Página 1 dos resultados de 288 itens digitais encontrados em 0.001 segundos

Biotic homogenization as a threat to native affiliate species: fish introductions dilute freshwater mussel’s host resources

Douda, Karel; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Hinzmann, Mariana; Machado, Jorge; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Ronaldo, Sousa
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.68%
Aim: The indirect consequences of biotic homogenization, the process of a gradual increase in the similarity of regional biotas driven by the combined effects of species invasions and extinctions, are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to assess the ability of a native affiliate species to maintain its host resources under the condition of biotic homogenization of host communities. Location: Central (Vltava River Basin, Czech Republic) and western (Douro River Basin, Portugal) Europe. Methods: We tested the ability of non-native species to serve as an alternative partner in local host–affiliate relationships. We used a European freshwater mussel, Anodonta anatina, which is considered to be a host generalist of native fish species, and compared the compatibility of its glochidia with native versus non-native fishes in two distinct European regions. Subsequently, we projected the obtained host compatibility data into the recent progress of biotic homogenization and estimated the degree of host dilution. Results: We found significant differences in the ability of A. anatina glochidia to parasitize the native and non-native fish species in both the central and peripheral parts of the mussel’s distribution range. As a result...

Impactos das políticas públicas brasileiras de incentivo à inovação: análises das redes participantes nos Fundos Setoriais de biotecnologia e energia; Brazilian technology development funds impacts: a network analysis of the biotechnology and energy of the Fundos Setoriais

Ribeiro, Wander Leonhardt
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
A presente pesquisa tem por objetivo avaliar os impactos estruturais, de processo e desempenho gerados nas redes de inovação caracterizadas pelas empresas e as Instituições de Ciência e Tecnologia estabelecidas para tomada de recursos dos Fundos Setoriais para Ciência e Tecnologia brasileiros. Isto porque os fundos setoriais representam importantes pilares do sistema nacional de inovação brasileiro e, como foram criados a pouco mais de uma década, o momento é oportuno para sua avaliação. Nessa pesquisa foram analisados os fundos setoriais de energia e biotecnologia. O presente estudo utilizou dados secundários disponíveis nas Bases de Dados da FINEP, que representam cerca de 70% do total desses fundos em projeto e também em volumes de recursos. Os indicadores de análise são posicionados em diferentes disciplinas científicas e diferentes níveis de análise e foram consolidados à luz da teoria do modelo de gestão da inovação aberta. A pesquisa também contribui para disseminação e consolidação da cultura de inovação no país e da importância das políticas governamentais de fomento à inovação. Os setores de biotecnologia e energia são de forte apelo e custo social, estão relacionados entre si e são intensos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento. São...

The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees

Langergraber, Kevin E.; Mitani, John C.; Vigilant, Linda
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
The complex cooperative behavior exhibited by wild chimpanzees generates considerable theoretical and empirical interest, yet we know very little about the mechanisms responsible for its evolution. Here, we investigate the influence of kinship on the cooperative behavior of male chimpanzees living in an unusually large community at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Using long-term field observations and molecular genetic techniques to identify kin relations between individuals, we show that male chimpanzees clearly prefer to affiliate and cooperate with their maternal brothers in several behavioral contexts. Despite these results, additional analyses reveal that the impact of kinship is limited; paternal brothers do not selectively affiliate and cooperate, probably because they cannot be reliably recognized, and the majority of highly affiliative and cooperative dyads are actually unrelated or distantly related. These findings add to a growing body of research that indicates that animals cooperate with each other to obtain both direct and indirect fitness benefits and that complex cooperation can occur between kin and nonkin alike.

Estimating Coextinction Risks from Epidemic Tree Death: Affiliate Lichen Communities among Diseased Host Tree Populations of Fraxinus excelsior

Jönsson, Mari T.; Thor, Göran
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.59%
At least 10% of the world’s tree species are threatened with extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated in tree threats. Coextinction and threats to affiliates as a consequence of the loss or decline of their host trees is a poorly understood phenomenon. Ash dieback is an emerging infectious disease causing severe dieback of common ash Fraxinus excelsior throughout Europe. We utilized available empirical data on affiliate epiphytic lichen diversity (174 species and 17,800 observations) among 20 ash dieback infected host tree populations of F. excelsior on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. From this, we used structured scenario projections scaled with empirical data of ash dieback disease to generate probabilistic models for estimating local and regional lichen coextinction risks. Average coextinction probabilities (Ā) were 0.38 (95% CI ±0.09) for lichens occurring on F. excelsior and 0.14 (95% CI ±0.03) when considering lichen persistence on all tree species. Ā was strongly linked to local disease incidence levels and generally increasing with lichen host specificity to F. excelsior and decreasing population size. Coextinctions reduced affiliate community viability, with significant local reductions in species richness and shifts in lichen species composition. Affiliates were projected to become locally extirpated before their hosts...

Enhanced social learning between siblings in common ravens, Corvus corax

SCHWAB, CHRISTINE; BUGNYAR, THOMAS; SCHLOEGL, CHRISTIAN; KOTRSCHAL, KURT
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
It has been suggested that social dynamics affect social learning but empirical support for this idea is scarce. Here we show that affiliate relationships among kin indeed enhance the performance of common ravens, Corvus corax, in a social learning task. Via daily behavioural protocols we first monitored social dynamics in our group of captive young ravens. Siblings spent significantly more time in close proximity to each other than did nonsiblings. We subsequently tested birds on a stimulus enhancement task in model–observer dyads composed of both siblings and nonsiblings. During demonstration the observer could watch the model manipulating one particular object (target object) in an adjacent room. After removing the model, the observer was confronted with five different objects including the former target object. Observers from sibling dyads handled the target object for significantly longer periods of time as compared with the other four available objects, whereas observers from nonsibling dyads did not show a preference for the target object. Also, siblings matched the model’s decision to cache or not to cache objects significantly more often than did nonsiblings. Hence, siblings were likely to attend to both, the behaviour of the model (caching or noncaching) and object-specific details. Our results support the hypothesis that affiliate relations between individuals affect the transmission of information and may lead to directed social learning even when spatial proximity has been experimentally controlled for.

Beautiful friendship: Social sharing of emotions improves subjective feelings and activates the neural reward circuitry

Wagner, Ullrich; Galli, Lisa; Schott, Björn H.; Wold, Andrew; van der Schalk, Job; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Scherer, Klaus; Walter, Henrik
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
Humans have a strong tendency to affiliate with other people, especially in emotional situations. Here, we suggest that a critical mechanism underlying this tendency is that socially sharing emotional experiences is in itself perceived as hedonically positive and thereby contributes to the regulation of individual emotions. We investigated the effect of social sharing of emotions on subjective feelings and neural activity by having pairs of friends view emotional (negative and positive) and neutral pictures either alone or with the friend. While the two friends remained physically separated throughout the experiment—with one undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and the other performing the task in an adjacent room—they were made aware on a trial-by-trial basis whether they were seeing pictures simultaneously with their friend (shared) or alone (unshared). Ratings of subjective feelings were improved significantly when participants viewed emotional pictures together than alone, an effect that was accompanied by activity increase in ventral striatum and medial orbitofrontal cortex, two important components of the reward circuitry. Because these effects occurred without any communication or interaction between the friends...

The World Bank and the Arab Urban Development Institute : A Decade Long Partnership on Urban and Youth Issues

Al-Salloum, Ahmed; Al-Turki, Ibrahim; Jalloh, Aliya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Founded in 1980, with permanent headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the Arab Urban Development Institute (AUDI) is a regional, non-governmental, non-profit urban research, technical and consulting organization. AUDI is also the technical and scientific arm of the Arab Towns Organization (ATO), the regional United Nation (UN) habitat affiliate with an active membership of more than 400 Arab cities and towns representing 22 Arab states.

The Impact of Locating Production Abroad on Activities at Home

Kleinert, Jörn; Toubal, Farid
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
We analyze whether firms that establish their first affiliate in a foreign country have a different pattern of growth in output, employment, capital and productivity than firms that remain national. We use firm-level data on German multinational activities and appropriate matching techniques to compare the performance of German multinational firms with their national counterparts. We do not find a negative effect of firm’s decision to establish a foreign affiliate on growth in its employment at home. There is also no significant effect of the internationalization decision of German firms on other measures of activities at home.

An analysis of factors affecting affiliation in the Marine Corps Reserves

Volkmann, Benny; Shapiro, Adam; Barnes, Jason
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this study is to examine key factors in Marine Corps Reserve turnover in order to better understand reservists’ decisions to affiliate in the United States Marine Corps. Across the Marine Force Reserve there are communities, occupational fields, and grades with persistent manning shortfalls in non–obligor populations. Non– obligor reservists are those who serve at their own discretion, with each individual reservist having well–developed rationale and reasons for affiliating with a reserve unit. Monetary incentives are the primary stimulus employed to prompt reservists to affiliate and fill billets in units where there are persistent shortfalls. Money has had a positive impact, but the utilization of monetary incentives is not based upon a deep understanding of the reservists’ underlying motivations. This study explores individual non–obligor reservist motivations and rationales for affiliating to provide initial insights and a framework for future research. This study conducted a conceptual review of academic and military literature and six semi–structured telephone interviews in order to develop a predictive conceptual model of USMCR affiliation...

Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation training for Adults diagnosed with Schizophrenia - a systematic review

Apóstolo, João Luis Alves; Dias, Carlos Manuel de Melo
Fonte: Portugal Centre for Evidence Based Practice: an Affiliate Centre of the Joanna Briggs Institute. Publicador: Portugal Centre for Evidence Based Practice: an Affiliate Centre of the Joanna Briggs Institute.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 07/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Title - Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation training for Adults diagnosed with Schizophrenia - a systematic review Centre Name - Portugal Centre for Evidence Based Practice: an Affiliate Centre of the Joanna Briggs Institute. Primary Reviewer - João Apóstolo Reviewer e-mail - apostolo@esenfc.pt Secondary Reviewer - Carlos Melo-Dias Secondary Reviewer Email - cmelodias@esenfc.pt Population - adults (aged >18) with a current diagnosis schizophrenia. Intervention - Progressive Muscle Relaxation compared with no intervention or another type of relaxation intervention Background - If stress is acknowledge as reasonable, then it becomes propulsive, constituting an impulse that causes the individual to make decisions, solve problems, improve their functioning and their abilities. The stress in this sense will help motivate the individual to achieve desirable goals, giving some flavor to life, providing an incentive for personal and professional achievement (Vaz-Serra, 2000, p.262-263). If this became prolonged and intense beyond the immediate emergency can be harmful. When an individual goes through successive circumstances, for them are inducing stress, these will have an additive effect. Therefore the individual becomes more sensitive to unpleasant events and passes to react more easily and more intensely...

Marketing strategies for enhancing word of mouth : sales acceleration and affiliate programs

Avagyan, Vardan
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.8%
For years, marketing practitioners and scholars have acknowledged consumers Word Of Mouth (WOM) as a key driving force behind the success of new products and technological innovations, and more generally for an effective firm communication over time. Marketing managers have developed WOM-marketing tools to take better advantage of buzz. This thesis is comprised of three essays on WOM marketing in a dynamic context that consider several strategies that a company can use to enhance WOM and to accelerate the diffusion of new products from a managerial perspective. We also discuss relatively recent WOM online communication tools, such as affiliate marketing, their effectiveness and dynamic effects. The main contributions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: Inventors can commercialize innovative products by themselves and simultaneously license the technology to other firms. The licensee may cannibalize sales of the licensor, but this can be compensated by gains from royalties. In the first essay of this thesis, we show how licenses can be used strategically to speed up the new product diffusion process in two instances of markets: (i) a market with strong Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and (ii) a market with weak IPR holder and pirate rivals. The main findings suggest that licensing is a beneficial strategy for a licensor in the context of strong IPR...

Affiliation of naval veterans with the Selected Reserve in the 21st century

Waite, Joseph P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 57 p. ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.3%
This thesis analyzes the factors that influence the decision of first-term Naval Veterans (NAVETs), who are eligible for reenlistment, to choose to affiliate with the Selected Reserve (SELRES). A model of the determinants of affiliation is specified and estimated using data on active Navy separations and Navy Reserve accessions during the period between 1990 and 2002. The data set analyzed the affiliation decisions of 388,637 NAVETs. Some of the features in the maximum likelihood logit model include the use of rating groups to determine differences in affiliation patterns by occupational categories, determining differences over various time periods, and looking at pay and unemployment rate elasticities across rating groups. Overall, NAVET affiliation in the SELRES is found to depend upon Reserve pay, unemployment rates, census region, gender, race, marital status, dependency status, age at time of separation from active duty, education, mental category, and Navy rating. More specifically, the findings indicate that technical ratings are more responsive to changes in pay than nontechnical ratings, while the unemployment elasticity indicates that affiliation increases with an increase in the unemployment rate. Various time periods were analyzed to determine if the drawdown years of the early 1990s differed from the rest of the sample...

Private choices vs. public voices: The history of Planned Parenthood in Houston

Anderson, Maria Helen
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 587 p.; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
Over the past half century the name Planned Parenthood has become a household term. As its leadership has struggled to create and maintain its identity and to keep it financially afloat, the organization has evolved. This is the story of one local affiliate: Planned Parenthood of Houston and Southeast Texas. Planned Parenthood of Houston had its origins in the philanthropy of Houston's "white-gloved elite," and in the poverty of the Great Depression. It also found support in the courts, which by the 1930s were beginning to re-define the law of obscenity (to exclude contraceptives) and by the 1960s to define the right of privacy as broad enough to encompass the right of marital privacy. These judicial decisions would be crucial precedents to the landmark abortion case, Roe v. Wade, which legalized the right of abortion. Neither Planned Parenthood of Houston nor its parent organization, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, evolved in a social or legal vacuum. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the history of one affiliate as it grew from a tiny clinic for the poor to a large, powerful urban organization with an eclectic clientele and a number of satellite clinics, an organization in the vanguard of reproductive rights and technology. It also attempts to place Planned Parenthood's legal...

Les Symes, Inspector, International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF)

Photographer: not known
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: 16.5cm x 11.5cm; photograph; b&w
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
The Maritime Union of Australia is an affiliate of the International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) and represents the interests of affiliate members in Australia.; Reproduced in Maritime Worker, Mar 1985 p. 9

Domestic Bond Market Development; The Arirang Bond Experience in Korea

Batten, Jonathan A.; Szilagyi, Peter G
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
A two-tiered approach to financial market development aimed at both bank and bond market reform would also be complementary to longer term economic development, provided services could be delivered through efficient financial and legal institutions (Chakraborty and Ray 2006) and there was strong protection for investors and sound fiscal and monetary policy management by government (Burger and Warnock 2006b). Historically, local issuers tend to issue in the major currencies (U.S. dollars, yen, and euro), and then either swap the proceeds into local currency (interest rate parity theory suggests this should deliver funds equivalent in yield to what is available in the domestic market) or, more often, sell the foreign currency proceeds in spot foreign exchange markets, leaving the repayment cash flows unhedged. Chakraborty and Ray (2006) recently established that although stronger bank monitoring helps to resolve information asymmetries and agency concerns, it is the efficiency of financial and legal institutions that influences growth outcomes, whether there is a bank- or a market-based financial system. Among them are the need for enabling regulation, including reform of withholding and other foreign investor taxes (Lejot, Arner, and Liu 2006); continuing reform of corporate governance...

The Geography of International Investment

Shatz, Howard J.; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.47%
Much foreign direct investment is between high-income countries, but investment in some developing and transition regions, while still modest, grew rapidly in the 1990s. Adjusting for market size, much investment stays close to home; adjusting for distance, much heads toward the countries with the biggest markets. Foreign direct investment is more geographically concentrated than either exports, or production. Thus, U.S. affiliate production in Europe, is 7 times US exports to Europe; that ratio drops to 4 for all industrial countries, and to 1.6 for developing countries. Multinational activity in high-income countries is overwhelmingly horizontal, involving production for sale to the host country market. In developing countries, a greater proportion of multinational activity is "vertical", involving manufacturing at intermediate stages of production. Thus, only four percent of US affiliate production in the European Union (EU) is sold back to the United States, whereas for developing countries, the figure is eighteen percent...

Dissecting Foreign Bank Lending Behavior During the 2008-2009 Crisis

Choi, Moon Jung; Gutierrez, Eva; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
This paper analyzes the lending behavior of foreign-owned banks during the recent global crisis. Using bank-level panel data for countries in Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Latin America, the paper explores the role of affiliate and parent financial characteristics, host location, as well as the impact of parent geographic origin and reach on foreign banks' credit growth. Overall, the analysis finds robust evidence that foreign banks curtailed the growth of credit relative to other banks, independent of the host region. Banks from the United States reduced loan growth less than other parent banks. Neither the global nor regional reach of parent banks influenced the lending growth of foreign affiliates. However, the funding structure of foreign bank affiliates and the capitalization of parent banks do help explain the lending behavior of foreign banks during the global crisis. Although not the focus of the paper, it also finds that government-owned banks played a countercyclical role in all regions.

Sullivan Agent Confesses, [1948]

Adams, Anne
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.01%
The National Seaman’s Association was a labour recruiter hiding behind a union-like name. It was run by H.N. McMaster who collected fees from companies and dues from workers. With McMaster in charge, shipping interests could claim that their seamen had a union, but ship-owners were free to push their vessels and their workers to the breaking point. In 1935, the members on the Great Lakes decided to strike. One year later, they created their own union and amalgamated with a Montreal-based independent body to create the Canadian Seamen’s Union headed by a ship’s cook who became a union leader, John Allan Patrick “Pat” Sullivan. By the late 1940s, almost all sailors on Canadian ships were CSU members. Right from its inception in 1936, Communists were prominent among the leaders of the union. Sullivan had been recruited to the Communist party that year and the union had a close rapport with the party. On June 8, 1940, Pat Sullivan was arrested because of his affiliation with the Communist party. He was incarcerated until March 20, 1942. No charges were laid, no bail was set and there was no trial. After his release, Sullivan was elected second vice-president of the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada. In 1943, Percy Bengough was elected as president and Sullivan was elected as secretary treasurer of the TLC while maintaining his role as president of the CSU. On March 14...

The Economics of the Network-Affilate Relationship: Comment

Vernon, J.M.; Graham, Daniel
Fonte: American Economic Review Publicador: American Economic Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 111555 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1975 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
The purpose of this note is to correct serveral erros in the ingenius graphical analysis of the economics of network-affiliate relationship in the television broadcasting industry.

The proximity-concentration tradeoff under uncertainty

Ramondo, Natalia; Rappoport, Veronica; Ruhl, Kim J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of Review of Economic Studies Limited Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of Review of Economic Studies Limited
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.3%
In this article, we analyse the firm's choice between serving a foreign market through exports or through foreign affiliate sales in an environment characterized by country-specific shocks to the cost of production. Our model predicts that country pairs with less-correlated output fluctuations trade more, relative to affiliate sales, whereas countries with more-volatile fluctuations are served relatively more by exporters than by foreign affiliates selling abroad. Using detailed data on trade and affiliate sales, we find empirical support for our model's predictions.