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Avaliação da qualidade dos procedimentos de enfermagem - banho e curativo - segundo o grau de dependência assistencial dos pacientes internados em um Hospital Universitário; Evaluation of nursing procedures quality - bathing and wound dressing - according to care dependency level of hospitalized patients of an University Hospital

Nonino, Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2006 Português
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26.55%
A qualidade dos serviços desenvolvidos por uma instituição de saúde depende muito da competência técnica e da habilidade de interação e comunicação de seus trabalhadores para com o usuário. As intervenções técnicas realizadas pela equipe de enfermagem requerem avaliações permanentes face aos riscos que comportam. Este estudo, observacional e seccional, analisou a qualidade e o tempo de execução dos procedimentos, banho e curativo, realizados pela equipe de enfermagem em pacientes internados na unidade médico-cirúrgica de um Hospital Universitário no estado do Paraná, tomando por referência o grau de dependência assistencial desta clientela. A população alvo foi constituída dos seguintes procedimentos: banho, em três tipologias (aspersão, aspersão com auxílio de cadeira de banho e banho no leito) e curativos executados em pacientes classificados segundo grau de dependência da assistência de enfermagem (I, II, III e IV). A amostragem para ambos os procedimentos foi por conveniência. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação direta com a utilização de um instrumento tipo check list (lista de verificação). A qualidade dos procedimentos foi analisada com base no Índice de Positividade (IP) para cada item do instrumento e no escore de acertos...

Carboxy-terminal domain of AID required for its mRNA complex formation in vivo

Nonaka, Taichiro; Doi, Tomomitsu; Toyoshima, Takae; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Honjo, Tasuku; Kinoshita, Kazuo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.29%
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes. Originally, AID was postulated to be an RNA-editing enzyme, because of its structural homology with a known RNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC1. In support of this idea, AID shares many of the properties of RNA-editing enzymes, including nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and a dependency on de novo protein synthesis. However, it has not been shown whether AID recognizes a specific mRNA and edits it to generate an enzyme involved in CSR or SHM. Here, we examined the association between AID and polyadenylated [poly(A)+] RNA in vivo, using UV cross-linking coupled with a poly(A) capture method that relies on biotinylated oligo(dT) and streptavidin-conjugated beads. We found that both exogenous AID expressed in transfected CH12 cells and endogenous AID expressed in BL2 cells were associated with poly(A)+ RNA. Similar protein-poly(A)+ RNA complexes were formed by APOBEC1 and APOBEC3G. However, the interactions of all of these cytidine deaminase family members, including AID, with poly(A)+ RNA were indirect. This was expected for APOBEC1, which is known to act through an RNA-interacting cofactor, APOBEC1 complementation factor (ACF). In addition...

The Impact of Pro-Vulnerable Income Transfers : Leisure, Dependency and a Distribution Hypothesis

Limodio, Nicola
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.4%
This paper studies a transmission mechanism through which pro-vulnerable income transfers may affect individual decision-making of non-beneficiaries in an extreme poverty context, leading to labor supply contraction and the so-called dependency syndrome. The argument is based on the distributional distortion this transfer may provoke to the relative quality of leisure, enjoyed by the population in an extreme poverty scenario. Assuming the existence of vulnerable individuals and different income groups based on certain physical, economic, or social characteristics, the author studies their decision processes and, in particular, their reactions to the aid program. The results of this theoretical research provide some insights on the conditions that an optimal pro-poor income transfer should present. A literature review is presented in support of the arguments made in the theoretical part.

Budget Support as More Effective Aid? Recent Experiences and Emerging Lessons

Koeberle, Stefan; Stavreski, Zoran; Walliser, Jan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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36.24%
This book presents a timely and valuable review of key concepts, issues, experiences and emerging lessons relevant to budget support. It provides an overview of principal characteristics, expectations and concerns related to budget support, key design and implementation issues, as well as some practical experiences. The contributors include government representatives from developing countries, leading academic scholars, bilateral development agencies and development practitioners from international financial institutions, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

The Fiscal Impact of Foreign Aid in Rwanda : A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

Ezemenari, Kene; Kebede, Ephraim; Lahiri, Sajal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.2%
The inflow of large quantities of foreign aid into Rwanda since 1994 can have potential adverse effects such as aid dependency via a significant negative effect on tax efforts and on public investments. This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical study to examine these issues. The theoretical part develops a model in which the recipient government decides on the optimal level of tax and optimally allocates total government revenue between current expenditure and public investment. The theoretical model makes it possible to empirically test whether an increase in aid is likely to reduce the optimal tax rate and the proportion of public expenditure allocated to public investment. The econometric analysis uses time series data on Rwanda to show, in line with other studies in the literature, a negative relationship between increased aid and the tax rate; but the magnitude of the effects are extremely small. In the case of Rwanda, reforms to the tax administration and expansion of the tax base have had mitigating effects. As far as the effect on public investment...

What Is Effective Aid? How Would Donors Allocate It?

Kenny, Charles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.33%
There are significant weaknesses in some of the traditional justifications for assuming that aid will foster development. This paper looks at what the cross-country aid effectiveness literature and World Bank Operations Evaluation Department reviews have suggested about effective aid, first in terms of promoting income growth, and then for promoting other goals. This review forms the basis for a discussion of recommendations to improve aid effectiveness and a discussion of effective aid allocation. Given the multiple potential objectives for aid, there is no one right answer. However, it appears that there are a number of reforms to aid practices and distribution that might help to deliver a more significant return to aid resources. We should provide aid where institutions are already strong, where they can be strengthened with the help of donor resources, or where they can be bypassed with limited damage to existing institutional capacity. The importance of institutions to aid outcomes, as well as the fungibility of aid flows, suggests that programmatic aid should be expanded in countries with strong institutions, while project aid should be supported based on its ability to transfer knowledge and test new practices and support global public good provision rather than (merely) as a tool of financial resource transfer. The importance of institutions also suggests that we should be cautious in our expectations regarding the results of increased aid flows.

A Revolution in Capacity Development? Africans Ask Tough Questions

Missika-Wierzba, Bathylle; Nelson, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.12%
In the past year, the donor community has paid unprecedented attention to the subject of capacity development. From the World Bank task force on capacity development in Africa to the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness, donors have signaled both the importance of the issue to African development and a new determination to improve results on capacity development interventions. For African practitioners, however, whether this new attention will result in real changes is still unclear. This brief examines some of the African reactions, gathered through a series of consultations in the past year, to growing attention on capacity development among donors. Unless the new commitments lead to real changes in behavior on the ground, the African practitioners say, the latest commitments will simply be remembered as yet another missed turning point.

Bosnia and Herzegovina - From Aid Dependency to Fiscal Self-Reliance : A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.22%
Over the medium term, Bosnia and Herzegovina will go through a critical phase of fiscal adjustment and deeper economic reforms as it moves to orient its economy to the market and to increased integration with the rest of Europe. A key finding of this report is that the present size and scope of public spending cannot be sustained. This report is aimed at helping the authorities identify the priority fiscal policy and institutional issues and reform options on which the medium-term adjustment agenda will need to focus. The report is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 describes the evolving governance framework and assesses its macroeconomic and fiscal stance. Chapter 2 examines government spending. Chapter 3 looks at present intergovernmental fiscal relations. Chapter 4 assesses public spending in the social sectors. Finally, chapter 5 analyzes public expenditure management and financial accountability systems.

Potential Benefits and Risks of Increased Aid Flows to Burundi

Nielsen, Hannah; Madani, Dorsati
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.33%
Burundi has experienced a significant increase in aid flows in recent years. Currently, about half of the budget is funded by aid, mostly grants. The high external assistance has, however, not yet translated into high and sustainable growth rates. This paper analyzes (i) the policy response of the government to the aid surge and its impact on macroeconomic variables; and (ii) the allocation of external assistance and its implications for growth. Since not all aid affects economic development in the same way, aid disbursements are disaggregated by sector as well as by their lag in impacting growth. The analysis shows that Burundi has mostly spent and absorbed increased aid flows, but has until now not suffered significantly from the possible negative effects of an appreciating exchange rate and the related loss of competitiveness, but the possibility of a Dutch disease effect remains a risk. The country s low growth performance, despite high aid inflows, is not necessarily a sign that aid is ineffective or exceeding Burundi s absorptive capacity. It reflects that a large share of aid has been allocated to either humanitarian and emergency aid or long-run growth enhancing sectors. Therefore...

Roots of conflict in Solomon Islands - though much is taken, much abides: legacies of tradition and colonialism

Bennett, Judith
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1099527 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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For many outsiders, the accelerating failure of governments in western Melanesia in the last decade has been difficult to understand. At independence, though their resources ranged from the rich diversity in Papua New Guinea to the less abundant, but still substantial in Solomon Islands, it seemed that with goodwill and some temporary assistance from developed nations in the region their future would be assured. Yet since independence, overall Melanesian living standards and personal security have declined; and more and more aid is being requested from donors. This essay seeks to answer the questions, “What went wrong in Solomon Islands? Why was the government overthrown in mid 2000? Why did civil war erupt mainly between Guadalcanal and Malaitan people?” The answers are to be found partly in recent regional and global factors that have impacted this state since independence, such as the Bougainville conflict, the fall in commodity prices in the 1980s, and the burgeoning of Neo-Classical economics in the West. More significant, however, are the deeper structures and patterns of the more distant past. This essay will first examine the nature of traditional Solomons’ societies and how these operated at the local level, the significance of local identity...

The catch in trading fishing access for foreign aid

Petersen, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 725242 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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46.26%
The Pacific island countries depend heavily on bilateral aid. Much of this aid is provided by distant water fishing nations in exchange for cheap access to the Western and Central Pacific tuna fishery. Japan access fees (approximately US$8 million) are comparable to about 5 percent of Japanese aid to the region (approximately US$150 million). If access fees were maximized, there is potential for the access fees to match, possibly double, total Japanese aid to the region. It is argued that aid dependency is decreasing the transparency of fishing treaties, decreasing the flexibility of government spending, exposing the Pacific island countries to large financial risks associated with possible aid withdrawal, and stifling the region’s own efforts for fisheries and broader economic; no

The transition from welfare to work: a qualitative study based on four remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory

Bridier, Eleonore
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This research report utilises debate surrounding the future of the Community Development and Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme to unravel the concept of 'welfare dependency,' its many definitions, and thus policy implications for remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. It underscores the importance of acknowledging socio-cultural features of life in these communities in order for a policy-setting that stresses economic integration to be effective but also properly balanced in its emphasis. The political reality is of a growing and frustrated working age population in relation to traditional governance structures, and eventual, overall limits and inappropriateness of direct government transfers, which includes CDEP. Moving these communities towards more economic autonomy must begin at some point and the abolition and consequent reforms to CDEP reflect these imperatives for change. However, socio-cultural considerations suggest limits to punitive measures, when the people targeted by such policy are highly embedded in a domestic moral economy that both levels consumer dependency and private gain, while conferring a great deal of individual autonomy for action. Moreover, when different socio-cultural forms of economic engagement collide...

Strengthening Public Financial Management : Exploring Drivers and Effects

Fritz, Verena; Sweet, Stephanie; Verhoeven, Marijn
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
This paper explores two relationships, first between country characteristics and the quality of public financial management ('drivers'), and second between the quality of public financial management systems and expected outcomes ('effects'). On the influence of country characteristics, the paper investigates economic factors (income level, growth, and resource dependency), population size, levels and sources of revenue, and three macro-political characteristics -- political stability, regime type, and the presence of programmatic parties. These characteristics jointly explain about 40 percent of the variation in the quality of public financial management across countries. Furthermore, first-difference analysis suggests that countries with lower initial public financial management quality improve at a higher rate over time. This implies that structural factors set the scene for the likelihood of better or worse performance, but also that there is substantial variation among countries sharing certain characteristics and reform opportunities exist even in unfavorable environments. Methodologically...

World Development Indicators 2004

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: World Development Indicators
Português
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36.12%
Four years have passed since the Millennium Development Goals sharpened the focus on measuring the results of development-not the number of projects undertaken or the dollars spent, but the improvements in people's lives. The emphasis on quantitative targets and the requirement for monitoring progress on country poverty reduction strategies have increased the demand for statistics. And that showed us how deficient the statistical systems are in many parts of the developing world. Good statistics are not just a technical issue- they are a development issue, requiring concerted action by the entire global community. As Trevor Manuel, South Africa's minister of finance, has put it, "If you can't measure it, you can't manage it." That is why data, statistics, and indicators are at the heart of the results agenda. Governments need them. Politicians need them. Managers of development programs need them. And citizens need them-to hold governments accountable for their actions and their and their results. World Development Indicators...

What Factors Predict How Public Sector Projects Perform? A Review of the World Bank's Public Sector Management Portfolio

Blum, Jürgen René
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.2%
This paper uses regression analysis to identify which country context, reform content, process, and project management variables predict the performance of public sector management projects, as measured by the Independent Evaluation Group's project outcome ratings. The paper draws on data from a large sample of World Bank public sector management projects that were approved between 1990 and 2013. It contributes to an emerging literature that uses cross-country regressions to analyze public sector management reform patterns. The findings suggest that political context factors have a greater impact on the performance of public sector management projects than on other projects. Specifically, public sector management projects perform better in countries with democratic regimes than autocratic ones. They fare better in the presence of programmatic political parties and in more aid-dependent countries. Project managers' subjective risk assessments predict performance in public sector management operations better than objective risk indicators. These findings suggest that the performance of public sector management projects would benefit from a better alignment of project design with political context and from a more open dialogue about risk between task team leaders and management.

What Are the Links between Aid Volatility and Growth?

Markandya, Anil; Ponczek, Vladimir; Yi, Soonhwa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This paper adds to aid volatility literature in three ways: First it tests the validity of the aid volatility and growth relationship from various aspects: across different time horizons, by sources of aid, and by aid volatility interactions with country characteristics. Second, it investigates the relationship by the level of aid absorption and spending. Third, when examining the relationship between International Development Association aid volatility and growth, it isolates International Development Association aid volatility due to the recipient country's performance from that due to other sources. The findings suggest that, in the long run, on average, aid volatility is negatively correlated with real economic growth. But the relationship is not even. It is stronger for Sub-Saharan African countries than for other regions and it is not present in middle-income countries or countries with strong institutions. For economies where aid is fully absorbed, aid volatility matters for long-run growth; economies with full aid spending also bear a negative impact of aid volatility on long-run growth. Where aid is not fully absorbed...

The Drive to Partnership : Aid Coordination, and the World Bank

Eriksson, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The report reviews the Bank's experience with aid coordination, which lies at the intersection of many development effectiveness challenges. While globalization has brought new opportunities for development rewards, poverty has increased, and concessional aid shrunk. In 1995, the Bank focused on enhanced development effectiveness, emphasizing on linkages with the development community. An evaluative research was undertaken in 1998/99, and since then, aid coordination, and partnership has intensified, through initiatives such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), a process by which low-income countries are preparing PRSPs, and, efforts among developing agencies, and bilateral donors are being made. However, the report finds that many challenges still lie ahead, and, examines results-based conceptual frameworks, through the determinants of effective country-led aid coordination, and mutual responsibility under country leadership, through selected country experiences, measuring the quality of aid coordination. While the review concludes that the development community has been well-served by the Bank's leadership...

Increasing Selectivity of Foreign Aid, 1984-2002

Dollar, David; Levin, Victoria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The authors examine the allocation of foreign aid by 41 donor agencies, bilateral and multilateral. Their policy selectivity index measures the extent to which a donor's assistance is targeted to countries with sound institutions and policies, controlling for per capita income and population. The poverty selectivity index analogously looks at how well a donor's assistance is targeted to poor countries, controlling for institutional and policy environment as measured by a World Bank index. The authors' main finding is that the same group of multilateral and bilateral aid agencies that are very policy focused are also very poverty focused. The donors that appear high up in both rankings are the World Bank's International Development Association, the International Monetary Fund's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Norway, Ireland, and the Netherlands. As a robustness check the authors alternatively use institutional quality measures independent of the World Bank and find the same pattern of selectivity. They also find that policy selectivity is a new phenomenon: in the 1984-89 period...

Community Reconstruction after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Burrows, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Executive Summary 1 Research Question This paper explores the reconstruction effort in Aceh following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The Indonesian government declared that the goal of the recovery would be to ‘build back better’ that is, to take advantage of the attention and funds brought about by the catastrophe in a way that would improve the quality of life for Aceh’s residents. To evaluate whether reconstruction effectively met this expectation, we observe the recovery’s path along three aspects: i. Community investments in transportation and water/sanitation infrastructure ii. Rebuilding of housing stock at the community level iii. Home reconstruction at the household level The existing disaster aid literature provides some suggestive methods of measuring intervention, but there are no established metrics for evaluating overall success or failure of reconstruction projects, much less full post-disaster recovery efforts. While we cannot specifically determine whether or not Aceh’s reconstruction generated more wealth or utility for its residents than was destroyed by the tsunami or could have been generated through other methods, this paper seeks to identify changes in community infrastructure and housing stock that are likely to contribute to individual health and well-being. 2 Background & Context On December 26...

New Caledonia: problems and promises- a survey

De Fontenay, Patrick
Fonte: Asia Pacific Press Publicador: Asia Pacific Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.04%
This survey points to the heavy dependence of New Caledonia on French aid and nickel mining and processing. The main challenges are the diversification of production while minimising disruptions to traditional ways of life, reduction of the role of government, and improvement in the labour market and international competitiveness more generally.