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Romania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
The government has embarked upon a comprehensive and difficult medium term program for reforming the public sector aimed at rebalancing the relation between revenue and spending and enhancing the efficiency and efficacy of service delivery. The Romanian economy has been hit hard by the global economic downturn. Latest estimates suggest that real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) may have contracted by around 7 percent in 2009, before modestly recovering in 2010. The severe decline in output has had a significant adverse effect on consolidated budget revenues, which fell substantially below the initial target in 2009. To prevent a further deterioration of the already large fiscal deficit, the shortfall in revenue has led to adjustments in spending. Consolidation of expenditure needs however continue in order to put public finances on a sustainable trajectory over the medium term. The report is structured in two volumes. The first volume synthesizes the menu of options suggested to reduce the short term gap between budget expenditure and revenues. It also highlights the key challenges and recommendations for improving efficiency and efficacy of spending in the sectors investigated. Volume two consists of the background analyses...

Zooming In : From Aggregate Volatility to Income Distribution

Calderón, César; Yeyati, Eduardo Levy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
In contrast with a growing literature on the drivers of aggregate volatility in developing countries, its consequences in terms of individual incomes have received less attention. This paper looks at the impact of cyclical output fluctuations and extreme output events (crises) on unemployment, poverty, and inequality. The authors find robust evidence that aggregate volatility has a regressive, asymmetric, and non linear impact, as reflected in the strong influence of extreme output drops. The findings show that, in addition to the mitigating role of personal wealth, public expenditure and labor protection exert a similar benign effect. These findings are in line with the income substitutions view of social safety nets, and cast a new light on the value of social programs and labor market regulation in crisis prone developing countries.

Nigeria - Agriculture Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.5%
This report summarizes the findings of the Nigeria Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (NAGPER). The NAGPER was undertaken to achieve four main objectives: (i) establish a robust data base on public expenditure in the agricultural sector; (ii) diagnose the level and composition of agricultural spending in the recent past; (iii) understand the budget processes that determine resource allocation in the sector; and (iv) draw preliminary policy recommendations for agriculture. These objectives are admittedly modest. At a minimum, most public expenditure reviews (PER) seek to understand the basic pattern of public spending in a sector, as well as the processes that influence spending decisions. To better contribute to policy making, many PERs also extend the analysis to examine not only the quantity of spending, but also its efficiency and impact. The scope of the NAGPER was restricted because preliminary investigations revealed that assembling and validating core expenditure data represented a major challenge in and of itself. Therefore it seemed prudent not to set out an overly ambitious set of objectives...

Sudan : Public Expenditure Review, Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.67%
This synthesis provides a baseline assessment of two fundamental dimensions of public finance in post-CPA Sudan-fiscal management and the alignment of resources to broad-based growth and reduced poverty and inequality. This Public Expenditure Review (PER), the first for Sudan, reflects the initial phase of engagement, with the objective of identifying and supporting improvements in budget planning, monitoring and institutional arrangements so as to contribute to improved resource use and outcomes. The emphasis is on establishing a baseline understanding of key fiscal management and policy challenges, highlighting reform measures for policymakers, and setting the agenda for the next phase of work. This report begins with an introduction. The rest of the synthesis report is structured as follows. Sections 2 and 3 cover the Government of National Unity (GNU) revenue and expenditure management, respectively. Section 4 summarizes key aspects of the PER dialogue on identifying and monitoring pro-poor spending in Sudan. Intergovernmental transfers and fiscal decentralization are the focus of Section 5...

Sierra Leone - Public Expenditure Review : From Post-Conflict Recovery to Sustained Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.61%
This Public Expenditure Review is to assist the Government of Sierra Leone in repositioning itself for sustained growth and poverty reduction in the long-run as opposed to the short-term expediencies needed during the present post-conflict phase. The report focuses on the period 2001-2003 for history and 2004-2006 for the future. A review of older historical data at the aggregate level is done in the macroeconomic section for the period 1998-2003 in order to demonstrate the contrast between the war and post-war years. The report covers the fiscal policies of Government in aggregate and goes deeper for three sectors: security, agriculture and education. All three are critical to growth and poverty reduction. It also proposes a number of changes in the budget process. It reviews the budgets and capacity of the security service ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs). The maintenance of security is fundamental: without it, there is little incentive to invest for future growth. The report examines the budgets and capacities of the agricultural MDAs. Finding ways to increase agricultural growth is equally critical...

On Measuring Aggregate "Social Efficiency"

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Cross-country comparisons of social indicators controlling for income and/or social spending have been widely used to measure and explain "social efficiency" analogously to "technical efficiency" in production. The author argues that these methods are clouded in ambiguities about what exactly is being measured. Standard methods of measuring technical efficiency require assumptions that seem unlikely to hold for social indicators. In the context of a simple parametric model of life expectancy, conditions are identified under which there will be a systematic pattern of bias in estimates of efficient health spending.

Decision Time : Spend More or Spend Smart? Kenya Public Expenditure Review

World Bank Group
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Português
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46.79%
Kenya is currently in an expansionary phase of its fiscal policy reflected in a widening primary deficit. The fiscal framework is marked by a significant fiscal expansion over the last three years, 2011/12 to 2013/14. The fiscal stimulus implemented in 2009/10 increased aggregate spending by 2 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However the envisaged fiscal retrenchment at the end of the program did not materialize and fiscal expansion continued with the general election in 2013. Aggregate expenditure averaged 25 percent and revenue at 18 percent of GDP. The fiscal deficit financed through debt is reflected in the doubling of the primary deficit (commitment basis) now in the range of 3.3 percent of GDP, and the rising stock of public debt from 37 percent to 43 percent of GDP (net of deposits), of which about half 22 percent was external debt in 2013/14. The fiscal developments have seen an increase in the share of debt service in total spending from 13 percent to 15 percent of recurrent spending, equivalent to 2.6 percent of GDP. Kenya s debt service is higher among East Africa Community (EAC) peers...

Laying the Foundation for a Robust Health Care System in Kenya : Kenya Public Expenditure Review

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Kenya is currently in an expansionary phase of its fiscal policy reflected in a widening primary deficit. The fiscal framework is marked by a significant fiscal expansion over the last three years, 2011/12 to 2013/14. The fiscal stimulus implemented in 2009/10 increased aggregate spending by 2 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However the envisaged fiscal retrenchment at the end of the program did not materialize and fiscal expansion continued with the general election in 2013. Aggregate expenditure averaged 25 percent and revenue at 18 percent of GDP. The fiscal deficit financed through debt is reflected in the doubling of the primary deficit (commitment basis) now in the range of 3.3 percent of GDP, and the rising stock of public debt from 37 percent to 43 percent of GDP (net of deposits), of which about half 22 percent was external debt in 2013/14. The fiscal developments have seen an increase in the share of debt service in total spending from 13 percent to 15 percent of recurrent spending, equivalent to 2.6 percent of GDP. Kenya s debt service is higher among East Africa Community (EAC) peers...

Making Education Spending Count for the Children of Autonomous Muslim Region of Mindanao

Australia DFAT; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.81%
The project builds on support to DepEd ARMM through the Australian Aid Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) activity, and further initiatives by the World Bank and partners. Chapter two of this report proceeds with an introduction to ARMM’s development context, including the evolution of regional institutions and the basic education system. Chapter three describes the unique ARMM Public Expenditure Management ‘syndrome’ that contributes to the weaknesses analyzed in this report, and in turn informs its policy recommendations. Chapter four analyzes pub¬lic expenditures for basic education in terms of aggregate spending, expenditure composi¬tion, and specific challenges that the ARMM PEM syndrome poses for budgeting. Chapter five assesses budget execution and frontline delivery aspects of basic education resources, incorporating findings from the facilities survey. Chapter six summarizes the findings on public expenditure management for education in ARMM and derives recommendations both for reforms to ARMM institutions and for consideration by the transition commission and other stakeholders in the preparations for a new Bangsamoro political entity.

Dismal Science, Accounting and Newton’s Second Law; Identifying Force and Rigidity in Public Expenditure Analysis

Merotto, Dino; Hayati, Fayavar; Stephan, David; Bataille, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
This paper proposes a new measure of public expenditure force that policy makers and budget analysts should track in detail over time in routine fiscal monitoring. The paper suggests that adopting the measure will not only warn policy makers of possible impending fiscal pressures, but will help them to differentiate between those budgetary pressures that are temporary and those that may require reforms. The main utility of the expenditure force measure will be in country fiscal analysis. Measuring force across the entire budget allows practitioners to monitor and decompose the micro drivers of public spending pressure, watch out for rapidly expanding spending lines, and identify priorities for reform before these pressures lead to macro fiscal problems. Yet by its construct, spending force is internationally comparable, and independent of expenditure levels or spending types. This could allow global monitoring comparisons and global research into the drivers of public spending force across particular types of country characteristics and economic conditions. In time...

Sudan - Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) : Case Study of the Health Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
The Sudan referendum on post-Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) arrangements was held during January 9-15, 2011 with results in favor of secession of the South by July 9, 2011. The economic effects will transmit largely through the fiscal and external accounts and the outcome of secession negotiations will determine the post-CPA economic landscape. The secession outcome will likely put significant strain on economic stability in the North. The PETS study is organized as follows: chapter two presents the objectives of the study, and the survey methodology and sampling size. Chapter three focuses on the specific developments of budget data (functional classification) in the Northern States. The chapter sheds some light on revenues and expenditure in Northern States and also zooms into the specific responsibilities transferred to the states. Towards the end, the chapter addresses the budgets specifically of the six states that have been sampled for the study (in a purposive sample). Chapter four is the heart of the study and is based on the flow of funds analysis underlying the PET survey. It starts out with addressing the question on 'who' finances the health sector. With this it gives a good account of the decentralized nature of health services...

Slovakia Public Expenditure Review Mission

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The budget projections for 2008 - 2010 in Slovakia's latest Convergence Program envision the deficit continuing to decline to 0.8% of GDP in the context of economic growth close to the potential. Both spending and revenue shares are projected to fall and the debt to GDP ratio to remain below 30% of GDP. In the next decade, it will be necessary to exercise continued budget prudence so as to deal with spending pressures related to infrastructure development, social services (health and education), and to prepare for the budgetary implications of population ageing. In the environment of less buoyant growth and fiscal revenues, the need to establish clear spending priorities and to ensure value for money becomes more important than ever.

Honduras : Public Expenditure Management for Poverty Reduction and Fiscal Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
As a highly indebted poor country, Honduras faces a dual challenge of reducing poverty while ensuring medium-term sustainability of its public spending to avoid recurrence of over indebtedness. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) is intended to contribute to the government's overall poverty reduction efforts through efficient use of public resources and fiscally sustainable improvement in public services. It provides an assessment of Honduras' institutional capacity for good expenditure management and identifies key policy priorities in selected sector (health, education, and infrastructure). A good institutional arrangement of effective public expenditure management requires achieving the three inter-related objectives of aggregate fiscal discipline, allocation of resources to strategic priorities, and operational efficiency. One of the problems in Honduras' public expenditure management that can be tackled immediately is the need for improvement in the budget classification system for better fiscal transparency. Besides...

Spending for Development : Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities, Indonesia Public Expenditure Review 2007

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) 2007 examines and explains some of the constraints facing the government in public resource management and allocation, and offers recommendations for improvements in six critical areas: fiscal space, education, health, infrastructure, public financial management and decentralization. Although Indonesia has made important progress in reforming its public finances and increasing transparency, Indonesia's reform agenda, as highlighted by the PER, is far from complete. Equity and efficiency of spending remain major issues, for instance finding an optimal allocation of resources that reflects development priorities, and achieving an annual spending pattern that is no longer strongly skewed towards the end of the financial year. This report tries to establish the facts about Indonesia's public expenditures, presenting trends over time and analyzing the composition across sectors and levels of government. It presents comprehensive information on key sectors, including sub-national governments and state-owned enterprises in key infrastructure sectors. Based on these facts...

How Pro-poor and Progressive is Social Spending in Zambia?

Cuesta, Jose; Kabaso, Pamela; Suarez-Becerra, Pablo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This paper analyzes the distributional effect of public spending in Zambia using the most recent data from the 2010 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey. The analysis focuses on both the "traditional" social sectors, such as education and public healthcare, as well as other spending areas less thoroughly studied, such as agricultural support programs. Ultimately, this benefit incidence analysis addresses the extent to which spending is pro-poor and progressive; that is, it primarily benefits the poor and does so at an increasing rate as welfare levels decrease. The results indicate that overall public education spending in Zambia is neither pro-poor nor progressive, but while this is true for the system as a whole it is not true for all of its parts. The net unitary benefits of primary and secondary education are clearly both pro-poor and progressive. However, their progressivity is ultimately outweighed by the extreme concentration of tertiary education benefits among the wealthiest members of Zambian society. Health spending is also regressive and not pro-poor. Although unitary net benefits are slightly progressive...

Reprioritizing Government Spending on Health : Pushing an Elephant Up the Stairs?

Tandon, Ajay; Fleisher, Lisa; Li, Rong; Yap, Wei Aun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76%
Countries vary widely with respect to the share of government spending on health, a metric that can serve as a proxy for the extent to which health is prioritized by governments. World Health Organization (WHO) data estimate that, in 2011, health's share of aggregate government expenditure in the 170 countries for which data were available averaged 12 percent. However, country differences were striking: ranging from a low of 1 percent in Myanmar to a high of 28 percent in Costa Rica. Some of the observed differences in health's share of government spending across countries are unsurprisingly related to differences in national income. However, significant variations exist in health's share of government spending even after controlling for national income. This paper provides a global overview of health's share of government spending and summarizes key theoretical and empirical perspectives on allocation of public resources to health vis-a-vis other sectors from the perspective of reprioritization, one of the modalities for realizing fiscal space for health. Theory and cross-country empirical analyses do not provide clear...

Are the Poor Protected from Budget Cuts? Theory and Evidence for Argentina

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Adjustment programs often emphasize protecting social spending - especially pro-poor spending - from cuts. Yet the incidence of fiscal contraction - and hence the case for action to protect public spending on the poor at a time of overall fiscal austerity - is an empirical question, which the author addresses using data from Argentina. Aggregate budget cuts in Argentina in the 1980s and 1990s, typically brought proportionately greater cuts in social spending. "Non-social" spending was protected. But proportionate cuts for types of social spending that matter more to the poor, were about the same as the cuts for those that tend to favor the non-poor. Absolute cuts were in fact greater for "social insurance" that matters more to the non-poor. But spending on targeted social assistance, and employment programs, was more vulnerable to aggregate spending cuts, than were more universal social services. Social spending was clearly exposed to fiscal contraction, but this was somewhat less true of pro-poor spending on things that also benefited the non-poor. So fine targeting may be a mixed blessing for the poor, bringing greater vulnerability to cuts, possibly when help is most needed. There is a strong case for action to protect pro-poor social spending at such times. An externally financed work-fare scheme in Argentina was far better targeted than other social spending...

Spending on Public Infrastructure : A Practitioner's Guide

Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Sarkodie, Afua
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
This paper provides a methodological tool to support the collection and preparation of standardized, comprehensive data regarding public spending on infrastructure services that can be rigorously compared across countries. Infrastructure is defined to cover six sectors: irrigation, energy (primarily power), transport, communication, wastewater management, and water supply. The guide is designed to provide a much richer and more complete measurement of infrastructure spending than the limited highly aggregated data currently available through the IMF Government Financial Statistics. Originally developed for Africa, the methodology is relevant and readily applicable to any developing country. With the aim of being as comprehensive as possible, the methodology covers central and sub-national government expenditures, non-budgetary vehicles (such as road funds), state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and public-private partnerships (PPPs). While the methodology focuses on collecting quantitative data on the level and composition of spending...

Public Spending for Long-Run Growth : A Practitioners' View

Gemmell, Norman; Misch, Florian; Moreno-Dodson, Blanca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
By financing public goods and services that enhance productivity and promote private investment, public spending is widely believed to be critical for long-run growth. Such effects are distinct from any short-run Keynesian response to a public spending stimulus. While a short-run response generally operates through aggregate demand, long-run growth effects alter aggregate supply conditions. While academic literature generally supports the belief that public spending promotes growth in the long run, understanding which public expenditure allocations can trigger such effects in a particular country setting is challenging in practice. The objective of this note1 is to review the trade-offs faced by fiscal policy makers in developing countries who are considering using public expenditure policy as an instrument to promote long run growth, provide guidance from the empirical literature, and review the types of data sources that are helpful in this context.

Spending for Development : Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) examines and explains some of the constraints facing the government in public resource management and allocation, and offers recommendations for improvements in six critical areas: fiscal space, education, health, infrastructure, public financial management, and decentralization. Although Indonesia has made important progress in reforming its public finances and increasing transparency, Indonesia's reform agenda, as highlighted by the PER, is far from complete. Equity and efficiency of spending remain major issues, for instance finding an optimal allocation of resources that reflects development priorities, and achieving an annual spending pattern that is no longer strongly skewed towards the end of the financial year. This report tries to establish the facts about Indonesia's public expenditures, presenting trends over time and analyzing the composition across sectors and levels of government. It presents comprehensive information on key sectors, including sub-national governments and state-owned enterprises in key infrastructure sectors. Based on these facts...