Página 1 dos resultados de 1169 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

A inserção de impactos ambientais cumulativos em Estudos de Impacto Ambiental: o caso do setor sucroenergético paulista; The inclusion of cumulative environmental impacts in Environmental Impact Statements: the case of São Paulo sugarcane industry

Dibo, Ana Paula Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
O etanol de cana-de-açúcar tem se destacado no cenário mundial como uma potencial fonte de energia alternativa aos combustíveis fósseis. Entretanto, sua produção é fortemente baseada na monocultura, intensificando os impactos adversos nos recursos ambientais. Esses impactos podem se combinar e persistir ao longo do tempo, possibilitando o acúmulo destes nos recursos ambientais, tornando-se necessário um planejamento mais adequado da produção do bioetanol, para que uma abordagem mais sistêmica seja integrada a esse processo. Em meio a esses fatores, a consideração de impactos cumulativos é um elemento essencial para a sustentabilidade do etanol, por conseguir avaliar de maneira mais holística as implicações da monocultura, sendo obrigatória durante o processo de licenciamento ambiental do setor. Essa prática pode ser viabilizada por meio da AIA, possibilitando que esses impactos possam ser identificados e avaliados para que a viabilidade ambiental dos empreendimentos do setor possa ser atestada, principalmente pela elaboração de um EIA. Apesar da exigência, há indícios de que a prática da inserção destes impactos não tem sido realizada adequadamente. Diante do exposto, a pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar de que maneira os impactos ambientais cumulativos estão sendo inseridos em Estudos de Impacto Ambiental do setor sucroenergético paulista...

Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure (‘media verbal interactions’) might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother–infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home.

The Financial Crisis and Its Impacts on Global Agriculture

Lin, Justin Yifu; Martin, Will
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
The financial crisis arose in the industrial countries, but has affected developing countries through higher interest rates, sharp changes in commodity prices, and reductions in investment, trade, migration and remittances. For most low-income countries, shocks that affect food prices or wage rates for unskilled workers seem likely to have the largest impact on poverty, with the declines in key food prices associated with the crisis helping to reduce poverty, while declining trade, investment, and remittance flows have had adverse impacts on the poor. Policies to address the crisis must include measures to deal with financial sector problems, the resulting reductions in aggregate demand, and the particular vulnerabilities of poor people. Given the complexity of the impacts from financial crises and commodity price shocks, there is a strong case for developing better social safety net policies that can offset the adverse impacts of a wide range of different shocks on poor people without creating costly market distortions.

Risks, Ex-ante Actions and Public Assistance : Impacts of Natural Disasters on Child Schooling in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Malawi

Yamauchi, Futoshi; Yohannes, Yisehac; Quisumbing, Agnes
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
This paper examines the impacts of natural disasters on schooling investments with special focus on the roles of ex-ante actions and ex-post responses using panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The importance of ex-ante actions depends on disaster risks and the likelihood of public assistance, which potentially creates substitution between the two actions. The findings show that higher future probabilities of disasters increase the likelihood of holding more human capital and/or livestock relative to land, and this asset-portfolio effect is significant in disaster prone areas. The empirical results support the roles of both ex-ante and ex-post responses (public assistance) in coping with disasters, but also show interesting variations across countries. In Ethiopia, public assistance plays a more important role than ex-ante actions to mitigate the impact of shocks on child schooling. In contrast, households in Malawi rely more on private ex-ante actions than public assistance. The Bangladesh example shows active roles of both ex-ante and ex-post actions. These observations are consistent with the finding on the relationship between ex-ante actions and disaster risks. The results also show that among ex-ante actions...

Ethiopia - A Country Study on the Economic Impacts of Climate Change

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
It is now widely recognized that low-income countries in tropical and sub-tropical regions will be disproportionally affected by the adverse impacts of climate change. The combination of already fragile environments, dominance of climate-sensitive sectors in economic activity, and low autonomous adaptive capacity in these regions implies a high vulnerability to the harmful effects of global warming on agricultural production and food security, water resources, human health, physical infrastructure and ecosystems. Recent authoritative scientific assessments emphasize that, even under the most optimistic assumptions about the success of future global mitigation action, an acceleration of adaptation efforts in developing countries over the next decades is essential to build resilience and reduce damage costs. The effects of climate change vary across countries, and adaptation and coping capabilities are influenced by geographical, economic, cultural and political factors. Successful adaptation programs must therefore take into account country-specific circumstances. This pilot study aims to develop a methodology that provides an economy-wide framework for analyzing economic impacts from climate change and potential adaptation policies that developing countries might undertake in the near and long term. To accomplish this objective...

Development Policy Lending and Forest Outcomes : Influences, Interactions, and Due Diligence

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The revision of the forests Operational Policy (OP) 4.36 in the Bank, stems from discussions on this new approach about the concern raised that, while Bank sector investments would be guided by the new policy, Bank adjustment lending would not. As a result, the latter could, indirectly and inadvertently, lead to adverse impacts on forests and forest-dependent people. Thus it was clear an operational policy to guide due diligence in adjustment lending was necessary. Since adjustment lending at the time was evolving toward the Development Policy Lending (DPL) framework, a policy to guide the design and implementation of this form of operation was prepared, and has since been approved, issued as OP 8.60. This document asserts that it is clear that relatively large-scale economic changes can have significant impacts upon forests. However, there is great variability in outcomes in forests from such changes across the many different countries, and situations covered in the studies reviewed. Forest outcomes from major economic reform, targeting poverty alleviation and sustainable growth, will be highly dependent on prior conditions of the sector. An appropriate response in terms of DPL program design will therefore need to take these conditions into account. In this document...

Tajikistan - Economic and Distributional Impact of Climate Change

Heltberg, Rasmus; Reva, Anna; Zaidi, Salman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Tajikistan is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of global climate change, as it already suffers from low agricultural productivity, water stress, and high losses from disasters. Public awareness of the multiple consequences of climate change is high, with possible impacts on health, natural disasters, and agriculture of greatest public concern. Climate change can potentially deepen poverty by lowering agricultural yields, raising food prices, and increasing the spread of water-borne diseases as well as the frequency and severity of disasters. Regions with greater dependence on agriculture and lower socioeconomic indicators, particularly the east mountain area of the Region of Republican Subordination (RRS), the Southern Sughd hills, and Khatlon hills and lowlands, are most vulnerable to climate change, with rural areas more at risk than urban locations. Faster socioeconomic development is the best tool for adaptation, since greater income diversification, improved health and education, and better access to services and infrastructure enhance the capacity of households...

The Poverty Impacts of Climate Change

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Rabassa, Mariano; Olivieri, Sergio; Brahmbhatt, Milan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Over the last century, the world has seen a sustained decline in the proportion of people living in poverty. However, there is an increasing concern that climate change could slow or possibly even reverse poverty reduction progress. Given the complexities involved in analyzing climate change impacts on poverty, different approaches can be helpful; this note surveys the results of recent research on climate change impacts on poverty.

Climate Change and Agriculture : A Review of Impacts and Adaptations

Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Rosenthal, Shane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The vulnerability of the agricultural sector to both climate change and variability is well established in the literature. The general consensus is that changes in temperature and precipitation will result in changes in land and water regimes that will subsequently affect agricultural productivity. Research has also shown that specifically in tropical regions, with many of the poorest countries, impacts on agricultural productivity are expected to be particularly harmful. The vulnerability of these countries is also especially likely to be acute in light of technological, resource, and institutional constraints. Although estimates suggest that global food production is likely to be robust, experts predict tropical regions will see both a reduction in agricultural yields and a rise in poverty levels as livelihood opportunities for many engaged in the agricultural sector become increasingly susceptible to expected climate pressures

Demystifying Dutch Disease

Kojo, Naoko C.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This paper examines the theory of Dutch disease and its implications for practical policy questions. Dutch disease is a term that is well-known to economists and development practitioners. But it is also a concept that is often conflated with "resource curse" and misinterpreted as a "disease" that necessarily causes adverse impacts on the economy. The paper points out that many of the seemingly well-established arguments in this field are not necessarily grounded in theory or empirical evidence. Great care is needed in diagnosing Dutch disease and formulating policy prescriptions based on the theoretical framework, given the restrictive assumptions that may not be fully applicable and the limited relevance to today s inextricably intertwined trade flows. Countries facing large inflows of foreign currency should focus on safeguarding the domestic economy from the volatility of international commodity and capital markets, and building robust institutions to reduce adjustment costs and boost broader competitiveness. A policy package needs to be comprehensive...

The Inter-linkages between Rapid Growth in Livestock Production, Climate Change, and the Impacts on Water Resources, Land Use, and Deforestation

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Livestock systems globally are changing rapidly in response to human population growth, urbanization, and growing incomes. This paper discusses the linkages between burgeoning demand for livestock products, growth in livestock production, and the impacts this may have on natural resources, and how these may both affect and be affected by climate change in the coming decades. Water and land scarcity will increasingly have the potential to constrain food production growth, with adverse impacts on food security and human well-being. Climate change will exacerbate many of these trends, with direct effects on agricultural yields, water availability, and production risk. In the transition to a carbon-constrained economy, livestock systems will have a key role to play in mitigating future emissions. At the same time, appropriate pricing of greenhouse gas emissions will modify livestock production costs and patterns. Health and ethical considerations can also be expected to play an increasing role in modifying consumption patterns of livestock products...

Poverty Impacts of the Volume-Based Special Safeguard Mechanism

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The volume-based Special Safeguard Mechanism was proposed as essential for small, poor farmers and became the proximate cause of the collapse of the Doha Agenda negotiations in 2008. But is it helpful for these farmers, given that it is likely to be applied when farm output is depressed and many poor farmers in developing countries need to buy food? Stochastic simulations for 31 countries suggest that use of this safeguard in line with the proposed World Trade Organization rules would raise the world poverty headcount by an average of 24 million. The adverse poverty impact of the duty is larger when the quantity safeguard is triggered than it would be in other years, because lower farm output levels reduce or reverse the benefits to poor farm households from higher prices.

A National Biodiversity Offset Scheme

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Liberia had an estimated 4.3 million hectares of forests in 2011, comprising approximately 50 percent of Liberia’s landmass. These forests support very high levels of biodiversity, provide a wide range of ecosystem services (for example, bush meat, medicines, construction materials, and charcoal), and generate employment and revenue from commercial and chainsaw logging. Encouraging inward investment while striking a sound balance between different interests, respecting the legal and customary rights of local people, and conserving biodiversity represents a major challenge. This project focuses on the mining sector, which has the potential to become a significant engine for growth and broader-based development. It explores the feasibility of implementing a national biodiversity offset scheme in Liberia to help minimize adverse impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services resulting from mining. A Liberian national offset scheme will entail the application of a common methodology to ensure that conservation benefits are at least equivalent to biodiversity losses due to mining investments. The report is presented in seven chapters. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two discusses the conservation imperatives for Liberia and conveys a sense of the quality and extent of biodiversity within Liberia. Chapter three describes the challenge of securing conservation outcomes in Liberia as well as the prevalence of threats to biodiversity. Chapter four discusses the potential for biodiversity offsets to help secure conservation outcomes. Chapter five covers the legal...

Seycehelles

Kojo, Naoko C.; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This paper studies likely macroeconomic impacts and social consequences of devaluation of the Seychelles rupee. Analyzing potential welfare impacts of devaluation ex ante is crucial for policy making, since information obtained from such analyses would allow policy makers to design cost-effective, well-targeted policy measures, with the aim of mitigating negative social consequences of devaluation. Based on the estimated welfare impact of devaluation, the paper considers mitigation policy options, and discusses their effectiveness and associated budgetary costs. The focus of this study is the likely impacts of devaluation on the prices, economy and social welfare. The reminder of the paper is structured as follows. Section two first analyzes Seychelles’ household expenditure survey data and presents the incidence of poverty and inequality in Seychelles. Section three then discusses how the Seychelles economy would adjust to an initial devaluation of the US dollar value of the rupee by 45 percent, followed by a gradual move to an equilibrium level. Projected macroeconomic variables and prices are applied to the household survey data to estimate possible impacts on the incidence of poverty. Section four discusses a variety of policy measures designed to alleviate the adverse impacts on the poor. Fiscal viability of these measures is also discussed in this section. Section five concludes the paper.

Household Welfare Impacts of China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The authors use China's national household surveys for rural and urban areas to measure and explain the welfare impacts of the changes in goods and factor prices attributed to WTO accession. Price changes are estimated separately using a general equilibrium model to capture both direct and indirect effects of the initial tariff changes. The welfare impacts are first-order approximations based on a household model incorporating own-production activities and are calibrated to the household-level data imposing minimum aggregation. The authors find negligible impacts on inequality and poverty in the aggregate. However, diverse impacts emerge across household types and regions associated with heterogeneity in consumption behavior and income sources, with possible implications for compensatory policy responses.

Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture; Brasil - Impactos das mudancas climaticas na producao agricola Brasileira

Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Fernandes, Erick C.M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet national development, food security, climate adaptation and mitigation, and trade goals over the next several decades, Brazil will need to significantly increase per area productivity of food and pasture systems while simultaneously reducing deforestation, rehabilitating millions of hectares of degraded land, and adapting to climate change. There is inadequate data to accurately model projected climate challenges facing Brazil. The report concludes that key integrated and linked interventions are needed in the short term to significantly improve currently available assessments of climate change impact on Brazilian agriculture and to guide policy makers with the priorities and phasing of needed investments.

The Poverty Impacts of the Doha Round in Cameroon : The Role of Tax Policy

Emini, Christian Arnault; Cockburn, John; Decaluwe, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
The authors aim to assess the possible impacts of the Doha Round of negotiations on poverty in Cameroon. During the recent period of economic recovery, Cameroon enjoyed a sharp decline in poverty, with the headcount index falling from 53.3 percent of inhabitants in 1996 to 40.2 percent in 2001, mostly due to economic growth rather than redistribution. Will the current trade negotiations under the Doha Round reinforce or curb this trend? They apply a computable general equilibrium (CGE) microsimulation model that involves 10,992 households in order to address this question. The authors find the Doha Round to be poverty-reducing for Cameroon. For the whole country, the estimate of the net number of people who are lifted out of poverty is 22,000 following this scenario. Further investigations indicate that more ambitious world trade liberalization leads to greater poverty alleviation at the national level, while Cameroon's domestic trade liberalization has adverse poverty and inequality impacts-despite giving rise to higher aggregate welfare. Under the Doha scenario, the cuts in Cameroon's tariffs are very small (the average tariff rate moves from 11.79 percent in the base run to merely 11.66 percent) so that world trade liberalization effects on prices more than offset the adverse own liberalization effects in this scenario. If the rest of the world and Cameroon full trade liberalizations are combined...

Estimating the Short-Run Poverty Impacts of the 2010–11 Surge in Food Prices

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will; Zaman, Hassan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Global food prices have increased substantially since mid-2010, as have prices in many developing countries. In this study we assess the poverty impact of the price changes between June and December 2010 in twenty-eight low and middle income countries. This is done by gathering detailed information on individual households' food production and consumption levels for thirty-eight agricultural and food commodities to assess the impacts on household welfare. This study estimates that this sudden food price surge increased the number of poor people globally, but with considerably different impacts in different countries. The heterogeneity of these impacts is partly related to the wide variation in the transmission of global prices to local prices and partly to differences in households' patterns of production and consumption. On balance, the adverse welfare impact on net buyers outweighs the benefits to net sellers resulting in an increase in the number of poor and in the depth of poverty. We estimate that the average poverty change was 1.1 percentage points in low income countries and 0.7 percentage points in middle income countries with a net increase of 44 million people falling below the $1.25 per day extreme poverty line.

Heat Tariff Reform and Social Impact Mitigation : Recommendations for a Sustainable District Heating Sector in Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The Government of the Republic of Belarus (GoB) plans to increase district heating (DH) tariffs to cost-recovery levels and gradually phase out subsidies, replacing them with social assistance programs. Residential DH tariffs in Belarus are currently at roughly 10-21 percent of cost-recovery levels. DH subsidies are highly regressive, add costs to business, and create significant fiscal risks and macroeconomic vulnerabilities. The purpose of this report is to analyze the social, sectoral, and fiscal impacts of the proposed tariff reform, and to identify and recommend measures to mitigate adverse impacts of DH tariff increases on the households. The analysis shows that: 1) the burden of higher DH tariffs will fall most heavily on low-income groups; 2) the current system of subsidies is unfair, benefitting wealthy customers more than the poor; 3) cross-subsidies undermine the competitiveness of industries in Belarus; and underpriced residential heat places an increasing fiscal burden on the GoB and risks macroeconomic instability. The analysis shows that a negative social impact is manageable if a tariff increase is accompanied by countervailing measures to compensate for the loss of purchasing power...

Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species

Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together...