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Vilas rurais no processo de transformação do espaço rural no município de Paranavaí

Bana, Luzia
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: xvi, 181 f. : il. + anexo
Português
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46.9%
Pós-graduação em Geografia - FCT; O programa Vilas Rurais destinado ao assentamento de trabalhadores rurais volantes chamados bóias-frias, e que são “trabalhadores não regularmente empregados”. É um projeto do Governo do Estado do Paraná, em parceria com as Prefeituras Municipais, que busca criar mecanismos para manter o homem no campo e oferecer alternativas para que o seu trabalho e o seu sustento venham da própria terra. Este programa propõe amenizar as desigualdades sociais provocadas pela migração campo-cidade, intermediando as desigualdades socioeconômicas e a realocação de mão-de-obra, num movimento inverso, da cidade para o campo. As Vilas Rurais são implantadas, preferencialmente, em regiões de grande concentração de mão-de-obra temporária, mas especialmente em região campestre produtoras de algodão, mandioca, laranja e pecuária. São centros de trabalho, com infra-estrutura de habitação, energia elétrica, água e são sempre localizados próximos aos centros urbanos, de forma a assegurar o acesso ao mercado de trabalho agrícola e não agrícola aos trabalhadores rurais volantes.Os investimentos nesse projeto destinam-se a criar para os trabalhadores rurais volantes e suas famílias, um sentido da vida com maior qualidade...

Detecção da influencia da vinhaça na resistividade do solo atraves da analise de dados geofisicos : um estudo de caso no assentamento Sepe, Tiaraju, SP; Vinasse influence detection in soil electrical resistivity by geophysics data analysis : a case study at Sepe, Tiaraju, settlement of landless agricultural laborers, SP

Juliana Igarashi da Cruz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
A vinhaça, resíduo gerado na proporção de 13 litros para cada litro de álcool produzido, possui um alto potencial poluidor dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos e superficiais, causa alterações no comportamento do solo e pode gerar problemas de salinização. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a eficiência do método da eletrorresistividade para a detecção e mapeamento das anomalias causadas pela disposição inadequada de grandes quantidades de vinhaça em um antigo tanque de infiltração localizado no Assentamento Sepé- Tiarajú, Municípios de Serrana e Serra Azul - SP. O trabalho objetiva também caracterizar o tipo de anomalia inerente ao resíduo no local estudado e diagnosticar sua influência dentro e fora dos limites do tanque. Foram executados onze perfis de tomografia elétrica, arranjo dipolo-dipolo radial e espaçamento entre eletrodos de 10 metros. Os ensaios geofísicos mostraram que o método da eletrorresistividade é apropriado para mapear as anomalias decorrentes da disposição de grandes quantidades de vinhaça no solo, apontar suas áreas de influência e concluir que a contaminação extrapola os limites do tanque. A influência da vinhaça pode ser caracterizada por baixos valores de resistividade entre 10 Ohm.m e 90 Ohm.m...

Cenarios tecnologicos e demanda da capacitação da mão-de-obra do setor agricola sucroalcooleiro paulista; Technological sceneries and demand of labor training by the sugarcane agricultural sector at the state of São Paulo

Terezinha de Fatima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/02/2010 Português
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46.38%
No Brasil, o setor sucroalcooleiro viveu um momento de grandes investimentos, impulsionado principalmente pelo aumento da frota de automóveis do tipo "flex fuel", e pela expectativa de aumento das exportações, considerando a meta de adição de etanol à gasolina no mundo todo. Governo e organizações privadas estão se conscientizando da necessidade de ações para aumentar a produção e a produtividade. Dentre tais medidas, estão a ampliação das áreas de plantio, a otimização do processo de plantio e colheita da cana-de-açúcar, bem como a otimização da produção de etanol. No entanto, as referidas medidas para elevar a produtividade implicam questões ambientais, econômicas, sociais e tecnológicas, ganhando expressão com o processo de mecanização. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a qualificação de mão-de-obra no processo de implantação da mecanização do setor agrícola sucroalcooleiro. Para tanto, foram considerados quatro cenários de mecanização: Cenário I - Tradicional, Cenário II - Mecanizado, Cenário III - Informatizado e Cenário IV - Auxílio Mecânico, e o grau de qualificação da mão-de-obra requerida em cada um deles. Foram visitadas três usinas sucroalcooleiras, duas que representam o cenário I e uma unidade que representa o cenário II...

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.55%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Are Irrigation Rehabilitation Projects Good for Poor Farmers in Peru?

Datar, Gayatri; Del Carpio, Ximena V.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.51%
This paper analyzes changes in agricultural production and economic welfare of farmers in rural Peru resulting from a large irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation project. The analysis uses a ten-year district panel and a spatial regression discontinuity approach to measure the causal effect of the intervention. While general impacts are modest, the analysis shows that the project is progressive--poor farmers consistently benefit more than non-poor farmers. Farmers living in districts with a rehabilitated irrigation site experience positive labor dynamics, in terms of income and agricultural jobs. Poor farmers increase their total income by more than $220 per year compared with the control group, while rich farmers do not experience such an income gain. The results also show crop specialization patterns in the economic status of farm households; poorer farm households increase their production of staple crops, such as beans and potatoes, while non-poor beneficiary farmers cultivate more industrial crops. Findings from this evaluation have important implications for pro-poor policy design in the agricultural sector.

An Emerging Agricultural Problem in High-Performing Asian Economies

Hayami, Yujiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.52%
Policies to tax farmers in low-income countries and policies to subsidize them in high-income countries have been identified as a major source of the disequilibrium of world agriculture. Recently, as many high-performing economies in Asia advanced from the low-income to the middle-income stage through successful industrialization, they have been confronted with the problem of a widening income gap between farm and non-farm workers corresponding to rapid shifts in comparative advantage from agriculture to manufacturing. In order to prevent this disparity from culminating in serious social and political instability, policies have been reoriented toward supporting the income of farmers. At the same time, governments in middle-income countries must continue to secure low-cost food for the urban poor who are still large in number. The need to achieve the two conflicting goals under the still weak fiscal capacity of governments tends to make agricultural policies in the middle-income stage tinkering and ineffective. Greater research inputs in this area are called for in order to prevent the growth momentum of high-performing economies in Asia from being disrupted by political crises.

Pakistan : Promoting Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.53%
This report shows that after a decade of moderate growth but little or no long term change in rural poverty in Pakistan, agricultural output, rural incomes, rural poverty and social welfare indicators all showed marked improvements between 2001-02 and 2004-05. However, longer term trends suggest there is little reason for complacency. The agricultural GDP per capita growth rate (1999- 2000 to 2004-05) was only 0.3 percent per year; rural poverty rates in 2004-05 are still at levels that approximate those of the 1990s; and social welfare indicators in Pakistan remain significantly below those of other countries in south Asia. Moreover, problems related to timing and availability of water for irrigation, inadequate rural infrastructure, a skewed distribution of assets, and low levels of health and education continue to slow the progress of economic growth and poverty reduction. Nonetheless, Pakistan has made important strides in the last several years to promote rural growth and poverty reduction. The study concludes that a comprehensive rural growth and poverty reduction strategy is needed...

Does Urbanization Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from Indian Districts

Calì, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.5%
Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas. The results obtained through an instrumental variable estimation suggest that this effect is causal in nature and is largely attributable to the positive spillovers of urbanization on the rural economy rather than to the movement of the rural poor to urban areas. This rural poverty-reducing effect of urbanization is primarily explained by increased demand for local agricultural products and, to a lesser extent, by urban-rural remittances, the rural land/population ratio, and rural nonfarm employment.

India : Promoting Agricultural Growth in Maharashtra, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.53%
Fostering more rapid rural development, particularly raising the productivity and competitiveness, and accelerating the growth of the agricultural and rural non-farm sectors, and critical elements to achieving faster overall economic growth, and hence, poverty reduction in Maharashtra. This policy note focuses on examining the constraints to promoting more rapid agricultural growth in Maharashtra. It aims to: 1) review the recent status and performance of the agricultural sector in the State, focusing on selected key areas such as cotton, sugar, water, and the rural non-farm sector; 2) examine the major policy and regulatory impediments in these sub-sectors that hinder their contribution to more rapid and sustained agricultural growth and rural poverty alleviation; and 3) propose options for improvement in these areas as well as identify areas requiring further study. A second volume provides more detailed discussion on the Government of India Sugar Policy (Annex A), development schemes of the National Horticulture Board (Annex B)...

Pakistan - Rural Factor Markets : Policy Reforms for Growth and Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.7%
Accelerating rural economic growth and reducing rural poverty requires a comprehensive strategy built on sound analysis covering all major aspects o f the rural economy including agricultural output markets, input markets (seeds, fertilizer, extension), factor markets (land, water, labor and credit), the rural non- farm economy, and targeted interventions. This report focuses on one aspect o f this complex puzzle - rural factor markets. It builds on earlier work on output and input markets, and anticipates future analytical work on the rural non-farm economy and other key aspects o f the rural economy. The report identifies the main factor market inefficiencies in rural Pakistan, provides estimates of their impact in terms of efficiency and equity, and suggests policy measures to improve the functioning of these markets, increase rural incomes and help reduce rural poverty. In presenting the results, each factor is discussed in turn, drawing on descriptions of institutional constraints and statistical analysis of recent household survey data. Key new findings include quantitative estimates of the importance of linkages across factor markets and the impact of factor market inefficiencies on agricultural output and revenues. In addition...

Soil Endowments, Female Labor Force Participation and the Demographic Deficit of Women in India

Carranza, Eliana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Differences in relative female employment by soil texture are used to explain the heterogeneous deficit of female children across districts within India. Soil texture varies exogenously and determines the depth of land tillage. Deep tillage, possible in loamy but not in clayey soil textures, reduces the demand for labor in agricultural tasks traditionally performed by women. Girls have a lower economic value where female labor opportunities are fewer. Consistently, higher relative female employment in agriculture improves the ratio of female to male children in districts that have a smaller fraction of loamy relative to clayey soils.

An Ecological and Historical Perspective on Agricultural Development in Southeast Asia

Hayami, Yujiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
According to Myint's "vent-for-surplus" theory, development of the economies of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand from the nineteenth century on depended on the natural advantage of large tracts of unused "empty land" with low population density and abundant natural resources of the type typically found in Southeast Asia and Africa at the outset of Western colonization. When these economies were integrated into international trade, hitherto unused natural resources (primary commodities the indigenous people had not valued) became the source of economic development, commanding market value because of high import demand in Western economies. The major delta of Chao Phraya River was the resource base of vent-for-surplus development with rice in Thailand; tropical rain forests filled that role in Indonesia and the Philippines with respect to the production of tropical cash crops. This basic difference underlay differences in the distribution of farm size: the unimodal distribution of peasants or family farms in Thailand and the coexistence of peasants and large estate farms or plantations specializing in tropical export crops in Indonesia and the Philippines. Differences in agrarian development were also shaped by different policies toward the elites preemption of unused land. Under Spanish colonialism...

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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36.79%
Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

Seasonal Hunger and Public Policies : Evidence from Northwest Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Mahmud, Wahiduddin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Seasonal hunger induced by agricultural seasonality is often a characteristic feature of rural poverty. The evidence of seasonal distress in many agrarian societies can be found in the narratives of economic historians. With agricultural diversification made possible through technological breakthroughs in many parts of the developing world, the severity of seasonal stress and adversities has been reduced considerably, if not altogether eliminated. In certain agricultural settings, however, the seasonality of poverty and hunger, along with the associated seasonal shortfalls in income and consumption, is still a policy quagmire. The problem gets more complicated when agricultural seasonality is locked into a cycle of endemic poverty, seasonal hunger, and risk of further impoverishment. Poverty and seasonality may also reinforce each other through various other forces that create and sustain both. The thrust of policy needs to be to break this interlocking cycle of poverty and seasonality. The book has nine chapters. Chapter two looks at the key conceptual issues and presents a global perspective on the challenge of addressing seasonal hunger. Chapter three brings Bangladesh's reality to the fore regarding seasonal poverty and food insecurity and the vulnerability of the northwest region. Chapter four analyzes the vulnerability of households to seasonal hunger...

Agricultural Productivity, Hired Labor, Wages and Poverty : Evidence from Bangladesh

Emran, Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This paper provides evidence on the effects of agricultural productivity on wage rates, labor supply to market oriented activities, and labor allocation between own farming and wage labor in agriculture. To guide the empirical work, this paper develops a general equilibrium model that underscores the role of reallocation of family labor engaged in the production of non-marketed services at home (`home production'). The model predicts positive effects of a favorable agricultural productivity shock on wages and income, but the effect on hired labor is ambiguous; it depends on the strength of reallocation of labor from home to market production by labor surplus and deficit households. Taking rainfall variations as a measure of shock to agricultural productivity, and using subdistrict level panel data from Bangladesh, this paper finds significant positive effects of a favorable rainfall shock on agricultural wages, labor supply to market work, and per capita household expenditure. The share of hired labor in contrast declines substantially in response to a favorable productivity shock...

Livestock and Livelihoods in Rural Tanzania : A Descriptive Analysis of the 2009 National Panel Survey

Covarrubias, Katia; Nsiima, Longin; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
Português
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36.53%
In 2006, the government approved a national livestock policy based on the premise that the livestock industry has an important role to play in building a strong national economy and in the process, reducing inequalities among Tanzanians by increasing their incomes and employment opportunities. This report presents an analysis of rural livelihoods in Tanzania, with particular emphasis on the livestock sub-sector, smallholder farmers' living standards, and issues with access to productive assets. The report attempts to answer basic questions such as: to what extent is keeping livestock an activity of the relatively better off, and to what extent are poorer households able to engage?; how does the role of livestock vary with different levels of income and well-being?; how are livestock holding size and structure associated with differences in welfare, gender, and geography?; how important are input and output markets for small livestock keepers?; what form does this market participation take in practice, and to what extent?; and to what extent do the non-income services of livestock (for example...

Vitamin D status and latent tuberculosis infection : a preliminary study in a group of healthy Mexican agricultural workers

Merion, Timna.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Vitamin D metabolites are important in the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis, but also have a more ubiquitous role in the regulation of cell differentiation and immune function. Severely low circulating 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with the onset of active tuberculosis (TB) in immigrant populations, although the association with latent TB infection (LTBI) has not received much attention. A previous study identified the prevalence of LTBI among a sample of Mexican migrant workers enrolled in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SA WP) in the Niagara Region of Ontario. The aim of the present study was to determine the vitamin D status of the same sample, and identify if a relationship existed with LTBI. Studies of vitamin D deficiency and active TB are most commonly carried out among immigrant populations to non-endemic regions, in which reactivation of LTBI has occurred. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI. Entry into Canada ensured that these individuals did not have active TB, and L TBI status was established previously by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube®, Cellestis Ltd....

Preliminary epidemiological study of latent tuberculosis in Mexican agricultural workers in the Niagara region, Canada

Duarte, Angela.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
It is well documented that the majority of Tuberculosis (TB) cases diagnosed in Canada are related to foreign-bom persons from TB high-burden countries. The Canadian seasonal agricultural workers program (SAWP) operating with Mexico allows migrant workers to enter the country with a temporary work permit for up to 8 months. Preiimnigration screening of these workers by both clinical examination and chest X-ray (CXR) reduces the risk of introducing cases of active pulmonary TB to Canada, but screening for latent TB (LTBI) is not routinely done. Studies carried out in industrialized nations with high immigration from TBendemic countries provide data of lifetime LTBI reactivation of around 10% but little is known about reactivation rates within TB-endemic countries where new infections (or reinfections) may be impossible to distinguish from reactivation. Migrant populations like the SAWP workers who spend considerable amounts of time in both Canada and TBendemic rural areas in Mexico are a unique population in terms of TB epidemiology. However, to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken to explore either the existence of LTBI among Mexican workers, the probability of reactivation or the workers' exposure to TB cases while back in their communities before returning the following season. Being aware of their LTBI status may help workers to exercise healthy behaviours to avoid TB reactivation and therefore continue to access the SAWP. In order to assess the prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among Mexican migrant workers a preliminary cross sectional study was designed to involve a convenience sample of the Niagara Region's Mexican workers in 2007. Research ethics clearance was granted by Brock University. Individual questionnaires were administered to collect socio-demographic and TB-related epidemiological data as well as TB knowledge and awareness levels. Cellular immunity to M tuberculosis was assessed by both an Interferon-y release assay (lGRA)...

The House and Garden in Central Delaware, 1780-1930+/-

Sheppard, Rebecca J.; Andrzejewski, Anna; McCarthy, Deidre C.
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
In response to demographic pressures, changing agricultural practices, and the influence of agricultural reform writers, central Delaware farmers began to develop new strategies for dealing with married agricultural laborers and their families during the nineteenth century. They constructed dwellings specifically designed to house these laborers and established lease-labor arrangements that governed both labor obligations and housing rental. Known as a "house and garden," these buildings typically took the form of one finished room and a rough kitchen shed on the ground floor, with a winder stair leading to a second room under the roof. Characterized by extremely plain finish on walls and architectural elements, and built tobe easily portable, the dwellings sat on a small plot of ground suitable for a garden and a few animals. Variations in the physical form of the house and garden dwelling include orientation to the road (either gable or elevation), height (1 1/2 or 2 full stories), the number of bays on the front elevation (usually two or three), and the position of a shed (gable end, rear elevation, or none).

DESAFIOS DO PROCESSO DE REALIZAÇÃO DA MERCADORIA EM ASSENTAMENTOS DE REFORMA AGRÁRIA DE PERNAMBUCO E DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL; CHALLENGES OF THE MERCHANDISE PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PERNAMBUCO AND RIO GRANDE DO SUL IN SETTLEMENT OF LANDLESS AGRICULTURAL LABORERS

Betanho, Cristiane; Eid, Farid
Fonte: Revista da ABET Publicador: Revista da ABET
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST) tem buscado legitimar suas ações de várias formas. Um meio é a oferta da produção dos assentamentos à sociedade. Assim, agricultores assentados organizam-se em cooperativas e associações, com vistas ao fortalecimento conjunto, buscando produzir e comercializar, sem reproduzir o paradigma capitalista da geração de excedente de capital a qualquer custo. Entretanto, boa parte da produção (geralmente matérias-primas e produtos in natura com baixo valor agregado percebido) tem sido comercializada via atravessadores ou apropriada por terceiros, que agregam valor às matérias-primas e, conseqüentemente, apropriasm-se dos sobrevalores gerados por essas atividades. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar um breve apanhado da realidade de produção e comercialização de dois empreendimentos criados e administrados por assentados oriundos de processos de reforma agrária, coordenados pelo MST, com a finalidade de refletir sobre os desafios de tais processos. Busca-se, a partir dos resultados, pensar em caminhos para a consolidação das experiências bem-sucedidas, com vistas à replicação das mesmas para outros assentamentos no Brasil, ao mesmo tempo que se contribui com experiências para a consolidação da Economia Solidária como alternativa para alcançar a justiça distributiva.; The MST it’s a Brazilian landless country laborers movement has been performed many political actions in many ways with the purpose of legitimizing its social role. One of those means has been the settlement of landless agricultural laborers. Workers have been organized in cooperatives and associations looking for reciprocal characters in their forms of production and commercialization. However...