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Sistema de apoio ao processo de decisão para a gestão do uso agricola da terra; Decison support system for agricultural land use management

Monica Luri Giboshi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2005 Português
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56.35%
Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão para a gestão da terra, integrando um Sistema Especialista para determinar a capacidade de uso da terra e outro para recomendar usos adequados e as práticas de conservação e manejo do solo, um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG), uma base de dados e uma interface para interpretar a entrada de dados do usuário e as mensagens passadas entre os sub-sistemas. Todos os diálogos entre o usuário e o sistema são realizados pela da interface, assim como a comunicação entre os componentes do sistema desenvolvido. Os sistemas especialistas foram desenvolvidos utilizando o ?shell? conhecido como CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) que provê um ambiente para a construção de sistemas especialistas. O SIG utilizado foi o IDRISI, versão 32, que possui o módulo Applications Programming Interface - API (Interface de Programação de Aplicativos) com um OLE Automation Server, possibilitando o uso de linguagens de alto nível, tais como Visual Basic, para controlar as operações do Idrisi32. A base de dados foi desenvolvida com a utilização do Microsoft Access®, além disso, é de fácil acesso, pois a maioria dos usuários tem esse aplicativo instalado em seus computadores. O sistema desenvolvido determina a capacidade de uso da terra; recomenda usos adequados para cada classe de capacidade de uso; recomenda práticas de conservação e manejo do solo; e identifica áreas de conflito comparando os mapas de uso da terra da região em estudo com o mapa de capacidade de uso. Todos os resultados podem ser visualizados em janelas do programa...

Mercados de terras agrícolas no semiárido nordestino : constituição, desenvolvimento e dinâmica recente; Agricultural Land Market : the case of the semiarid northeast of Brazil

Rogerio Pires da Cruz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Esta investigação emergiu com o questionamento da tese de que, na região semiárida nordestina do Vale do Açu (RN), entre 1979/1983, o Estado - através da execução da Política Governamental Hídrica (PGH) -, teria constituído e dinamizado o Mercado de Terras Agrícolas (MTA). Com posicionamento distinto, o presente estudo supõe que o MTA constituiu-se por intermédio de um longo processo histórico de mercantilização da terra agrícola, que é anterior à execução daquela PGH. E, mais modernamente, a vigência desta intervenção governamental, num mercado constituído - de fato e de direito - teria provocado uma expansão naquele processo de mercantilização, manifesta, dentre outros fatores, no dinamismo - temporário - dos negócios com terras agrícolas. A fim de realizar esse tipo de discussão, propôs a elaboração de um estudo de caso junto a dois MTAs situados no semiárido nordestino - Assú (RN) e São Rafael (RN) -, por terem sido objeto daquela intervenção governamental hídrica; e, ainda, por terem características físicas e econômicas distintas. Neste último aspecto, dentre os parâmetros de comparação utilizados, cabe mencionar a incidência da desapropriação (comandada pelo Estado) e o desenvolvimento da modernização agrícola (impulsionada pelo mercado e contando com estímulos governamentais). Os dados coletados tanto são primários...

Classifying multiyear agricultural land use data from Mato Grosso using time-series MODIS vegetation index data.

BROWN, J. C.; KASTENS, J. H.; COUTINHO, A. C.; VICTORIA, D. de C.; BISHOP, C. R.
Fonte: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 130, p. 39-50, 2013. Publicador: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 130, p. 39-50, 2013.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
MODIS 250-m NDVI and EVI datasets are now regularly used to classify regional-scale agricultural land-use practices in many different regions of the globe, especially in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, where rapid land-use change due to agricultural development has attracted considerable interest from researchers and policy makers. Variation exists in which MODIS datasets are used, how they are processed for analysis, and what ground reference data are used. Moreover, various and-use/land-cover classes are ultimately resolved, and as yet, crop-specific classifications (e.g. soy?corn vs. soy?cotton double crop) have not been reported in the literature, favoring instead generalized classes such as single vs. double crop. The objective of this study is to present a rigorous multiyear evaluation of the applicability of time-series MODIS 250-m VI data for crop classification in Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study shows progress toward more refined crop-specific classification, but some grouping of crop classes remains necessary. It employs a farm field polygon-based ground reference dataset that is unprecedented in spatial and temporal coverage for the state, consisting of 2003 annual field site samples representing 415 unique field sites and five crop years (2005-2009). This allows for creation of a dataset containing "best-case" or "pure" pixels...

Agricultural Land Redistribution : Toward Greater Consensus

Binswanger-Mkhize, Hans P.; Bourguignon, Camille; Brink, Rogier van den
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
The main focus of this book is land redistribution. To forge greater consensus among practitioners of land reform, and to enable them to make better choices among the many options, the book describes and analyzes alternative broad paths of implementation, using examples and the detailed implementation mechanisms that were used in those examples. The objectives of this book are to review and analyze: a) the growing consensus on the importance of land redistribution; b) the historical origins of land concentration and past attempts to redistribute land; c) ongoing land reform programs, their mechanisms, achievements, and limitations; d) the wide array of objectives, mechanisms, and tools for land redistribution that remain the focus of heated debate; and e) how to develop, implement, and monitor an effective national program of land redistribution.

Aligning Climate Change Mitigation and Agricultural Policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Larson, Donald F.; Dinar, Ariel; Blankespoor, Brian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Greenhouse gas emissions are largely determined by how energy is created and used, and policies designed to encourage mitigation efforts reflect this reality. However, an unintended consequence of an energy-focused strategy is that the set of policy instruments needed to tap mitigation opportunities in agriculture is incomplete. In particular, market-linked incentives to achieve mitigation targets are disconnected from efforts to better manage carbon sequestered in agricultural land. This is especially important for many countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia where once-productive land has been degraded through poor agricultural practices. Often good agricultural policies and prudent natural resource management can compensate for missing links to mitigation incentives, but only partially. At the same time, two international project-based programs, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, have been used to finance other types of agricultural mitigation efforts worldwide. Even so, a review of projects suggests that few countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia take full advantage of these financing paths. This paper discusses mitigation opportunities in the region, the reach of current mitigation incentives...

Foreign Investment in Agricultural Production : Opportunities and Challenges

Songwe, Vera; Deininger, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
The recent surge in food and fuel prices has prompted countries with high dependence on food imports to try and lock in future food supplies through direct investment in agricultural production in other countries. The price surges also led to a wave of proposals to invest in biofuels investments in agricultural land. While such investment can provide large benefits, it also carries considerable risks both to investors and citizens in the locality of the investment. To ensure that investments provide broad benefits and effectively contribute to larger development outcomes, enforceable property rights and contractual agreements in many developing countries need to be strengthened. This note considers how development partners can help countries create the pre-conditions for investment and proposes a governance framework to establish minimum standards for it.

Farmer and Farm Worker Perceptions of Land Reform and Sustainable Agriculture in Tajikistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of operational efforts in farmland restructuring and sustainable agricultural land management on vulnerability amongst rural households in Tajikistan; and to provide context and improve strategies for current operations in land reform, rural growth and sustainable land management given the challenges of economic transition, institutional, economic and environmental fragility, and the emerging risks of climate change. Low levels of assets and capabilities, as well as unsupportive institutional arrangements, constrain the options of the rural poor. Rural vulnerability both affects, and is affected by, household and community access to and use of land and other natural resources. Considerable theoretical literature can be found on the relationship between environmental management of agricultural production and rural vulnerability. This study examines the results and synergies of operational, field-level interventions in land tenure, sustainable land management and agricultural production. Limited management control over farmland...

Agricultural Land Redistribution and Land Administration in Sub-Saharan Africa : Case Studies of Recent Reforms

Byamugisha, Frank F. K.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
The six case studies in this book were prepared as background studies for a synthesis report on land administration and reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Collectively they cover two main areas of land governance: reforms in redistributing agricultural land; and reforms in land administration. The problems in land ownership inequality and poor land administration are defined and the question of why reforms are necessary is addressed. The first two case studies focus on reforms in redistributing agricultural land in Malawi and South Africa. The Reforms in four thematic areas of land administration are addressed in the remaining case studies, encompassing experience from various countries as follows: (1) decentralizing land administration (Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda); (2) developing post-conflict land administration systems (Liberia and Rwanda); (3) reengineering and computerizing land information systems (Ghana and Uganda); and (4) improving management of government land through land inventories (Ghana and Uganda). The common elements between sometimes quite disparate experiences provide lessons of relevance to other SSA countries contemplating similar reforms.

Socioeconomic profile of farmer in Malaysia: study on integrated agricultural development area in North-West Selangor

Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Siwar, Chamhuri; Murad, Wahid; Molla, Rafiqul Islam; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan bin
Fonte: Institute of Agricultural Economics Publicador: Institute of Agricultural Economics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Agricultural contribution to GDP in Malaysia has been declining since 1970. The usages of agricultural land are also gradually decreasing. Even within the total agricultural area, most of the land has been used for industrial crops, and the ratio between industrial crops and food crops is increasing. Paddy is the main food crop in Malaysia, but as a low rate of productivity, farmers are engaged on part time basis. Therefore, it seems necessary to know the socioeconomic characteristics of the paddy farmers, their livelihood, and agricultural sustainability for policy implementation and its evaluation. This study analyzes the current profile of the paddy farmers in the Integrated Agricultural Development Area (IADA), North-West Selangor, Malaysia based on primary data. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey. Findings of the study suggest policy recommendations and action plans for the improvement of the farmers’ livelihood. The findings of the study are important for the policy makers and relevant agencies.; Md. Mahmudul Alam Chamhuri Siwar, Md. Wahid Murad, Rafiqul Islam Molla, Mohd Ekhwan bin Toriman

Creating woodland islets to reconcile ecological restoration, conservation, and agricultural land use

Rey Benayas, José María; Bullock, James M.; Newton, Adrian C.
Fonte: Ecological Society of America Publicador: Ecological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Restoration initiatives seek to address widespread deforestation and forest degradation, but face substantial problems. “Passive restoration”, whereby abandoned agricultural land undergoes secondary succession, is often slow, owing to biotic and abiotic limitations. “Active restoration”, chiefly accomplished by planting trees, can be very expensive if large areas are to be restored. We suggest “woodland islets” as an alternative way to achieve ecological restoration in extensive agricultural landscapes, particularly in low-productivity environments. This approach involves the planting of many small, dense blocks of native trees to enhance biodiversity and provide a range of ecosystem services. If the surrounding land is abandoned, the islets act as sources of woodland species and seed, which can accelerate woodland development. Alternatively, if the surrounding area is used for cultivation or pasture, the islets will increase the conservation value of the land and offer the potential for income generation. Here, we review existing approaches to woodland restoration and evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the woodland islets approach.; This research has been financed by the projects: EU INCO Programme (REFORLAN: EU INCO-CT-2006- 032132)...

Contending views and conflicts over land in the Red River delta since decollectivization

Nguyen, Van Suu
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Contending Views and Conflicts over Land in the Red River Delta since Decollectivization is an anthropological study in which I offer a new approach exploring the viewpoints of various parties to analyze their attitudes, relations and conflicts over land in Vietnam's dynamic Red River delta after decollectivization. I also evaluate how and in what ways industrialization and modernization, as well as the effects of urbanization, marketization, and to a lesser extent globalization, have affected Red River Delta villagers' views and relations towards agricultural land. Drawing on various sources of data, especially ethnographic field research, I examine local responses to a number of essential land issues such as the process of agricultural decollectivization, programs for land use rights compensation, the politics of communal land management and use, and the problem of local cadre corruption in relation to land resources. My detailed descriptions and analyses of a number of land-based conflicts not only demonstrate the various meanings and values of land for the parties involved, but also show the complicated picture of attitudes, relations and conflicts over land. Moving beyond reflections of various existing theoretical perspectives on agrarian and peasant studies such as moral economy...

China Land Policy Reform for Sustainable Economic and Social Development : An Integrated Framework for Action

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
China has undergone a profound economic and social transformation as it moves from a centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Land issues are implicated in this ongoing transformation in numerous important ways - as key factors in China's quest for economic growth, national food security and social stability; as important influences in the rapid growth of China's cities as well as the future of its agriculture; and as central features in local government finance and in the growth and stability of the financial and banking sector. It is clear that decisions concerning land - how it is allocated, how it is used, how it is governed, how it is administered and how it is financed - will play a central role in determining the shape and trajectory of China's economic and social future. The purpose of this report is to present in a synthesised fashion the main lessons that have emerged so far from the World Bank collaboration, and on that basis to suggest concrete proposals for moving forward, in the short, medium and long term. In addition, land policy reforms have sought to put in place mechanisms, incentives and sanctions that will stimulate more rational allocation of land between competing land uses. Receiving particular attention from the central government in this respect has been the problem of accelerating conversion of agricultural land to urban uses.

China - Integrating Land Policy Reforms II : Strengthening Land Rights for Equitable Growth and Social Harmony

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
This report evaluates the legal framework for rural land rights, the regulations of rural housing sites, the effects of land requisition on farmers who lose land, and some selected issues affecting urban land rights. The focus of this report is how to enhance property rights in a number of different contexts. The report makes a series of specific policy recommendations for rural agricultural land, rural housing land, to protect rights in the context of requisitions, and for urban land rights that include: strengthening farmers' rights over rural agricultural land, strengthening rights over rural housing land, improving requisition procedures and outcomes, and strengthening urban land use rights and administration.

Geographic Patterns of Land Use and Land Intensity in the Brazilian Amazon

Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Thomas, Timothy S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
Using census data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96, the authors map indicators of current land use, and agricultural productivity across Brazil's Legal Amazon, These data permit geographical resolution about ten times finer than afforded by "municipio" data, used in previous studies. The authors focus on the extent, and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use in Amazonia today. Simple tabulations suggest that most agricultural land in Amazonia yields little private economic value. Nearly ninety percent of agricultural land is either devoted to pasture, or has been out of use for more than four years. About forty percent of the currently used pastureland, has a stocking ratio of less that 0.5 cattle per hectare. Tabulations also show a skewed distribution of land ownership: almost half of Amazonian farmland is located in the one percent of properties that contain more than two thousand hectares. Multivariate analyses relate forest conversion, and pasture productivity to precipitation, soil quality...

Nigeria - An Economic Analysis of Natural Resources Sustainability : Land Tenure and Land Degradation Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
The scope and urgency of the threats to Nigeria's rural land are no secret. In 2005, a working group dedicated to formulating a national agricultural land policy began the process with a comprehensive articulation of the challenges facing Nigeria's agricultural land. The litany included recognition that: 1) agricultural land use in the country has been unsustainable, resulting in no fewer than eleven types of extensive land degradation and significant degradation of water resources; 2) the country has not classified its land - including its prime agricultural land - according to its use capabilities, and thus has no foundation for allocating land among uses or creating the mechanisms and processes for such allocation; 3) the majority of Nigeria's farmers are smallholders relying on subsistence-level cultivation practices; 4) the country's agricultural labor pool is shrinking, and practices that promote better conservation of natural resources have been too limited; and 5) the rural areas of the country lack of basic and necessary infrastructure...

Kyrgyz Republic : Benefits of Securing and Registering Land for Development

Cook, Edward
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
The project initially focused on building upon the 1998 Registration Law to develop registration procedures, and on getting the Legislative Reform Office (LROs) up and running. Cost, affordability, and quality of services were important considerations. The Project benefited from the country's high education levels and relatively low labor costs. Since independence in 1991, the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic has sought to promote market reform. An important part of this reform is a program to privatize land and secure property rights in land and other immovable property. Prior to independence, all land was state property, with use rights granted to occupants. Most commercial buildings and structures were, likewise, state property. Rights to residential properties were presumed to be held by occupants, but there was no clear legal support or guarantee to these rights. The large majority of agricultural land was farmed collectively. Workers on these state and collective farms were allocated small household plots for their own production. The most essential success factor for the Project has been the continuity and strength of government commitment. Without the strength of leadership in the implementing agency...

China : Integrated Land Policy Reform in a Context of Rapid Urbanization

Guo, Li; Lindsay, Jonathan; Munro-Faure, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
This report is about integrated land policy reform in context of rapid urbanization in China. Over the past thirty years, China has undergone a profound economic and social transformation as it moves towards a market-oriented economy. Land issues are implicated in this ongoing transformation in numerous ways. The allocation and security of land rights are key factors in China's quest for economic growth and social stability. Land use choices influence the shape and sustainability of China's rapidly growing cities, as well as the future prospects of its agriculture. Revenue generated from land plays a critical role in local government finances and affects the relationship between different levels of government. And increasingly, the growth and stability of the financial sector are linked to land-based transactions and financing arrangements. For the last four years, the Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) and the World Bank have been working together to develop a deeper understanding of the role of land policy in China...

Agricultural Land in Vietnam: Markets Tempered by Family, Community and Socialist Practices

Kerkvliet, Benedict
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Since the late 1980s, markets involving agricultural land have emerged in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. One major reason is that collective farms, previously a central feature of the country's political economy, ended. And a major reason for that was

Agricultural land use decouples soil nutrient cycles in a subtropical riparian wetland in China

Wang, W.; Wang, Chun; Sardans, Jordi; Min, Qingwen; Zeng, C.; Tong, Chuan; Peñuelas, Josep
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
Altres ajuts rebuts per a dur a terme el treball: Grant from the National Science Foundation of China (31000209); We examined the impact of human changes in land use on the concentrations and stoichiometric relationships among soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a Phragmites australis riparian wetland (Minjiang River estuary, China). We compared a natural (unaltered) wetland with five altered land uses: intertidal mudflat culture and vegetable, flower, fruit and rice cultivations. All these land uses decreased C, N and K soil concentrations relative to those in the P. australis wetland. The close relationship between total soil C and N concentrations, under all land uses, suggested that N was the most limiting nutrient in these wetlands. The lower N concentrations, despite the use of N fertilizers, indicated the difficulty of avoiding N limitation in the agricultural land. Croplands, except rice cultivation, had lower soil N:P ratios than the original P. australis wetland, consistent with the tendency of favoring species adapted to high rates of growth (low N:P ratio). The release of soil C was less and the soil C:N and C:P ratios higher in the natural P. australis riparian wetland than in the croplands...

Developing a best practice framework for the Maryland agricultural land preservation foundation: Why don’t conservation professionals use optimization?

Chen, Yu
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Messer, Kent D.; In the state of Maryland, government agencies charged with preserving agricultural land traditionally employ a rank-based selection process that ignores opportunities to acquire low-cost, high-benefit parcels. The potential benefit of applying an optimization method to these selection processes has been established in the literature but not recognized in practice. This study examines the methods currently in use by Maryland‘s counties in selecting parcels for preservation. It then identifies obstacles to adoption of optimization methods and, using a two-part survey instrument, examines the effect of an educational presentation about optimization on administrators‘ willingness to adopt it. Administrators put a high value on the fairness and transparency of the selection process. Parcel costs are rarely part of the calculation so funds may be used inefficiently. The survey results indicate that a better understanding of optimization increases willingness to adopt it and decreases predicted difficulties with adoption. Also, administrators in metro areas are more willing to consider optimization methods than those in more rural areas. The study shows that lack of experience with optimization, the initial technical investment required to use it...