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Mortalidade por homicídios, acidentes de transporte e suicídios no município de Belo Horizonte e região metropolitana, em série histórica de 1980-2000; Mortality from Homicides, Traffic Accidents and Suicides in Belo Horizonte and the Metropolitan region, in a historical time series from 1980 - 2000

Villela, Lenice de Castro Mendes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Objetivo: Estudar o perfil epidemiológico da mortalidade por Homicídios, Acidentes de Transporte e Suicídios no município de Belo Horizonte e Região Metropolitana, na série histórica de 1980 a 2000. Métodos: O estudo apresenta um desenho ecológico, do tipo série histórica. Os indicadores de mortalidade foram os coeficientes específicos por sexo, idade e gerais padronizados; a mortalidade proporcional; a razão de mortalidade segundo sexo e idade e os incrementos / decrementos percentuais. A população utilizada como padrão foi a de 1980. Os óbitos por Homicídios, Acidentes de Transporte e Suicídios e as estimativas populacionais, segundo o ano calendário, sexo, idade e município de residência foram extraídos da base de dados do DATASUS. No período entre 1980 e 1995, os óbitos foram codificados, segundo a IX Classificação Internacional de Doenças - CID 9ª Revisão, e, a partir de 1996, segundo a CID - 10ª Revisão. A análise de tendência temporal foi desenvolvida no software SPSS para Windows, utilizando-se a técnica de regressão linear simples, com nível de significância (? < 0,05). Resultados: Nas duas regiões geográficas, os indicadores de mortalidade apresentaram maior magnitude para o sexo masculino. A razão de coeficientes específicos de mortalidade apresentou maior magnitude nas faixas etárias entre 20 e 49 anos. Os coeficientes específicos de mortalidade por Homicídios apresentaram maior magnitude na região Metropolitana e os Suicídios e Acidentes de Transporte...

Relation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality—is there evidence for mortality selection?

Janssen, F; Peeters, A; Mackenbach, J; Kunst, A; for, N
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Study objective: To test whether mortality selection was a dominant factor in determining trends in old age mortality, by empirically studying the existence of a negative correlation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality among the same cohorts.

Metropolitan income inequality and working-age mortality: A cross-sectional analysis using comparable data from five countries

Ross, Nancy A.; Dorling, Danny; Dunn, James R.; Henriksson, Göran; Glover, John; Lynch, John; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
The relationship between income inequality and mortality has come into question as of late from many within-country studies. This article examines the relationship between income inequality and working-age mortality for metropolitan areas (MAs) in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States to provide a fuller understanding of national contexts that produce associations between inequality and mortality. An ecological cross-sectional analysis of income inequality (as measured by median share of income) and working-age (25–64) mortality by using census and vital statistics data for 528 MAs (population >50,000) from five countries in 1990–1991 was used. When data from all countries were pooled, there was a significant relationship between income inequality and mortality in the 528 MAs studied. A hypothetical increase in the share of income to the poorest half of households of 1% was associated with a decline in working-age mortality of over 21 deaths per 100,000. Within each country, however, a significant relationship between inequality and mortality was evident only for MAs in the United States and Great Britain. These two countries had the highest average levels of income inequality and the largest populations of the five countries studied. Although a strong ecological association was found between income inequality and mortality across the 528 MAs...

Early Life Exposure to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Old-Age Mortality by Cause of Death

Myrskylä, Mikko; Mehta, Neil K.; Chang, Virginia W.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Objectives. We sought to analyze how early exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic is associated with old-age mortality by cause of death.

The public health impact of economic fluctuations in a Latin American country: mortality and the business cycle in Colombia in the period 1980–2010

Arroyave, Ivan; Hessel, Philipp; Burdorf, Alex; Rodriguez-Garcia, Jesus; Cardona, Doris; Avendaño, Mauricio
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Introduction: Studies in high-income countries suggest that mortality is related to economic cycles, but few studies have examined how fluctuations in the economy influence mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We exploit regional variations in gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) over the period 1980–2010 in Colombia to examine how changes in economic output relate to adult mortality. Methods: Data on the number of annual deaths at ages 20 years and older (n = 3,506,600) from mortality registries, disaggregated by age groups, sex and region, were linked to population counts for the period 1980–2010. We used region fixed effect models to examine whether changes in regional GDPpc were associated with changes in mortality. We carried out separate analyses for the periods 1980–1995 and 2000–2010 as well as by sex, distinguishing three age groups: 20–44 (predominantly young working adults), 45–64 (middle aged working adults), and 65+ (senior, predominantly retired individuals). Results: The association between regional economic conditions and mortality varied by period and age groups. From 1980 to 1995, increases in GDPpc were unrelated to mortality at ages 20 to 64, but they were associated with reductions in mortality for senior men. In contrast...

The Long-Run Impacts of Adult Deaths on Older Household Members in Tanzania

Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Beegle, Kathleen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
HIV/AIDS is drastically changing the demographic landscape in high-prevalence countries in Africa. The prime-age adult population bears the majority of the mortality burden. These missing prime-age adults have implications for the socioeconomic well-being of surviving family members. This study uses a 13-year panel from Tanzania to examine the impacts of prime-age mortality on the time use and health outcomes of older adults, with a focus on long-run impacts and gender dimensions. Prime-age deaths are weakly associated with increases in working hours of older women when the deceased adult was co-resident in the household. The association is strongest when the deceased adult was living with the elderly individual at the time of death and for deaths in the distant past, suggesting that shorter-run studies may not capture the full extent of the consequences of adult mortality for survivors. Holding more assets seems to buffer older adults from having to work more after these shocks. Most health indicators are not worse for older adults when a prime-age household member died...

Early-age mortality, socio-economic development and the health system in Mongolia

Neupert, Ricardo F
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 70742 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Since the 1920s Mongolia has developed an extensive and well-staffed health care system that has made modern health technologies accessible to most of its population. In addition, the country experienced rapid economic and social development whose benefits were equitably distributed among the population. In spite of this progress, infant and child mortality levels are high by contemporary standards and during the past 20 years these rates have remained virtually constant. The modern health care delivery system, externally imposed, failed to take into account the specific characteristics of the Mongolian culture; this fact is identified as one of the major determinants of the unexpected levels of early-age mortality. The excessive orientation toward curative medicine, the lack of health prevention and promotion activities and the lack of community participation have resulted in the people continuing to believe in traditional therapeutic patterns and self-care. They perceive the modern system exclusively in curative terms and not with regard to health preservation and disease prevention. Most Mongolians do not fully understand the health care system, and use its services mainly because they have no alternative, or because of coercion rather than conviction based on the learning and internalization of its basic principles. In practices and ideas of child care...

Old-age mortality in Israel: analysis of variation and change

Friedlander, Dov; Schellekens, Jona; Cohen, Refaela Sharashov
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 76568 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This study analyses differentials in life expectancy and cause-specific death rates among the elderly Jewish population in Israel in the early 1970s and early 1980s. We find substantial inequality in old-age mortality levels across subpopulations in geographic units and show that this inequality increased between the two periods. Much of the variation in old-age mortality is explained by differences in economic and social status, ethnicity and religiosity. The importance of religiosity is of particular interest in the context of Israeli society.; no

Metropolitan Income Inequality and Working-Age Mortality: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Using Comparable Data from Five Countries

Ross, N.; Dorling, D.; Dunn, J.; Henriksson, G.; Glover, J.; Lynch, J.; Weitoft, G.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Inc Publicador: Oxford Univ Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
The relationship between income inequality and mortality has come into question as of late from many within-country studies. This article examines the relationship between income inequality and working-age mortality for metropolitan areas (MAs) in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States to provide a fuller understanding of national contexts that produce associations between inequality and mortality. An ecological cross-sectional analysis of income inequality (as measured by median share of income) and working-age (25–64) mortality by using census and vital statistics data for 528 MAs (population >50,000) from five countries in 1990–1991 was used. When data from all countries were pooled, there was a significant relationship between income inequality and mortality in the 528 MAs studied. A hypothetical increase in the share of income to the poorest half of households of 1% was associated with a decline in working-age mortality of over 21 deaths per 100,000. Within each country, however, a significant relationship between inequality and mortality was evident only for MAs in the United States and Great Britain. These two countries had the highest average levels of income inequality and the largest populations of the five countries studied. Although a strong ecological association was found between income inequality and mortality across the 528 MAs...

Socioeconomic Differences in Old Age Mortality

HOFFMANN, Rasmus
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Social differences in health and mortality constitute a persistent finding in epidemiological, demographic, and sociological research. This topic is increasingly discussed in the political debate and is among the most urgent public health issues. However, it is still unknown if socioeconomic mortality differences increase or decrease with age. This book provides a comprehensive, thoughtful and critical discussion of all aspects involved in the relationship between socioeconomic status, health and mortality. In a well-written language, it synthesizes the sociological theory of social inequality and an empirical study of mortality differences that has been performed at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Rostock, Germany). The best available datasets from Denmark and the USA, as two very different countries, are used to analyze the age pattern of social mortality differences, the Danish register data covering the whole Danish population between 1980 and 2002. This study is the most comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic mortality differences in the literature, in terms of data quantity, quality, and the statistical method of event-history modeling. It makes important new theoretical and empirical contributions. With a new method it also addresses the question whether the measurement of social mortality differences in old age so far has been biased by mortality selection due to unobserved heterogeneity. "This book signifies an important step forward in theory...

What Makes Social Mortality Differences Decline in Old Age?

HOFFMANN, Rasmus
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
In many empirical studies mortality differences between socioeconomic groups (SES) decrease in the higher age groups. However, the mechanism behind this convergence is unknown. This study presents empirical evidence and possible explanations. Danish register data of all men in Denmark above age 58 between 1980 and 2002 (n=938.427) and event history analysis is used to study mortality differences between income groups, controlled for eight other variables. Interaction models with age or health status are used to describe the change of SES mortality differences with age. Mortality differences in Denmark are very large. The upper 75 percent of the income distribution have very similar mortality levels, but have approximately only 35 percent of the mortality risk of the poorest 10 percent. Mortality differentials are stable across age groups (controlled for health) but they converge completely when health is deteriorating. This study shows that instead of “age as leveler” it is “illness as leveler”. The finding that SES only has a very small impact on the transition from poor health to death shows that SES mortality differences do not exist because ill people with low SES have poor access to intensive or expensive medical care. It rather suggests that SES differences in mortality originate in the period of prevention and early treatment. This is also the period where policy measures against health inequality are most promising.; The fulltext (PDF) was removed on 28.07.2009 and re-uploaded on 30.01.2015.

Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

Lalloo, R.; GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Background: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods: We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings...

A Closer Look at Child Mortality among Adivasis in India

Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Kapoor, Soumya; Nikitin, Denis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The authors use data from the National Family Health Survey 2005 to present age-specific patterns of child mortality among India's tribal (Adivasi) population. The analysis shows three clear findings. First, a disproportionately high number of child deaths are concentrated among Adivasis, especially in the 1-5 age group and in those states and districts where there is a high concentration of Adivasis. Any effort to reduce child morality in the aggregate will have to focus more squarely on lowering mortality among the Adivasis. Second, the gap in mortality between Adivasi children and the rest really appears after the age of one. In fact, before the age of one, tribal children face more or less similar odds of dying as other children. However, these odds significantly reverse later. This calls for a shift in attention from infant mortality or in general under-five mortality to factors that cause a wedge between tribal children and the rest between the ages of one and five. Third, the analysis goes contrary to the conventional narrative of poverty being the primary factor driving differences between mortality outcomes. Instead...

Trends in Maternal Mortality : 1990 to 2013

WHO; UNICEF; UNFPA; World Bank; United Nations Population Division
Fonte: Geneva: World Health Organization Publicador: Geneva: World Health Organization
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
A number of initiatives that commenced in recent years are geared towards achievement of the fifth millennium development goal (MDG 5: improving maternal health), most notably the launch of the global strategy for women's and children's health in 2010 by the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General. Measuring the MDG 5 target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 remains a challenge. Accordingly, the maternal mortality estimation inter-agency group (MMEIG), comprising the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations Population Division (UNPD), and the World Bank, together with a team at the National University of Singapore and University of California at Berkeley, United States of America, have been working together to generate internationally comparable MMR estimates. The estimates for 2013 presented in this report are the seventh in a series of analyses by the MMEIG to examine the global extent of maternal mortality. Consultations with countries were carried out following the development of the MMR estimates. The purposes of the consultations were: to give countries the opportunity to review the country estimates...

Changements dans la répartition des décès selon l'âge : une approche non paramétrique pour l'étude de la mortalité adulte

Ouellette, Nadine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Au cours du siècle dernier, nous avons pu observer une diminution remarquable de la mortalité dans toutes les régions du monde, en particulier dans les pays développés. Cette chute a été caractérisée par des modifications importantes quant à la répartition des décès selon l'âge, ces derniers ne se produisant plus principalement durant les premiers âges de la vie mais plutôt au-delà de l'âge de 65 ans. Notre étude s'intéresse spécifiquement au suivi fin et détaillé des changements survenus dans la distribution des âges au décès chez les personnes âgées. Pour ce faire, nous proposons une nouvelle méthode de lissage non paramétrique souple qui repose sur l'utilisation des P-splines et qui mène à une expression précise de la mortalité, telle que décrite par les données observées. Les résultats de nos analyses sont présentés sous forme d'articles scientifiques, qui s'appuient sur les données de la Human Mortality Database, la Base de données sur la longévité canadienne et le Registre de la population du Québec ancien reconnues pour leur fiabilité. Les conclusions du premier article suggèrent que certains pays à faible mortalité auraient récemment franchi l'ère de la compression de la mortalité aux grands âges...

Impacto dos vírus Influenza e sincicial respiratório na mortalidade e internações e suas implicações para as políticas públicas no Brasil = : Impact of Influenza anda respiratory syncytial virus in mortality and hospitalizations and its implications for public policies in Brazil; Impact of Influenza anda respiratory syncytial virus in mortality and hospitalizations and its implications for public policies in Brazil

André Ricardo Ribas de Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Introdução e objetivos: As infecções respiratórias estão entre as mais importantes causas de morbimortalidade no mundo. A sua alta incidência tem relevante impacto nos óbitos, como também na sobrecarga do sistema de saúde e absenteísmo no trabalho e escola Todas as faixas etárias são acometidas, porém, as mais afetadas são as crianças e os idosos. Também são particularmente susceptíveis os imunocomprometidos e os portadores de doenças crônicas em geral. Os vírus são os agentes responsáveis pela maior parte das infecções respiratórias, os principais vírus causadores de infecções respiratórias são o influenza A e B e o Vírus Sincicial Respiratório (VSR). Estes vírus têm comportamento biológicos distintos e o conhecimento de como estes vírus afetam a saúde da população é fundamental para embasar as ações de prevenção, profilaxia e tratamento de pacientes permitindo uma alocação adequada de recursos em quantidade e tempo adequados. No Brasil, no ano 2000, para monitorar a ocorrência destes vírus foi implantada a vigilância de síndromes gripais SIVEP-GRIPE, que através de 128 unidades sentinelas distribuídas em todas as regiões do país coletam semanalmente amostras de secreção de nasofaringe por semana de pacientes com síndromes gripais. Neste trabalho estudamos o impacto do influenza na mortalidade no estado de São Paulo...

The use of aggregate data to estimate gompertz-type old-age mortality in heterogeneous populations

Heathcote, Christopher R; Puza, Borek; Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
We consider two related aspects of the study of old-age mortality. One is the estimation of a parameterized hazard function from grouped data, and the other is its possible deceleration at extreme old age owing to heterogeneity described by a mixture of d

Demographers and the Study of Mortality: Scope, Perspectives, and Theory

Caldwell, John
Fonte: New York Academy of Sciences Publicador: New York Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Demographers have for a long time adopted an empirical approach to the study of the levels and trends of mortality, fertility, and population size. They depend for their analyses on data, usually collected until recent times by government and often for other purposes. Modern demography had its origins in Britain in the second haft of the seventeenth century. The major focus of demographers has usually been on mortality, although fertility studies predominated in the 1960s and 1970s. Mortality decline in the West only became certain in the late nineteenth century. Until the 1960s the fastest mortality declines were for the young, but an unheralded mortality decline among the old thereafter became important. The world, especially in economically advanced countries, is faced with an increasingly high proportion of old people, explained largely, not by mortality decline, but by fertility decline. Explanations for the mortality transition place different emphases on the role of modern medicine, better nutrition, and behavioral and social change, particularly rising levels of education. Even among the old, at least until 85 years of age, there are wide differentials in mortality by educational level. Analysts have divided the mortality transition into stages: (1) high...

Old-age mortality in Germany prior to and after reunification

Gjonça, Arjan; Brockmann, Hilke; Maier, Heiner
Fonte: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Publicador: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/07/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Recent trends in German life expectancy show a considerable increase. Most of this increase has resulted from decreasing mortality at older ages. Patterns of oldest old mortality (ages 80+) differed significantly between men and women as well as between East and West Germany. While West German oldest old mortality decreased since the mid 1970s, comparable decreases in East Germany did not become evident until the late 1980s. Yet, the East German mortality decline accelerated after German reunification in 1990, particularly among East German females, attesting to the plasticity of human life expectancy and the importance of late life events. Medical care, individual economic resources and life-style factors are discussed as potential determinants of the decline in old age mortality in Germany.

Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors

Walraven,G.; Telfer,M.; Rowley,J.; Ronsmans,C.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100 000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100 000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause - haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths.