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Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.39%
Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of : Analysis of the Agricultural Support Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.4%
The report is structured to allow readers familiar with Macedonia s agriculture sector to quickly grasp the essentials needed to improve the sector, as well as to inform a general audience on how to address the challenges of a modern European Union (EU)-aspiring state. Chapter two provides an in-depth analysis of the sectoral background, illustrating the main characteristics and challenges of Macedonia s agriculture sector. The illustration takes an integrated approach to the sector, covering a vast range of inter-related topics including the prominence of the sector not only in terms of its economic and social contribution but also its implications for trade, the urban-rural poverty gap and shared prosperity, farm structure, climate adaptation, and capacity building. Chapter three draws on lessons from the European Union (EU) and provides a framework to analyze Macedonia s agricultural support programs. Further, the chapter provides a primer on the EU s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its measures to support agriculture. Chapter four presents concise empirical evidence of the coverage and institutional capacity of the agricultural programs in Macedonia under both pillar one and pillar two measures. Chapter five then builds on the primary diagnostic set out in the previous chapters and critically examines the alignment of Macedonia s agricultural programs with the government s stated objectives of poverty reduction...

Tunisia Agricultural Finance Study : Main Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.85%
The Tunisia agricultural finance study was carried out in response to a request made in December 2009 by the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for support for a study on the key constraints in agricultural finance. Technical and financial support was specifically requested for: (i) a comprehensive diagnostic analysis of the current mechanisms and problems of financing of the agricultural sector in Tunisia, including those by financial institutions and from budget resources, foreign direct investment, and insurance; (ii) a comparison of the Tunisian experience with successful experiences made in other comparable countries; and (iii) the formulation of concrete proposals. The diagnostic part was also requested to include the regulations pertaining to agricultural credit, other constraints impeding the development of agricultural finance, such as costs, profitability, professional organizations, extension services, research etc., and to look at the indebtedness of smallholders. It was also requested that the recommendations help to: (i) better define the objectives to be achieved in terms of financing of agriculture; (ii) increase the participation of the financial sector in financing agriculture; (iii) help identify need for support by different types of farmers; (iv) identify new instruments geared at qualitative and technological changes; (v) reduce the indebtedness of farmers; and (vi) help improve the subsidies for agricultural investment. There are two main written outputs of the Tunisia agricultural finance study. The experts working on the study have compiled a great deal of detailed background information diagnosing the current situation...

The Kyrgyz Republic : Farm Mechanization and Agricultural Productivity

Guadagni, Maurizio; Fileccia, Turi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome
Português
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36.82%
This policy note reviewed the status of farm machinery in the Kyrgyz Republic. Agricultural productivity, particularly in terms of grain yields, is low because of underinvestment. This note finds that a significant deficit in agricultural machinery is hindering sector productivity. The Kyrgyz Republic has fewer tractors per hectare than any comparable country, with a deficit estimated at 40 percent. The deficit of combine harvesters, estimated at 45 percent, is even more critical. When the age of agricultural machinery is taken into account, the underinvestment becomes even more acute. The reduced domestic production of wheat exacerbates food security concerns. Inadequate access to credit and small farm size are the main factors that constrain farm mechanization. The policy note presents three sets of short- to medium-term policy options to: i) promote the demand for farm machinery, by developing credit lines for agricultural productive assets, leasing, facilitating access to secondhand equipment, and testing/demonstrating the efficiency of farm machinery for small-scale farming; ii) increase the supply of farm machinery...

Republic of Togo Basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.6%
After 15 years of political stagnation due to political troubles from 1990 to 2005, Togo is now enjoying political stability and economical revival. Agricultural sector is doing especially well and the government is reviewing the public expenditures in this domain. The goal is to learn lessons from the past in terms of budget and to increase the performances of the programs to come. The objectives of this document are: a) better understand how the country is performing in agriculture; b) learn lessons from the past in terms of budgetary execution in agriculture to make new programs more effective; c) increase the knowledge of the government and his partners on their resources so they can make knowledgeable decisions regarding the agriculture budget; and d) contribute to the internalization of the review of public expenditures.

Agribusiness Indicators

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.42%
The purpose of this Agriculture Business Indicators Study was to isolate the success factors and construct indicators that reflect the performance of the agriculture sector in Nigeria and that benchmark it in terms directly comparable to agriculture sectors in other developing countries. Providing policy makers and public officials with access to this type of empirical information is seen as way to stimulate and inform policy dialogue about what reforms are needed and about how scarce public resources can be most effectively invested. The indicators can be used to identify specifically where this investment can be used to leverage commercialization through value addition, increasing the competitiveness of a country’s agricultural products domestically, regionally, and in international markets. They can also inform decision makers and investors about which policy measures are likely to be the most effective in enhancing food security, reducing poverty, and encouraging sustainable forms of environmental management. To accelerate agricultural development capable of spurring competitiveness of agricultural products in the domestic, regional, and international markets and could enhance food security; poverty reduction and sustainable environmental management. The study entailed a review of existing literature and the use of informal surveys to obtain information from a variety of stakeholders and actors. The focus was on the key success factors that the Agribusiness Indicators (ABI) team determined to be the most critical factors influencing agribusiness development in Sub-Saharan African countries. The Nigeria study was informed by the outcomes of scoping missions which had been conducted in three initial pilot countries: Ghana...

Innovative Agricultural SME Finance Models

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This report is organized into three main sections. Section one sets out the context by describing the particular challenges and opportunities related to financing agriculture, followed by defining the target group of agricultural SME s. Section two describes a set of innovative financing models. Section three then provides a framework for an indicative assessment of these models by gathering and forming observations from the case studies. The model observations are then highlighted in three types of country contexts in which bankers in developing countries may find themselves. Preliminary assessment results are presented. The report concludes with key lessons learned on innovative agricultural financing, relevant case studies, and an outlook on further work in this area. Annexes present methodologies and case studies representing the various models.

Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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36.77%
The percentage of smallholders with access to finance is equally difficult to quantify. According to estimates, even promising approaches to expanding smallholder lending, such as value chain finance, are reaching fewer than 10 percent of smallholders, primarily those in well-established value chains dedicated to higher value cash crops. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has been engaged for several years in learning efforts through diverse partnerships to obtain insights into the challenges of agricultural finance. The evidence of microfinance institution (MFI) involvement in financing commercial and semi-commercial smallholders remains anecdotal and lacks specifics on what makes MFI lending to these segments feasible, and what restricts their reach and effectiveness. This IFC study aims to identify and disseminate lessons emerging from the work of MFIs that have implemented agricultural operations targeting agricultural smallholders in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to support replication and expansion of scalable approaches. Through this research...

Weather Insurance Savings Accounts

Stein, Daniel; Tobacman, Jeremy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Better insurance against rainfall risk could improve the security of hundreds of millions of agricultural households around the world. However, customers have shown little demand for stand-alone insurance products. This paper theoretically and experimentally analyzes an innovative financial product called a Weather Insurance Savings Account (WISA), which combines savings and rainfall insurance. The paper uses a standard model of intertemporal insurance demand to study how customers demand for a WISA varies with the amount of insurance offered. A laboratory experiment is then used to elicit participants valuations of pure insurance, pure savings, and intermediate WISA types. Contrary to the standard model, within-subjects comparisons show that many participants prefer both pure insurance and pure savings to any interior mixture of the two, suggesting that market demand for a WISA is likely to be low. Additional experimental and observational evidence distinguishes between several alternative explanations. One possibility that survives the additional tests is diminishing sensitivity to losses...

Georgia Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Georgia has an impressive growth record but social vulnerabilities persist. It remains a challenge to tackle social vulnerabilities within a sustained macroeconomic framework. This programmatic public expenditure review (PER) assesses the alignment of selected fiscal programs with the government’s social objectives. Building on the analysis and recommendations of the 2014 PER, this PER analyzes the impact of recent reforms including the social programs that were either introduced or scaled up in 2013. It gives an overview of the recent macroeconomic and fiscal developments, including the fiscal implications of the social programs in chapter one. It addresses three questions in the rest of the report: (1) has the realignment of spending toward social sectors resulted in better distributional outcomes; (2) have the agriculture support programs been targeted at productivity growth to support real incomes in poor rural regions; and (3) what is the fiscal and equity impact of the ongoing decentralization process? The first question is addressed by combining micro household survey data with administrative fiscal data to analyze the distributional impact of both taxes and government spending on poverty and inequality in Georgia in chapter two. The second question is addressed by comparing the cost of new agriculture programs with their estimated impact on agricultural productivity in chapter three. Finally...

Georgia Public Expenditure Review

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Georgia has an impressive growth record but social vulnerabilities persist. The current government has therefore made spending on social sectors and agriculture a high priority and has launched a decentralization reform to support regional inclusive growth. It remains a challenge to tackle social vulnerabilities within a sustained macroeconomic framework. The government has intensified its efforts to reduce social vulnerability, as evidenced by the increase in social spending from 7.1 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012, to 9.6 percent in 2014. As a result, the fiscal deficit widened from 2.8 percent of GDP in 2012 to 3.0 percent in 2014. This public expenditure review (PER) analyzes the impact of recent reforms including the social programs that were either introduced or scaled up in 2013. It gives an overview of the recent macroeconomic and fiscal developments, including the fiscal implications of the social programs in chapter one. As requested by the government, it addresses three questions in the rest of the report: (1) has the realignment of spending toward social sectors resulted in better distributional outcomes; (2) have the agriculture support programs been targeted at productivity growth to support real incomes in poor rural regions; and (3) what is the fiscal and equity impact of the ongoing decentralization process? The first question is addressed by combining micro household survey data with administrative fiscal data to analyze the distributional impact of both taxes and government spending on poverty and inequality in Georgia in chapter two. The second question is addressed by comparing the cost of new agriculture programs with their estimated impact on agricultural productivity in chapter three. Finally...

Microfinance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Does the Village Savings & Loans Association model benefit the most vulnerable? If so what can be done to enhance this impact?

McGrath, Duncan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Small savings and loans services- "microfinance"- for their sustainability, cost effectiveness and potential to stimulate microenterprise and economic growth have proved to be an effective tool in the eradication of poverty. Nevertheless it is not, as it has been described, a panacea to all of the problems and challenges facing the worlds poorest. In 1991 (in Niger) CARE created the Village Savings and Loans Association (VSLA) model as an extremely low cost and sustainable method of bringing microfinance to the remote rural poor, previously marginalised by the formal banking sector. VSLAs are adaptations of traditional African savings organisations in which self-selected groups of 15-30 people (mainly women) deposit small amounts of money into a common fund from which members can borrow. Thus the fund grows from interest repayments as well as the accumulation of savings and since the model requires no external credit, no infrastructure and is easily adaptable to illiterate groups it can be sustainably duplicated around the world. In principal microfinance offers two strategies through which improvements can be made to the food security of poor households: 1) by securing and stabilising volatile incomes; and 2) through investing in the productivity of the poor's enterprises so that incomes and agricultural production may be increased. In this first strategy...

Georgia : Agricultural and Rural Enterprise Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
The report is structured as follows. Section one examines the contribution of the rural economy to the national economy, the structure of the farm and non-farm sectors and their relative importance. Section two describes policies and constraints affecting the wider rural economy including, reforms in macro-economic management, recent external influences and financial services before discussing those which relate specifically to agriculture including, agricultural trade policy, land reform, agricultural machinery services , irrigation and drainage, seeds, sanitary and phytosanitary control and veterinary services, marketing and advisory services. Section three assesses the outcomes of these policies on the structure and performance of the rural economy. Section four describes the extent to which policy makers should prioritize the farm and non-farm sectors in rural areas and then presents recommendations for reform. While it is recognized that rural infrastructure (roads, potable water, and energy) and rural social services have a major impact on the rural economy...

Agricultural Insurance in Bangladesh : Promoting Access to Small and Marginal Farmers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Bangladesh is ranked as the world's fifth most exposed country to natural disasters, including floods, cyclones, and droughts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the viability of agricultural insurance in Bangladesh, particularly for small and marginal farmers and to present the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) with a set of options for the future development of agricultural insurance in the country. The current study aims to identify an overall framework for the development of sustainable market-based agricultural insurance in Bangladesh. It also reviews the technical, operational, financial, and institutional issues and options for the introduction of traditional crop and livestock insurance products and for new crop-index products that are suitable to Bangladeshi farmers. This report present a series of practical guidelines and options for GoB and other interested parties to consider for the future development and implementation of crop, livestock and aquaculture insurance in Bangladesh. This study benefits from this international experience (for example...

Kyrgyz Republic : Agricultural Policy Update, Volume1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.59%
This policy note examines the policy and investment framework between 2003 and 2010, resulting sector performance and the priorities for future development. It draws attention to the need to refocus on completing the fundamental reforms and investments on which Kyrgyzstan's early successes were built. These include further development of land market, building rural finance markets, further public investment and institutional development in the irrigation sector, encouraging greater private investment in the seeds sector and machinery services, public-private partnerships for advisory service provision, completion of ongoing reforms in pasture management, development of veterinary services and improving the business environment for private investment in agro-processing. The policy Note discusses the government's approach to achieving greater food security, which centers on food self-sufficiency and discusses why this is not the best route to raising low rural incomes - the root cause of food insecurity. The report discusses some of the policies conceived after the food price crisis...

Identification Strategy : A Field Experiment on Dynamic Incentives in Rural Credit Markets

Giné, Xavier; Goldberg, Jessica; Yang, Dean
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
How do borrowers respond to improvements in a lender's ability to punish defaulters? This paper reports the results of a randomized field experiment in rural Malawi that examines the impact of fingerprinting borrowers in a context where a unique identification system is absent. Fingerprinting allows the lender to more effectively use dynamic repayment incentives: withholding future loans from past defaulters while rewarding good borrowers with better loan terms. Consistent with a simple model of borrower heterogeneity and information asymmetries, fingerprinting led to substantially higher repayment rates for borrowers with the highest ex ante default risk, but had no effect for the rest of the borrowers. The change in repayment rates is driven by reductions in adverse selection (smaller loan sizes) and lower moral hazard (for example, less diversion of loan-financed fertilizer from its intended use on the cash crop).

El Salvador - Financial sector assessment

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Despite the global and domestic shocks of 2008-2009, the banking sector remains sound. Salvadoran banks were not directly exposed to the global financial crisis. However, the parent banks of several major Salvadoran banks were and directed subsidiaries to conserve risk capital. The higher risk aversion and recession in the United States, combined with uncertainty about the 2009 elections, led to a sharp economic downturn, and a decline in both credit demand and supply. Banks' nonperforming loans increased and profitability declined. Even so, capitalization remained high. Stress tests indicate that most banks would be able to withstand large deposit withdraws and severe deterioration in credit quality arising from large macroeconomic or sectoral shocks. However, credit concentration risks appear significant. Regulated non-bank financial institutions do not pose significant risks, but pension funds' poor profitability is a concern for the long-term. Regulated cooperative banks and insurance companies report healthy financial indicators. Brokerage houses have reduced drastically their fund management activities...

Belarus Agricultural Productivity and Competitiveness : Impact of State Support and Market Intervention

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Productivity in Belarus' agricultural sector has improved considerably, but large parts of crop and livestock production are not internationally competitive. The state's regulatory and fiscal support system for agriculture has been instrumental in improving the sector's performance. But the massive distortions to agricultural incentives it creates to prevent the sector from reaching its full potential. And the high costs it causes to state budget may be difficult to sustain in view if shrinking fiscal space. Agricultural sector efficiency and competitiveness in Belarus can be increased by re-orienting the sectoral policy framework towards less distortive measures and reallocating associated budget expenditures to support sustainable agricultural growth. Assistance program could be provided to buffer against structural adjustment shocks. The government will thus achieve its sectoral goals to a higher degree, without compromising on other important policy areas such as food security and rural livelihoods...

Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank : Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or depend on agriculture for their income. Given agriculture's important contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar. Among the government institutions supporting the agriculture sector, the Myanmar Agriculture Development Bank (MADB) plays an important role. MADB was established in June 1953 by the Government of Myanmar to support the development of agriculture, livestock, and rural enterprises in Myanmar. MADB is currently the largest financial institution serving the rural areas and financing agriculture activities. At the end of 2012, MADB served 1.87 million customers, mostly farmers, and had a network of 206 branches (which accounted for 23 percent of all banks' branches in Myanmar). Since its creation...

Agribusiness Indicators : Kenya

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The importance of agriculture in the economies of sub-Saharan African countries cannot be overemphasized. With agriculture accounting for about 65 percent of the region's employment and 75 percent of its domestic trade, significant progress in reducing hunger and poverty across the region depends on the development and transformation of the agricultural sector. Transforming agriculture from largely a subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is the prerequisite and driving force for accelerated development and sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The rationale behind the development of agribusiness indicators (ABIs) is to construct indicators for specific factors to support successful, effective private sector involvement in agriculture. The indicators can be used to benchmark and monitor performance in the agricultural sector over time and across countries. The resulting information can provoke knowledge flows and meaningful dialogue among policy makers, government officials...