador: Moscow: Alex Publishers
Português
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65.68%
This study examines the gender profile of the Russian Federation through a comprehensive review of the current literature (1248 publications on gender issues throughout the transition decade) on the conditions of women and men and on the gender disparities in a number of indicators. The report pinpoints the areas in which inequalities exist and attempts to estimate the consequences. It focuses on the analysis of the distribution of gender roles in the socio-economic sphere, the gender differentiation of human development indicators, the gender aspect of legislation and law enforcement practice, and gender aspects of political representation.

Unleashing the Potential of Ethiopian Women : Trends and Options for Economic Empowerment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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55.69%
This report aims to update knowledge of gender disparities in Ethiopia using the latest household survey data. The aim of this analysis is to support ongoing efforts to implement Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) vision. The significant progress in addressing key dimensions of gender disparities such as education shown in this report as well as in the recent annual progress report on the implementation of PASDEP in 2006-2007 suggests that current policy directions are proving effective. At the same time this report highlights the need to complement the existing emphasis on broad based interventions with additional targeted interventions which might address the specific constraints experienced by some groups. Further, based on the evidence from a few detailed evaluations of some existing programs, the study highlights how policy making in this area should include more emphasis on considerations of effective implementation and monitoring. This report is structured as follows. Chapter two presents a set of stylized facts on gender disparities in Ethiopia...

Explaining the riddle: under-representation of women in Australia's international affairs: their experiences

Jeffery, Emily
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
A complex riddle characterises the under-representation of women at senior levels of Australia's international affairs. The absence of Australian women at top, decision-making levels of diplomacy, politics, internationally -focused academia· and in the United Nations and World Bank, persists amid two decades of anti-discrimination laws. What are the possible explanations for this discrepancy and how is it to be remedied? The explanations for this are interrelated and combine in the form of impermeable barriers to women's participation and advancement to senior levels in Australia's international affairs. The legacy of direct discrimination, continued indirect discrimination, family responsibilities and socially constructed notions of gender, account for the current underrepresentation of women in involvement at senior levels of their fields. Past direct discrimination in the Australian workforce - the most pertinent example being the "marriage bar" which until 1966 forced women to resign from employment on marriage - produced a highly male dominated working environment, with few.female role models in senior positions for subsequent women. Continued indirect discrimination persists - often characterised by "boy's clubs" in diplomacy...

Putting Gender on the Agenda: Engaging Women in Development in Burma

Thwaites, Alice
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Gender equality has become a key development objective over recent decades, and in Burma the discussion around gender equality is quickly developing. Burma is one of the poorest countries in the world, suffering from decades of military rule, ethnic conflict and economic stagnation. Women in Burma are in a particularly difficult situation, where they are often the poorest of the poor, but where they don't have the leadership and decision-making opportunities to do anything about it. Indeed gender norms in Burma dictate that women are inferior and that they are unable to participate fully in public life. Whilst the Burmese government is signatory to such international agreements as the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, and the Millennium Development goals, they are still sidelining issues of gender equality and the military governance structure excludes women from many roles in governance and public life. However the situation in Burma is slowly beginning to change, particularly since the 2010 election, which went some way to separating military and government. There are now a number of women in parliament, including democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi, who was previously imprisoned by the government due to her beliefs. The first female cabinet minister in 60 years has recently been appointed and there are a number of female deputy ministers...

The Illusion of Inclusion : Women's Access to Rights in Northern Kenya

Ayuko, Bonita; Chopra, Tanja
Fonte: World Bank, Nairobi Publicador: World Bank, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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65.71%
This paper shows how official laws concerning justice for women, can be difficult to apply when they are not socially acknowledged, contextualized, or received, and therefore have minimal impact on women's lives. It demonstrates that the inclusion of women through international conventions, domestic legal reform, and gender quotas in participatory processes, is illusory. While these are all important instruments in women's empowerment, the paper calls upon access to justice practitioners and policy makers to place equal emphasis on fostering the practical implementation of laws and to emphasize opportunities for increased equality in informal systems.

A Gender Assessment of Mumbai's Public Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
This report provides: a high-level understanding on women's travel patterns that builds the foundation for understanding the ways in which they use public transport and the degree to which this is met by the public transport systems; and a first-cut view on women's priorities in public transport and potential ideas for addressing them. The purpose of this report is to initiate a dialog on these questions and begin to develop a picture of the role transport currently plays in women's lives with an understanding of the further role it can play, given women's specific needs. This study was carried out in Mumbai. Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the commercial and entertainment capital of India. Throughout this report the authors has used the term 'women' to refer to women and girls above the age of 16 as several of our survey respondents are students between the ages of 17 and 21. However, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the public transport needs of school- children; many of them use public transport to go to better schools that are father away from their homes. The study was on public buses and trains...

Gender and Law Initiatives in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa : Gender and Law Workshop in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa (March 1998); Problematique hommes-femmes dans les pays francophones de l'Afrique Subsaharienne : reformes juridiques d'equite et initiatives visant a combattre la discrimination envers les femmes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
As a result of two years of constructive dialogue between the World Bank (WB), government agencies and grassroots' associations involved in the advancement of women, a workshop for the Promotion of the societal status of women in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa was organized in March 1998 in Cotonou by the Association of Women Jurists (AFJB) with WB technical and financial assistance. From the perspective of the Bank, this initiative provided a timely forum to discuss the potential of gender-responsive legal and judicial reforms as part of the overall WB poverty alleviation and economic growth strategy. These were to provide for: a) an exchange of views (between civil society and government agencies as well as between countries) on country-specific substance of law, law enforcement and legal literacy issues, as these relate to women's experience of discrimination; and b) a constructive comparison of the operational experiences of the participants in these areas of activity. As such, the workshop was understood to be the first step in a foreseen twelve month process leading to the development...

Country Gender Assessment for Lao PDR : Reducing Vulnerability and Increasing Opportunity

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: Manila Publicador: Manila
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
Since the introduction of economic reforms in the mid-1980s, strong growth and development have lifted thousands of poor women and men out of poverty, changing traditional ways of life in Lao PDR. In this environment of change, gender relations, within the family, village and society at large, are changing too. Gender equality is a core development objective. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. As Lao PDR continues its development, the empowerment of women and girls will be a key to translating the country's economic growth and the energies of its young people into improved living standards that benefit women and men alike. This assessment synthesizes information and findings from recent literature and research on gender issues in Lao PDR for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank's (WB) country partnership strategies. The assessment is planned to contribute not only to the work of the ADB and the WB...

Ready for Growth : Solutions to Increase Access to Finance for Women-Owned Businesses in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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65.71%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is at one of the most critical turning points in its modern history. The Arab spring was driven by the desire for economic opportunity and justice in the face of poverty and unemployment. The development of strong economies that enable both women and men to enhance their livelihoods is crucial for the future of the region. The growth and success of women-owned businesses is one of the most profound changes in the business world today. There is no doubt that women are an emerging market force. However, many businesswomen are not accessing commercial credit, an essential driver of business success. Lack of access to finance and financial services is repeatedly identified as the major constraint for women business owners. This report 'ready for growth: solutions to increase access to finance for women-owned business in the Middle East and North Africa', is designed to shed a light on those barriers. It is the result of a unique International Finance Corporation (IFC) partnership with vital voices and the Middle East and North Africa Businesswomen's Network (MENA BWN). Its purpose is to fill a critical gap in our knowledge of what women-owned businesses need in terms of financial products and services. Building on our knowledge of how commercial banks currently reach the women's market...

Lao PDR - Mapping the Gender Dimensions of Trade : A Preliminary Exposition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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55.7%
The Lao Government has also made important commitments to gender equality in both its national socio-economic development planning and in a number of international agreements. Through mapping the gender dimensions of trade in Lao PDR, this report aims to draw out key inter-linkages between a more open trade policy and gender. Recent export performance in Lao has been strong and mostly driven by hydro-electricity and minerals, which constituted more than half of all exports in 2010 and are predicted to grow even more in the next few years. To better understand the interaction between gender and trade policy, this paper presents a gender mapping exercise for export development in Lao PDR and in this regard presents simple recommendations on how to undertake this type of exercise. The paper is split in two parts: the first sketches out a simple methodological framework that can be used by researchers to do an initial mapping of the inter-relationships between export promotion/trade policy and gender. The second part of the paper is aimed primarily at policy makers. It uses the framework to provide a diagnostic which examines: 1) sectors in Lao with potential for export expansion that could benefit women; 2) gender-based constraints in these sectors which limit their expansion through trade; and 3) potential impacts for women...

Information and Communication Technologies for Women's Socioeconomic Empowerment

Melhem, Samia; Morrell, Claudia; Tandon, Nidhi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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55.71%
The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with an overview of some of the issues relating to women and information and communication technology (ICT) in the developing world in contrast to the developed world. Where possible, men's engagement will be added also as a contrast, but the focus of this working paper is on women, not gender. This is not to suggest that a focus on gender is not of value, it is. But understanding the unique perspectives of women is the first step in addressing the larger issues of diversity and, specifically, gender, which has started to receive much attention from other organizations. This paper presents how and why ICT impact women and men differently and the implications of women's lack of engagement, participation, and leadership in the knowledge society through ICT for business and development. The paper will also highlight examples of best practices and weaknesses in assumed best practices to provide opportunities for full scale execution of efforts to achieve measurable outcomes in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). An important focus is the need to move many of the carefully incubated gender policies and initiatives...

Equality for Women : Where Do We Stand on Millennium Development Goal 3?

Buviníc, Mayra; Morrison, Andrew R.; Ofosu-Amaah, A. Waafas; Sjöblom, Mirja
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
There is compelling evidence of the importance of gender equality for poverty reduction and sustainable growth. So it should come as no surprise that most development actors-international agencies, bilateral donors, and most developing countries, have an official policy for promoting gender equality. Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3) on gender equality and women's empowerment is shared global commitment. With only seven years remaining until the end date for the MDGs, it is an opportune time to take stock of where the world stands in terms of progress toward gender equality. This volume documents trends both on the official MDG3 indicators and on an expanded set of indicators that provide a more complete measure of gender equality, especially in the area of women's economic empowerment. The message that emerges is both hopeful and sobering: progress toward equality in capabilities has been considerable, but progress toward equality of opportunities for women's economic livelihoods leaves much to be desired. Beyond tracking trends toward gender equality...

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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55.71%
Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

Gender and Development Mainstreaming : Country Gender Assessment 2012, Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
Português
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65.82%
Just as development means less poverty or better access to justice, it also means fewer gaps in wellbeing between males and females. Women's empowerment and gender equality are development objectives in their own right, as embodied in the Millennium Development Goals. It is espoused as well in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), ratified by the Philippines in 1981; the convention established a comprehensive framework for the advancement of women and has been mainstreamed in the Magna Carta of Women, RA 9710. Gender equality is smart economics: it can enhance economic efficiency and improve other development outcomes in three ways: first, removing barriers that prevent women from having the same access as men to education, economic opportunities, and productive inputs can generate broad productivity gains. Second, improving women's absolute and relative status contributes too many other development outcomes, including those for their children. Third, leveling the playing field...

Evaluating a Decade of World Bank Gender Policy : 1990-99

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.68%
As part of the Bank's poverty reduction mandate, the Bank's 1994 Operational Policy on Gender Dimensions of Development aimed to reduce gender disparity and increase the participation of women in the economic development of their countries. This evaluation examines the relevance and results of this policy.

Women's Voice and Agency : The Role of Legal Institutions and Women's Movements

de Silva de Alwis, Rangita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
Global events like the Beijing Women s Conference of 1995 have resulted in the creation of strong international frameworks that set standards for women s rights around the world. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform for Action, and other international norms define the scope of universal rights for women and girls, and have opened new spaces for regional and national legal reform. Bottom-up engagement with these international laws and institutions by local and transnational women s movements has catalyzed widespread changes in lawmaking and transformed standard-setting documents into tools for reform. The following paper discusses four important pillars of women s voice and agency (while recognizing that there are others which are beyond the scope of this review): freedom from the risk of violence; freedom of movement; freedom to make decisions on family formation and the freedom to shape policy. It will examine the ways in which these freedoms impact women s voice and the ways in which women are working to reform law and policy to ensure these four freedoms are accessible to all.

Women as Agents of Change : Having Voice in Society and Influencing Policy

Markham, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%
The World Bank's World Development Report (WDR) on gender equality and development identified women's voice, agency, and participation as a key dimension of gender equality and as a major policy priority. Agency, as defined in the WDR2012, is the ability to use endowments to take advantage of opportunities to achieve desired outcomes. In particular, WDR2012 focused on five expressions of agency: women's access to and control over resources; freedom of movement; freedom from the risk of violence; decision-making over family formation; and having voice in society and influencing policy. An important expression of women's agency is women's political participation and their ability to fully engage in public life. This background paper focuses on women s ability to play a public role in politics and to influence policy-making. Using the data available, it examines the current status of women in politics and makes the case for the full and equitable participation of women in public life. It reviews the direct and indirect barriers that exist to prevent women's political participation and analyzes strategies that have been used to increase it. Finally...

No more!: the right of women to live a life free of violence in Latin America and the Caribbean

Alméras, Diane; Montaño, Sonia
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
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65.68%
Includes bibliography; The report No more! The right of women to live a life free of violence in Latin America and the Caribbean1 is the result of a joint effort by specialist United Nations organizations and entities in Latin America and the Caribbean. To fulfil this mission inspired by resolution 58/185 of the United Nations General Assembly of December 2003,2 the organizations represented in the thirteenth meeting of specialist bodies and other organizations of the United Nations system on the advancement of women in Latin America and the Caribbean (Mar del Plata, Argentina, September 6, 2005) agreed to implement an inter-institutional study on violence against women in all its forms under the coordination of ECLAC. In the same manner as the Secretary General's report relating to the in-depth study of all forms of violence against women, the eradication is sought of one of the most widespread crimes along with an end to the accompanying impunity. Its dissemination and debate throughout all levels of society will help to raise social awareness providing authorities with the resources and instruments needed for its elimination. Just like the Secretary General's report, the regional report will make it clear that to eradicate violence it must unequivocally become a central objective of public agendas: as a human rights issue in the first place...

The persistence of gender inequality in Zimbabwe: factors that impede the advancement of women into leadership positions in primary schools

Chabaya,Owence; Rembe,Symphorosa; Wadesango,Newman
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
We investigated and analysed the factors that women teachers consider as barriers to their advancement to headship positions in Zimbabwean primary schools. Specifically, we sought to identify the factors perceived by women school heads to be causes of persistent under-representation of women in school headship positions. Data were collected through structured face-to-face inter­views and focus group discussions with 13 experienced women school heads. The findings revealed that although the majority of the women teachers in the study sample were qualified for promotion to school headship positions, they had not attempted to apply for them. The majority of the women teachers in the study sample were adequately qualified for promotion to school headship positions. Indeed, a large number of them either had a university degree or were pursuing degree studies and also had extensive experience. But most of them had not attempted to apply for school headship and hence were still class teachers. Gender stereotypes were shown to be one of the major causes of persistent under-representation of women in primary school headship. The influence of gender role stereotypes was found to manifest in the form of low self esteem; lack of confidence; women's perception that their role in the family overrides all other roles; and lack of support from the home and the workplace.

Towards a workplace conducive to the career advancement of women

Lewis-Enright,Karen; Crafford,Anne; Crous,Freddie
Fonte: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Publicador: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
The aim of this study was to start designing a workplace conducive to women's career advancement. Appreciative inquiry was selected as an appropriate methodology, given the slow progress that has been made in addressing gender equality at work. Seventeen men and women working in the finance division of a large organisation were invited to participate in an appreciative inquiry workshop. This was followed by interviews with four leadership team members. While no original ideas or solutions emerged from the interventions, participants of the appreciative inquiry process demonstrated a shift in thinking, more positive emotional responses, a shared vision for the future and improved willingness to assume accountability for change.