Página 1 dos resultados de 859 itens digitais encontrados em 0.005 segundos

Essays on governance and failure of co-operative banks: the portuguese agricultural credit co-operatives

Paula, Cabo
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
The 2008 global crisis, and the European sovereign debt crisis that follow it, originated, among other consequences, a general mistrust in financial institutions. This situation encourages the debate on the role of co-operative banks within a fairer society and their social responsibility as a key in the economic recovery, namely in the south European countries. The co-operative banking sector remains poorly understood and its specific governance challenges remain largely unexplored. The research included in this thesis aims to improve knowledge of the conduct and performance of the co-operative banks, and its findings should support the decision making process by members and management, mainly in terms of governance model. Thus, the main objective of this research is to analyse, both theoretically and empirically, the governance and financial robustness of co-operative banks, taking as a reference the Portuguese agricultural credit co-operatives (CCAM) and their integrated system (SICAM). Specifically, the thesis is structured in order to answer the following questions: (1) What are the economic bases of co-operative banks?; (2) How does a particular regulatory framework affect co-operative banking activity?; (3) What is the impact of the different governance mechanisms of co-operative banks on control management?; and (4) What are the explanatory factors of Portuguese co-operative bank failures? Besides the Introduction (Chapter 1) and the Conclusions (Chapter 6)...

Os Bancos de Custeio Rural e o crédito agrícola em São Paulo (1906-1914); The Bancos de Custeio Rural and the agricultural credit in São Paulo (1906-1914)

Corrêa, Fábio Rogério Cassimiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
O sistema de financiamento da cafeicultura evoluiu no processo da transição do trabalho escravo para o livre, ocasionando o aumento da demanda do crédito para o custeio anual da safra sobre os empréstimos de longo prazo exigidos durante o regime escravista. Por outro lado, a crise dos preços do café ocorrida entre 1896 e 1906 evidenciou as limitações do sistema de financiamento existente que estava baseado nos adiantamentos fornecidos por comerciantes. As novas necessidades de crédito e o crescente clima de descontentamento com os mecanismos comerciais de financiamento acabariam por suscitar propostas de intervenção do Estado com políticas de crédito agrícola a serem organizadas ou subsidiadas pelo governo do Estado de São Paulo e que viriam a ser concretizadas na esteira do programa de valorização do café, adotado em 1906. Tais intervenções incluiriam a criação de bancos agrícolas e o incentivo às cooperativas rurais de crédito, das quais os chamados Bancos de Custeio Rural são os primeiros experimentos desse tipo no estado e constituem nosso objeto de estudo. Os Bancos de Custeio Rural formaram uma rede de cooperativas de crédito, que atuou entre 1906 e 1914 no interior do estado de São Paulo. Esses bancos emprestavam apenas aos fazendeiros associados o valor demandado no financiamento anual da lavoura. Tendo surgido no contexto da crise cafeeira de 1896-1906...

Agricultural Insurance in Latin America : Developing the Market

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
The study focuses on how agricultural insurance can complement and enhance agricultural risk management in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC). The overall objective of this study is to provide the key elements for a strategy to increase the penetration of agricultural insurance in the region. The study is organized into five chapters, including this introduction. Chapter two provides an overview of the agricultural sector in LAC, including a description of the main farming systems and an assessment of the main perils affecting production. Chapter three describes the current provision of agricultural insurance, describing the evolution of agricultural insurance, providing the current market figures, assessing the availability of agricultural insurance products, describing government support to agricultural insurance, and estimating the current levels of penetration. Chapter four focuses on the challenges in attempting to increase coverage and penetration. It assesses the current gaps in the provision of agricultural insurance...

Global Survey of Development Banks

de Luna-Martinez, José; Vicente, Carlos Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Historically, development banks have been an important instrument of governments to promote economic growth by providing credit and a wide range of advisory and capacity building programs to households, small and medium enterprises, and even large private corporations, whose financial needs are not sufficiently served by private commercial banks or local capital markets. During the current financial crisis, most development banks in Latin America, followed by Asia, Africa, and Europe, have assumed a countercyclical role by scaling up their lending operations exactly when private banks experienced temporary difficulties in granting credit to the private sector. Despite the importance of development banks during crisis and non-crisis periods, little is known about them. This survey examines how development banks operate, what their policy mandates are, what financial services they offer, which type of clients they target, how they are regulated and supervised, what business models they have adopted, what governance framework they have...

Bank Ownership and Performance in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Farazi, Subika; Feyen, Erik; Rocha, Roberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Although both domestic and foreign private banks have gained ground in MENA in recent years, state banks continue to play an important role in many countries. Using a MENA bank-level panel dataset for the period 2001-08, the paper contributes to the empirical literature by documenting recent ownership trends and assessing the role of ownership and bank performance in MENA while accounting for key bank characteristics such as size and balance sheet composition. The paper analyzes headline performance indicators as well as their key drivers and finds that state banks exhibit significantly weaker performance, despite their larger size. This result is mainly driven by a larger holding of government securities, higher costs due to larger staffing numbers, and larger loan loss provisions reflecting weaker asset quality. The results reflect both operational inefficiencies and policy mandates. The paper also provides a detailed performance analysis of foreign and listed banks. Foreign banks are fairly new in MENA...

Managing Agricultural Risk at the Country Level : The Case of Index-Based Livestock Insurance in Mongolia

Mahul, Olivier; Skees, Jerry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This paper describes the index-based livestock insurance program in Mongolia designed in the context of a World Bank lending operation with Government of Mongolia and implemented on a pilot basis in 2005. This program involves a combination of self-insurance by herders, market-based insurance, and social insurance. Herders retain small losses, larger losses are transferred to the private insurance industry, and extreme or catastrophic losses are transferred to the government using a public safety net program. A syndicate pooling arrangement protects participating insurance companies against excessive insured losses, with excess of loss reinsurance provided by the government. The fiscal exposure of Government of Mongolia toward the most extreme losses is protected with a contingent credit facility. The insurance program relies on a mortality rate index by species in each local region. The index provides strong incentives to individual herders to continue to manage their herds so as to minimize the impacts of major livestock mortality events; individual herders receive an insurance payout based on the local mortality...

Subsidies as an Instrument in Agriculture Finance : A Review

Meyer, Richard L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
This paper presents a literature review of issues related to recent subsidies and investments in the financial sector that have been designed to address the immediate effects of the crises and to develop the financial institutions necessary to modernize agriculture. Section two of the paper discusses the impact of recent food, fuel, and financial crises on developing countries and the emergency actions taken by countries and international agencies to reduce the suffering inflicted on poor people. It also discusses the challenge of finding a balance between pragmatic immediate responses and longer-term objectives. The third section discusses the role of finance in agricultural development and poverty alleviation. Section four deals with the challenge of creating credit markets in developing countries. The fifth section covers shifts in the paradigm used to intervene in credit markets and summarizes the main features of the old directed-credit and the new financial systems paradigms. This is followed by a sixth section that summarizes highlights in the development of the microfinance industry. It covers guidelines created for developing microfinance...

Tunisia Agricultural Finance Study : Main Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The Tunisia agricultural finance study was carried out in response to a request made in December 2009 by the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for support for a study on the key constraints in agricultural finance. Technical and financial support was specifically requested for: (i) a comprehensive diagnostic analysis of the current mechanisms and problems of financing of the agricultural sector in Tunisia, including those by financial institutions and from budget resources, foreign direct investment, and insurance; (ii) a comparison of the Tunisian experience with successful experiences made in other comparable countries; and (iii) the formulation of concrete proposals. The diagnostic part was also requested to include the regulations pertaining to agricultural credit, other constraints impeding the development of agricultural finance, such as costs, profitability, professional organizations, extension services, research etc., and to look at the indebtedness of smallholders. It was also requested that the recommendations help to: (i) better define the objectives to be achieved in terms of financing of agriculture; (ii) increase the participation of the financial sector in financing agriculture; (iii) help identify need for support by different types of farmers; (iv) identify new instruments geared at qualitative and technological changes; (v) reduce the indebtedness of farmers; and (vi) help improve the subsidies for agricultural investment. There are two main written outputs of the Tunisia agricultural finance study. The experts working on the study have compiled a great deal of detailed background information diagnosing the current situation...

Review of State-Owned Banks in Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
This note reviews state-owned banks in Belarus and offers recommendations on how to strengthen them. It covers the Belarusbank, Belagroprombank, Belinvestbank, and Paritetbank (the public banks), and the recently established Development Bank of Belarus (DBB). Recommendations focus on corporate governance, funding, ownership function, mandate, lending models, and regulation and supervision. The note is based on information provided by the public banks, the Ministry of Finance, and the NBRB. However, due to their unavailability, the team did not hold meetings with the DBB and the Ministry of Economy. Thus, the analyses concerning the DBB are based on the review of its law as well as on discussions with the Ministry of Finance and the NBRB. The note is organized as follows: after this introduction, section two presents an overview of the public banks in Belarus and the role that they play in the local economy; section three discusses the details of Lending under Government Programs (LGP) and the importance for the public banks of the funding attached to these programs; section four analyzes the key features of the DBB...

The Kyrgyz Republic : Farm Mechanization and Agricultural Productivity

Guadagni, Maurizio; Fileccia, Turi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
This policy note reviewed the status of farm machinery in the Kyrgyz Republic. Agricultural productivity, particularly in terms of grain yields, is low because of underinvestment. This note finds that a significant deficit in agricultural machinery is hindering sector productivity. The Kyrgyz Republic has fewer tractors per hectare than any comparable country, with a deficit estimated at 40 percent. The deficit of combine harvesters, estimated at 45 percent, is even more critical. When the age of agricultural machinery is taken into account, the underinvestment becomes even more acute. The reduced domestic production of wheat exacerbates food security concerns. Inadequate access to credit and small farm size are the main factors that constrain farm mechanization. The policy note presents three sets of short- to medium-term policy options to: i) promote the demand for farm machinery, by developing credit lines for agricultural productive assets, leasing, facilitating access to secondhand equipment, and testing/demonstrating the efficiency of farm machinery for small-scale farming; ii) increase the supply of farm machinery...

Does Institutional Finance Matter for Agriculture? Evidence Using Panel Data from Uganda

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Koolwal, Gayatri B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
Smallholder agriculture in many developing countries has remained largely self-financed. However, improved productivity for attaining greater food security requires better access to institutional credit. Past efforts to extend institutional credit to smaller farmers has failed for several reasons, including subsidized operation of government-aided credit schemes. Thus, recent efforts to expand credit for smallholder agriculture that rely on innovative credit delivery schemes at market prices have received much policy interest. However, thus far the impacts of these efforts are not fully understood. This study examines credit for smallholder agriculture in the context of Uganda, where agriculture is about 35 percent of gross domestic product, most farmers are smallholders, and the country has introduced policies since 2005 to extend credit access to the sector. The analysis uses newly available household panel data from Uganda for 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 to examine (a) whether credit effectively targets agriculture...

Innovative Agricultural SME Finance Models

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
This report is organized into three main sections. Section one sets out the context by describing the particular challenges and opportunities related to financing agriculture, followed by defining the target group of agricultural SME s. Section two describes a set of innovative financing models. Section three then provides a framework for an indicative assessment of these models by gathering and forming observations from the case studies. The model observations are then highlighted in three types of country contexts in which bankers in developing countries may find themselves. Preliminary assessment results are presented. The report concludes with key lessons learned on innovative agricultural financing, relevant case studies, and an outlook on further work in this area. Annexes present methodologies and case studies representing the various models.

Agricultural Insurance in Bangladesh : Promoting Access to Small and Marginal Farmers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Bangladesh is ranked as the world's fifth most exposed country to natural disasters, including floods, cyclones, and droughts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the viability of agricultural insurance in Bangladesh, particularly for small and marginal farmers and to present the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) with a set of options for the future development of agricultural insurance in the country. The current study aims to identify an overall framework for the development of sustainable market-based agricultural insurance in Bangladesh. It also reviews the technical, operational, financial, and institutional issues and options for the introduction of traditional crop and livestock insurance products and for new crop-index products that are suitable to Bangladeshi farmers. This report present a series of practical guidelines and options for GoB and other interested parties to consider for the future development and implementation of crop, livestock and aquaculture insurance in Bangladesh. This study benefits from this international experience (for example...

Jamaica : Toward a Strategy for Financial Weather Risk Management in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This report forms part of the technical assistance provided by the World Bank under the Non-lending Technical Assistance Program for the Caribbean 'market-based agriculture risk management in the Caribbean.' The program is largely financed by the European Union All Agriculture Commodities Program (AACP) Initiative and contributions from the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) and the World Bank. This document provides technical input for designing a national strategy for addressing the financial weather risks facing the agricultural sector of Jamaica. As such, it identifies the various options from current available financial risk transfer instruments for addressing crop weather risks for small farmers (livestock risks are not directly addressed in this report) and identifies the public investments needed for supporting market development of the agricultural insurance market. The report is structured in five sections to facilitate its presentation. The first two sections present a snapshot of the Jamaican economy and agricultural sector...

State-owned Banks in the Transition : Origins, Evolution, and Policy Responses

Sherif, Khaled; Borish, Michael; Gross, Alexandra
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Many of the distortions in poorly performing economies do not originate in the banking sector, but where state banks still control a large share of the resources in the banking system, they continue to pose a risk to macroeconomic and fiscal stability. State banks are typically vehicles for patronage that worsen the prospects for competitive market development. Alternatively, these state banks can be ineffective shells that fail to perform a useful intermediation role once the government imposes effective hard budget constraints and a modern supervisory system. The most problematic state banks have been agricultural and industrial banks, whose original role was to finance state farms and industrial enterprises that employed large numbers of people and served as the backbone of the socialist economic mode. Banks now show stronger growth in deposits and capital in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics, suggesting that these countries have put into place structures that have helped to restore confidence in banking systems among creditors...

Sri Lanka - Agricultural Commercialization : Improving Farmers’ Incomes in the Poorest Regions

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The issue of regional differences in development has moved to the center of the development debate in Sri Lanka, partly after the release of regional poverty data. For the past many years, there have been significant and increasing differences between the Western province and the rest of the country in terms of per capita income levels, growth rates of per capita income, poverty rates, and the structure of provincial economies. The structure of the report is as follows: chapter two looks at the poverty/growth/agriculture nexus in the poorest regions of Sri Lanka. It presents data on poverty and growth in the poorest provinces, especially Uva and Sabaragamuwa, and provides an analysis of factors associated with the rural poor. Chapter three provides an overview and brief discussion of the Government's agricultural policies and programs. Chapter four identifies constraints that restrict farmers' incomes in the four poorest provinces. It presents results from extensive stakeholder consultations carried out in these provinces. These results are complemented with findings from the 2005 rural investment climate assessment to identify some of the general constraints in the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka. Chapter five presents the findings of an agricultural resource audit of small-scale farmers in the poorest regions that analyzed production...

Does Access to Finance Matter in Microenterprise Growth? Evidence from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
In less-developed economies such as Bangladesh, the farm sector is the major source of employment and income, while the rural nonfarm sector provides as an additional source of income. But the rural nonfarm sector increasingly plays an important role in fostering the development of the rural economy. A significant share of this sector is made up of microenterprise activities, which requires investment and access to adequate funds. This paper investigates the role access to finance plays in promoting the efficiency and growth of microenterprise activities. The findings suggest that households engaged in microenterprise activities, in addition to farm and other nonfarm activities, are much better off (in terms of income, expenditure and poverty) than those not engaged in such activities. Fewer than 10 percent of the enterprises have access to institutional finance (formal banks or microcredit), although the rate of return on microenterprise investments is more than sufficient (36 percent per year) to repay institutional loans. The research suggests that credit constraints may reduce the enterprises' profit margin by as much as 13.6 percent per year. As the returns to microenterprise investment are found to be high...

Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank : Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or depend on agriculture for their income. Given agriculture's important contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar. Among the government institutions supporting the agriculture sector, the Myanmar Agriculture Development Bank (MADB) plays an important role. MADB was established in June 1953 by the Government of Myanmar to support the development of agriculture, livestock, and rural enterprises in Myanmar. MADB is currently the largest financial institution serving the rural areas and financing agriculture activities. At the end of 2012, MADB served 1.87 million customers, mostly farmers, and had a network of 206 branches (which accounted for 23 percent of all banks' branches in Myanmar). Since its creation...

Importancia de los bancos de primer piso en la intermediación, otorgamiento y legalización de créditos de redescuento en Colombia; Importance of banks first floor in the income, and grant of probate of rediscount's credits in Colombia

Muñoz Leal, Adriana; Salazar González, Jair Antonio
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
FINAGRO, es un banco de segundo piso respaldado por el Gobierno Nacional cuyo objetivo es el crecimiento y desarrollo del sector agropecuario, donde su principal fuente de recursos aparte de los aportes que realiza el Gobierno y sus accionistas está en Títulos de Desarrollo Agropecuario TDA, que son inversiones en las que están obligados todos los intermediarios financieros a realizar, estas inversiones generan una rentabilidad muy baja debido a que la tasa de interés para estos Títulos es del DTF – 2 o 4 puntos según las clase de los Títulos.; FINAGRO , is a second-tier bank backed by the Government aimed at growth and development of the agricultural sector , where the main source of income apart from the contributions made by the Government and its shareholders are in Titles TDA Agricultural Development , which are investments in which are required all financial intermediaries to perform , these investments generate very low returns because the interest rate for these securities is DTF - 2 or 4 points according to the class of securities .

Microinvertebrate and plant beta diversity in dry soils of a semiarid agricultural wetland complex

Angeler, D. G.; Viedma, Olga; Cirujano, Santos; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel; Sánchez Carrillo, Salvador
Fonte: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) Publicador: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 352329 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
11 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables; The relationship between environmental features and the β diversity of the propagule bank of dry soils of temporary wetlands has relevance to ecological theories of community structure and to the conservation of wetland biodiversity. The correlation of β diversity of microinvertebrates and macrophytes derived from propagules in dry soils with wetland habitat characteristics, catchment land-use, and the distance between wetlands in a remnant pond complex in central Spain was assessed. Redundancy analyses showed that β diversity of both groups correlated with habitat characteristics, whereas associations with catchment agricultural practices were weaker. Nestedness analyses showed that species-poor communities from degraded sites tended to form nested subsets of less degraded ponds with higher species richness. Distance between the ponds had no significant association with community similarity, suggesting that fragmentation did not shape β diversity at the scale of our study area. To maintain high β diversity in this area, ponds with species-rich propagule banks should receive conservation priority. Given the functional dependence by much wildlife on these propagule banks once these wetlands rewet...