Página 1 dos resultados de 7671 itens digitais encontrados em 0.024 segundos

Anemia e envelhecimento: panorama populacional e associação com desfechos adversos em saúde - estudo SABE; Anemia and aging: population overview and association with adverse health outcomes - SABE Study

Corona, Ligiana Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Introdução: A anemia é a disfunção hematológica mais comumente encontrada nas pessoas idosas tendo, entre os que residem na comunidade, uma prevalência próxima de 10 por cento . Associa-se a várias condições crônicas e tem significativo impacto nos desfechos de saúde como fragilidade, mobilidade comprometida e comprometimento funcional. Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores associados à anemia e sua associação com desfechos adversos em saúde nas pessoas idosas do município de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal de base populacional, com amostragem probabilística representativa, onde foram avaliados 1256 pessoas com idade igual e superior a 60 anos em 2010. A anemia foi diagnosticada a partir da concentração sanguínea de hemoglobina, de forma contínua e categorizada segundo parâmetros estabelecidos pela OMS (mulheres:<12g/dL; homens:<13g/dL). A regressão logística hierárquica foi utilizada para avaliar os fatores associados à presença de anemia e a associação de anemia com desfechos adversos em saúde. Resultados: A prevalência de anemia foi de 7,7 por cento na população e os fatores significativamente associados após ajuste foram idade mais avançada, diabetes e câncer referidos e presença de sintomas depressivos. Em relação aos desfechos adversos...

Efeitos adversos da exposição ao formaldeído em cabeleireiros; Adverse effects of the exposure of hairdressers to formaldehyde

Lorenzini, Silvia
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
INTRODUÇÃO: Cabeleireiros estão expostos a um grande número de produtos químicos no ambiente de trabalho. Um destes produtos é o formaldeído, que causa irritação das vias respiratórias, sensibilidade imunológica imediata, mutagênese e carcinogênese. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a exposição de cabeleireiros ao formaldeído e estudar os efeitos agudos e prolongados da exposição sobre os sintomas e a função pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Estudamos prospectivamente 41 cabeleireiros antes, após a exposição imediata ao formaldeído durante procedimento de alisamento capilar e após 6 meses. Foram coletados dados sobre sintomas e realizada espirometria no ambiente de trabalho. As concentrações de formaldeído no ar e de ácido fórmico na urina foram determinadas. RESULTADOS: A média da idade foi de 39 ± 11 anos, 70,7% eram mulheres e 70,7% eram não tabagistas. Cada procedimento durou de 30 a 90 minutos, 81% foram realizados com equipamentos de proteção. A concentração de formaldeído no ambiente de trabalho variou de 0,1 ppm a 5,0 ppm (md=0,4 ppm). A concentração de ácido fórmico na urina aumentou após a exposição (1,31 ± 0,91 mg/L versus 1,96 ± 0,90 mg/L; p<0,001). Observou-se uma associação entre a concentração de formaldeído no ambiente de trabalho e os níveis de ácido fórmico na urina após a exposição (rs=0...

National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program: Bridging the Information Gap

McGeehin, Michael A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda Sue
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program’s academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public.

Public Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use as a Harm Reduction Strategy

Savitz, David A.; Meyer, Roger E.; Tanzer, Jason M.; Mirvish, Sidney S.; Lewin, Freddi
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Harm reduction strategies involve promoting a product that has adverse health consequences as a substitute for one that has more severe adverse health consequences. Smokeless tobacco low in nitrosamine content offers potential benefits in reducing smoking prevalence rates. Possible harm arises from the potential for such products to serve as a gateway to more harmful tobacco products, public misinterpretation of “less harmful” as “safe,” distraction from the public health goal of tobacco elimination, and ethical issues involved in advising those marketing these harmful products. We offer a research agenda to provide a stronger basis for evaluating the risks and benefits of smokeless tobacco as a means of reducing the adverse health effects of tobacco.

Sexual behaviour: related adverse health burden in the United States

Ebrahim, S; McKenna, M; Marks, J
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
As part of an analysis of the burden of disease and injury in the United States, we identified and quantified the incidence of adverse health events, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) attributed to sexual behaviour. In 1998, about 20 million such events (7532/100 000 people) and 29 782 such deaths (1.3% of all US deaths) occurred, contributing to 2 161 417 DALYs (6.2% of all US DALYs). The majority of incident health events (62%) and DALYs (57%) related to sexual behaviour were among females, and curable infections and their sequelae contributed to over half of these. Viral infections and their sequelae accounted for nearly all sexual behaviour related deaths—mostly HIV/AIDS. Sexual behaviour attributed DALYs in the United States are threefold higher than that in overall established market economies.

The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans

Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.

Psychosocial Antecedents and Adverse Health Consequences Related to Substance Use

Brook, Judith S.; Saar, Naomi S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Objectives. We examined the relationship between psychosocial antecedents in earlier adolescence and problems related to substance use and related adverse health consequence (e.g., respiratory diseases, neurocognitive symptoms, and general malaise) in adulthood. We specifically focused on parent–child bonding in earlier adolescence and internalizing behaviors in later adolescence and their effects on problems related to substance use in the mid-20s and health problems in the mid-30s.

Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

Chakraborty, Jayajit; Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure.

Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

Brender, Jean D.; Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes.

Classification of Individual Well-Being Scores for the Determination of Adverse Health and Productivity Outcomes in Employee Populations

Shi, Yuyan; Sears, Lindsay E.; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Adverse health and productivity outcomes have imposed a considerable economic burden on employers. To facilitate optimal worksite intervention designs tailored to differing employee risk levels, the authors established cutoff points for an Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) based on a global measure of well-being. Cross-sectional associations between IWBS and adverse health and productivity outcomes, including high health care cost, emergency room visits, short-term disability days, absenteeism, presenteeism, low job performance ratings, and low intentions to stay with the employer, were studied in a sample of 11,702 employees from a large employer. Receiver operating characteristics curves were evaluated to detect a single optimal cutoff value of IWBS for predicting 2 or more adverse outcomes. More granular segmentation was achieved by computing relative risks of each adverse outcome from logistic regressions accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results showed strong and significant nonlinear associations between IWBS and health and productivity outcomes. An IWBS of 75 was found to be the optimal single cutoff point to discriminate 2 or more adverse outcomes. Logistic regression models found abrupt reductions of relative risk also clustered at IWBS cutoffs of 53...

Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

The Impoverishing Effect of Adverse Health Events : Evidence from the Western Balkans

Mendola, Mariapia; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Gragnolati, Michele
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
This paper investigates the extent to which the health systems of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, and Kosovo) have succeeded in providing financial protection against adverse health events. The authors examine disparities in health status, healthcare utilization, and out-of-pocket payments for healthcare (including informal payments), and explore the impact of healthcare expenditures on household economic status and poverty. Methodologies include (i) generating a descriptive assessment of health and healthcare disparities across socioeconomic groups, (ii) measuring the incidence and intensity of catastrophic healthcare payments, (iii) examining the effect of out-of-pocket payments on poverty headcount and poverty gap measures, and (iv) running sets of country-specific probit regressions to model the relationship between health status, healthcare utilization, and poverty. On balance, the findings show that the impact of health expenditures on household economic wellbeing and poverty is most severe in Albania and Kosovo...

Brazil : Are Health and Nutrition Programs Reaching the Neediest

Barros, Aluisio J.D.; Victora, Cesar G.; Cesar, Juraci A.; Arns Neumann, Nelson; Bertoldi, Andréa D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Brazil has one of the greatest income concentrations in the planet. Most adverse health outcomes are more common among the poor. The Family Health Program (PSF) was introduced in the 1990s to provide high quality primary health care especially to the poorest. The program (PSF) seems to have an important role guaranteeing access to the poor. However, the PSF is not well focused, and coverage among the poor is still inadequate. Findings from this study will be fed back to policy makers to help improve the program. This discussion paper was prepared for the Program on Reaching the Poor with Effective Health, Nutrition, and Population Services, organized by the World Bank in cooperation with the William and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Governments of the Netherlands and Sweden.

The Economic Consequences of Health Shocks

Wagstaff, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
While there is a great deal of anecdotal evidence on the economic effects of adverse health shocks, there is relatively little hard empirical evidence. The author builds on recent empirical work to explore in the context of postreform Vietnam two related issues: (1) how far household income and medical care spending responds to health shocks, and (2) how far household consumption is protected against health shocks. The results suggest that adverse health shocks - captured by negative changes in body mass index (BMI) - are associated with reductions in earned income. This appears to be only partly - if at all - due to a reverse feedback from income changes to BMI changes. By contrast, there is a hint - the relevant coefficient is not significant - that adverse BMI shocks may result in increases in unearned income. This may reflect additional gifts, remittances, and so on, from family and friends following the health shock. Medical spending is found to increase following an adverse health shock, but not among those with health insurance. The impact for the uninsured is large, equal in absolute size to the income loss associated with a BMI shock. The lack of impact for the insured points to complete insurance against the medical care costs associated with health shocks...

Investigating the mixture of air pollutants associated with adverse health outcomes

Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael
Fonte: Pergamon Press Publicador: Pergamon Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Most investigations of the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants analyse the time series involved by simultaneously entering the multiple pollutants into a Poisson log-linear model. Concerns have been raised about this type of analysis, and it

A critical assessment of shrinkage-based regression approaches for estimating the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants

Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael
Fonte: Pergamon Press Publicador: Pergamon Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Most investigations of the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants analyse the time series involved by simultaneously entering the multiple pollutants into a Poisson log-linear model. Concerns have been raised about this type of analysis, and it

Fiduciary Disclosure of Medical Mistakes: The Duty to Promptly Notify Patients of Adverse Health Care Events

Faunce, Thomas
Fonte: The Law Book Company Publicador: The Law Book Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Fiduciary obligations are imposed by the common law to ensure that a person occupying a societal role with a high potential for the manipulation of vulnerable persons exercises utmost good faith. Australian law has recognised that the doctor-patient relationship, while not wholly fiduciary, has fiduciary aspects. Amongst such duties are those prohibiting sexual or financial abuse of patients or disclosure without express authority of confidential information. One important consequence of attaching such fiduciary duties to the doctor-patient relationship is that the onus of proof falls not upon the vulnerable party (the patient), but upon the doctor (to disprove the allegation). Another is that consent cannot be pleaded as an absolute defence. In this article the authors advocate that the law should now accept that the fiduciary obligations of the doctor-patient relationship extend to creating a legal duty that any adverse health care event be promptly reported to the patient involved. The reasons for creating such a presumption, as well as its elements and exceptions, are explained.

Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity

Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio
Fonte: American Public Health Association (APHA) Publicador: American Public Health Association (APHA)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Objectives: Unemployment has been linked to poorer health, but few studies identify policies that mitigate the negative health consequences of joblessness. Unemployment benefit programmes might protect health through several pathways, but a key methodological challenge is accounting for the fact that individuals who receive unemployment benefits differ from those who do not receive benefits. Methods: We link US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implement state and year fixed effect models. Results: Unemployment is associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (Beta =0.0794, 95% CI[Confidence Interval]: 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (Odds ratio[OR] =2.777, 95%CI 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (Beta for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124, 95% CI: -0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions: Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey

Brown,David W; Riley,Leanne; Butchart,Alexander; Meddings,David R; Kann,Laura; Harvey,Alison Phinney
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between exposure to physical violence (PV) or sexual violence (SV) and adverse health behaviours among a sample of children in five African countries. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of data from Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe - countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey in 2003 or 2004 - we compared the relative frequency of several adverse health behaviours among children (primarily students 13-15 years of age) who did and who did not report exposure to PV or SV. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for such behaviours and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for age and sex. FINDINGS: Exposure to PV during the 12 months preceding the survey was reported by 27-50% (average: 42%) of the children studied in the five countries, and lifetime exposure to SV was reported by 9-33% (average: 23%). Moderate to strong associations were observed between exposure to PV or SV and measures of mental health, suicidal ideation, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, lifetime drug use, multiple sex partners and a history of sexually transmitted infection (P < 0.05 for all associations). For example, the odds of being a current cigarette smoker were higher in children involved in one fight (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.77-2.75)...

Is globalization good for your health?

Dollar,David
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well - faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth...