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Tanzania - Public Expenditure Review of the Water Sector

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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45.93%
Improving access to and quality of water supply and sanitation (WSS) services is emerging as a key objective in poverty alleviation. The importance of access to improved water supply and sanitation has been even more pronounced since it was declared a target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The achievement of the MDGs will require a large investment program that will help increase access to safe and sustainable water and sanitation services. The majority of the funds for the sector are still provided for by the government at central, provincial or local levels. Although additional resources may be urgently needed, research in other social sectors (health and education) has also shown that higher public expenditures do not necessarily result in better social outcomes. Gaps in achieving outcomes can be due to: a) sub-optimal spending, due to inefficient allocation of resources, discretionary reallocation of resources, inappropriate policies and institutional incentives, or poor targeting of resources; b) low quality of service delivery due to inefficiencies in service delivery; and c) lack of demand from certain segments of the population. A lot of effort has been dedicated to increasing resources to achieve the MDGs...

Provision of Water to the Poor in Africa : Experience with Water Standposts and the Informal Water Sector

Keener, Sarah; Luengo, Manuel; Banerjee, Sudeshna
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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45.93%
Standpipes that dispense water from utilities are the most common alternatives to piped water connections for poor customers in the cities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fifty-five percent of the unconnected urban population relies on standpipes as their first water source. Other informal water providers include household resellers and a variety of water tankers and vendors, which are the first water source of 1 percent and 3 percent of the urban population, respectively. In the cities studied, the percentage of unconnected households ranges from 12 percent to 86 percent of the population. The percentage of unconnected people covered by standpipes is substantially higher for countries with higher rates of household connection, while the percentage of unconnected people covered by water tankers or water vendors is higher for countries with lower rates of household connection. Water prices in the informal market are much higher than for households with private connections or yard taps. Although standpipes are heavily subsidized by utilities...

The Use of Willingness to Pay Experiments : Estimating Demand for Piped Water Connections in Sri Lanka

Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; van den Berg, Caroline; Yang, Jui-Chen; Van Houtven, George
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.03%
The authors show how willingness to pay surveys can be used to gauge household demand for improved network water and sanitation services. They do this by presenting a case-study from Sri Lanka, where they surveyed approximately 1,800 households in 2003. Using multivariate regression, they show that a complex combination of factors drives demand for service improvements. While poverty and costs are found to be key determinants of demand, the authors also find that location, self-provision, and perceptions matter as well, and that subsets of these factors matter differently for subsamples of the population. To evaluate the policy implications of the demand analysis, they use the model to estimate uptake rates of improved service under various scenarios-demand in subgroups, the institutional decision to rely on private sector provision, and various financial incentives targeted to the poor. The simulations show that in this particular environment in Sri Lanka, demand for piped water services is low, and that it is unlikely that under the present circumstances the goal of nearly universal piped water coverage is going to be achieved. Policy instruments, such as subsidization of connection fees, could be used to increase demand for piped water...

Micro and Macro-Level Approaches for Assessing the Value of Irrigation Water

Johansson, Robert C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.05%
Many countries are reforming their economies and setting macroeconomic policies that have direct and indirect impact on the performance of the irrigation sector. One reason for the movement toward reform in the water sector across countries is that water resources are increasingly becoming a limiting factor for many human activities. Another reason for increased pressures to address water policy issues is that many countries are in the process of removing barriers to trade, particularly in agricultural commodities. Therefore, knowledge of the value of water when crafting domestic and macroeconomic policies is important to compare the variable impacts of reform across sectors of the economy and populations within the country. Researchers have used many methods for assessing the value of irrigation water. This survey reviews a broad literature to ascertain how two basic questions have been addressed by research over the past few decades. First, what is the value of water across different sectors and levels? Second, how will this value change under different macroeconomic and domestic policies? This survey details a number of methods for approaching these two questions. The literature has been organized according to a progression from theoretical underpinnings to empirical approaches to how the value of irrigation services are relevant to the link between globalization and poverty.

Cost Recovery in Urban Water Services : Select Experiences in Indian Cities

Gupta, Anjali Sen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.04%
The report draws on a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) study from 2008 which made a comparative analysis of 23 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)-looking at seven cities in detail and another 16 based on secondary data-to understand the factors affecting cost recovery in India and provide an indication of current performance. It also draws out examples and lessons to inform reform approaches and guidelines for reform. The first part of the paper discusses operational and tariff-related factors that impede cost recovery by urban water service providers in India, especially low service coverage; high water losses and nonrevenue water; inefficient metering, billing and collection; and high staffing levels. It also shows that distorted tariff structures and subsidies undermine cost recovery further, and often benefit middle and upper income levels, rather than the poor. The second part of the note discusses policy reform and practical initiatives and options to achieve improved cost recovery and, by implication, achieve service improvements...

Strategic Environmental Assessment : Improving Water Resources Governance and Decision Making

Hirji, Rafik; Davis, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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45.93%
The overall goal of this report is to assist water resources and environment professionals within the Bank and client countries to use Strategic environmental assessment (SEAs) to effectively implement the principles of Integrated water resources management (IWRM). It (a) delineates environmental issues related IWRM; (b) identifies opportunities for SEAs to addressing these environmental issues; (c) uses the literature and ten Bank and non-Bank case studies to identify procedural and substantive factors and institutional drivers that lead to effective SEAs in the water sector at the policy, strategy, program, and plan levels; (d) reviews four national and state water policies to understand the inclusions of environment; (e) observes the introduction of SEAs in a developing country as an in-depth pilot study to identify practical issues arising from the introduction of SEAs for the water sector; and (f) recommends how the Bank can expand the use of SEAs to improve the integration of environmental issues in water resources investments.

Metro Manila Water Security Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.13%
The metropolitan waterworks and sewerage system (MWSS) services the water supply and sewerage requirements of Metro Manila including the Province of Rizal and parts of Cavite, an area composed of the estimated 15 million residents in one of the fast growing urban centers in the world. In order to secure the water supply for Metro Manila, some alternative water sources, that is Laguna Lake, Wawa, Kaliwa, Kanan, and Agos rivers, and others have been identified and studied since 1970s. In view of this, the MWSS has requested to the World Bank Group for the technical assistance to identify the alternative water sources to meet growing water demand in Metro Manila. The study was started in July 2011 to: (a) review previously executed studies and proposals for developing alternative water sources; (b) assess non-revenue water (NRW) reduction projects; and (c) provide updated and comprehensive advice to support water security enhancing initiatives in Metro Manila. The study was completed in July 2012 and the final report was submitted to MWSS and the World Bank. In this context...

State Water Agencies in Nigeria

Macheve, Berta; Danilenko, Alexander; Abdullah, Roohi; Bove, Abel; Moffitt, L. Joe
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Livro
Português
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46.01%
Investments on the order of $US6 billion are estimated to be needed in the water sector in Nigeria in the next 10 years if the country is to achieve universal water supply coverage. This is the main finding of State Water Agencies in Nigeria: A Performance Assessment. The report focuses on water provision services from the state water authorities (SWAs), or water boards, as they are the major and only regulated agencies that provide water to the urban population. Sanitation provision is not addressed because the majority of SWAs do not provide this service to their customers. This report highlights the issues related to the performance of SWAs, tariff levels and structures, financing mechanisms, and concerns with governance within the SWAs and state governments. For example, as a result of accelerated urbanization and migration of the population to the large cities, the average coverage by SWAs is about 40 percent, and the average domestic water consumption was 26 liters per capita per day in 2013, well below the recommended average. The remaining majority of the population relies on alternative service providers. To the extent possible, the report also shows how institutional weaknesses affect customer costs, subsidies to the sector...

Water use optimization through alternative water depths in the Formoso Irrigation District

Santos Júnior,Jorge L. C. dos; Frizone,José A.; Paz,Vital P. da S.
Fonte: Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola - UFCG Publicador: Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola - UFCG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2015 Português
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45.95%
This study aimed to propose an optimal cultivation plan using a separable linear programming model, with alternative water depths, that allows maximizing the net revenue of the Formoso Irrigation District (FID), specifically with respect to the area of family plots. The model used in this study was based on data from the 2010 Annual Agricultural Report of the 2nd Regional Superintendency of CODEVASF (São Francisco and Parnaíba Valley Development Company), the 2011 Service and Extension Plan for the Formoso Irrigation District and further information provided by this government department. Based on the studied crops and their respective water response functions, on the constraints of cultivated area, prices and production costs, the maximization of the net revenue in the FID was equal to R$ 68,384,956.53, using the following cultivation pattern: 30 ha of pumpkin, 30 ha of Phaseolus beans, 977 ha of watermelon, 1868 ha of banana, 1200 ha of papaya and 300 ha of Tahiti lime. The optimal solution found by the model indicated that the monthly water availability in the FID did not constitute an effective restriction to crop production, since in all months the water volume needed was lower than the maximum volume that the FID can provide (10...

Indonesia : Enabling Water Utilities to Serve the Urban Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.11%
The scope of this paper is limited to how donors and governments can stimulate owners to realize the potential of water utilities in serving the urban poor. As survey data indicates that reliable water utility service is a key aspect of serving the poor, this paper focuses on how Indonesian water utilities (PDAMs) can increase access to the poor. It also touches on tariff reform because the reluctance of PDAMs to connect the poor at an artificially low tariff creates a hindrance to overall reform. However, this discussion does not offer a comprehensive analysis or solutions to PDAM or tariff reforms, topics that have already been covered by several excellent studies. This study draws heavily on recent Indonesian survey data, while offering insights and first-hand accounts from those who have successfully managed water utilities in serving Indonesia's poor. Several water utility Diruts (Direktur Utama or a utility's Managing Director) have been able to serve the people by turning around weak utilities and guiding them to profitability. Their solutions on PDAM management appear in the annexes and apply mainly to PDAM reform...

Water Supply and Sanitation in Ghana : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of Country Status Overviews (CSOs) to better understands what underpins progress in water supply and sanitation (WSS) and what its member governments can do to accelerate that progress across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). AMCOW delegated this task to the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program and the African Development Bank who are implementing it in close partnership with United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) in over 30 countries across SSA. This second CSO report has been produced in collaboration with the Government of Ghana and other stakeholders during 2009-10. The analysis aims to help countries assess their own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services in each of four subsectors: rural and urban water supply, and rural and urban sanitation and hygiene. The second CSO analysis has three main components: a review of past coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway. The second CSO's contribution is to answer not only whether past trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector targets...

Evaluation of Small-Scale Providers of Water Supply and Sanitation Services in Peru

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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45.93%
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), administered by the World Bank, helps countries find sustainable solutions to ensure efficient delivery of the quality water supply and sanitation services the population demands. The WSP is carrying out a systematic analysis in several countries to identify the role of small-scale providers (SSP) of water and sanitation services to poor populations not served by public and private entities. The study also examines how these operators fit in and respond to sector policies and the organization of the sector in each country. The objective of this study is to identify the reasons for the existence of small-scale providers of water SSP in Peru and to evaluate the experience of these operators, with an emphasis on their coverage, service quality, costs and sustainability. The evaluation also includes proposals to improve service to the market traditionally served by SSP. The study was divided into three phases: (a) a sector assessment to determine why sector policies and financial and institutional resources have not produced service provision to the entire population...

Grow in Concert with Nature : Sustaining East Asia's Water Resources through Green Water Defense

Li, Xiaokai; Turner, Graeme; Jiang, Liping
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
As countries develop, the demand for water increases while water supply becomes less certain and is often not enough to meet demand. In general, pressures from both environment and human activities can increase the likelihood of water scarcity. Such pressures include increased socio-economic development and population growth, change in people's diets, competition for available water among different user sectors and growing climate variability. Climate change is likely to exacerbate the existing demand and supply stresses, particularly when more frequent and extreme droughts and floods, as well as rising sea level are becoming more evident. In temperate, sub-temperate regions, less rainfall and longer dry seasons are expected. In tropical areas, rainfall is predicted to be similar or greater in terms of annual average volumes, more intense and severe storms and seasonal droughts (IPCC, 2007). These pressures will test the effectiveness of water resource management systems in providing a consistent and secure water supply for all users...

Understanding Demand When Reforming Water Supply and Sanitation : A Case Study from Sri Lanka

van den Berg, Caroline; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Yang, Jui-Chen; Gunatilake, Herath
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Many countries are weighing urgent reforms to bring safe water supply and sanitation (WSS) services to hundreds of millions of poor city dwellers. Past reforms, unfortunately, have often ignored consumer preferences and perceptions, resulting in overly optimistic projections of the revenue potential of reform projects. When revenues fall short, private partners may seek to renegotiate their contract, resulting in tariff increases and other changes that increase project costs across the board. Such situations can undermine political commitment to reforms in general and to Private Sector Participation (PSP) in particular. Understanding consumers can help avoid such situations. Different groups of consumers have distinct preferences and perceptions that may influence their decisions about new water systems. Unfortunately, studies of consumers' water-related preferences are often deferred because collecting data takes time and costs money. Often there is pressure to complete reforms quickly sometimes to take advantage of a political opportunity so the necessary research is not done. In other cases...

Thirst for Reform? Private Sector Participation in Providing Mexico City's Water Supply

Haggarty, Luke; Brook, Penelope; Zuluaga, Ana Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
The case in Mexico City offered an opportunity to observe the advantages, and disadvantages of gradualist reform. Unfortunately, the authors find that the long-term nature of an incremental approach does not match well with the generally shorter-term horizons of elected politicians. Difficult decisions in implementation are left to later years, which pushes potentially unpopular actions onto the shoulders of future administrations, while allowing the current government to claim credit for instituting reform. The reform planned - and implemented - was not designed to tackle the city's most serious water problems, including over-consumption, and waste. And reform did little to change residential consumers' incentives to conserve water. Over-exploitation of the aquifer has been a problem since at least the 1930s. Mexico City is built on a series of drained lakebeds, and the land is soft, and prone to settling, or subsiding, as the aquifer is depleted. Several areas of the city center have sunk by over two meters in the past decade alone. And by virtue of its location...

Collaborative Water Risk Management: Guidelines for the Power Industry, Water Utility, and Regulator

Shpitsberg, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 28/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Safe and adequate access to energy and water, the two natural resources driving the production of all other critical human needs, is key to economic development, public health, and military security. The availability of these two resources is threatened by the increase in demand and competing interests for their supply. Water resources are critical to energy production while energy resources are necessary for safe deployment and allocation of water. The constraints imposed by such reliance are evident in the thermoelectric and water supply industries, which must procure water to ensure operation while complying with water quantity and quality regulations. Thermoelectric plants are responsible for almost 90% of the generation capacity and 41% of the freshwater withdrawals in the United States (Kenny, et al. 2009). Water suppliers are responsible for 13% of freshwater withdrawals while 75% of a municipalities cost to process and distribute water is spent on electricity (Sandia National Laboratory 2006). This study discusses the current framework and pricing structure under which a power and water utility operate and focuses on the relationship between these utilities, in order to identify collaborative strategies that ease dependence on both resources. The research identifies the main roadblocks to effective management including impeded flow of information...

Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a case study of the Gediz River basin, Turkey

Yilmaz,B; Harmancioglu,NB
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
In this study, a water resource management model that facilitates indicator-based decisions, with respect to environmental, social and economic dimensions in a multiple criteria perspective, is developed for the Gediz River Basin in Turkey. The basic input of the proposed model is the quantity of surface water that is mainly allocated to irrigation purposes. The model has been applied under 3 different hydro-meteorological scenarios that reflect baseline as well as better and worse conditions of water supply and demand, not only to reach a comprehensive assessment of the water budget in the Gediz Basin, but also to evaluate the impacts of proposed management alternatives under different conditions. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) software is used as a simulation and evaluation tool to assess the performance of possible management alternatives; performance is measured by 9 indicators representing economic, social and environmental sustainability. The study has delineated the best management alternative on the basis of 3 different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, including simple additive weighting (SAW), compromise programming (CP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Each method is also applied with 7 different sets of criteria weights that represent objective judgements as well as subjective preferences of decision makers. The results of the study indicate that the decision on the best alternative is basically independent of the MCDM method used...

Involving stakeholders in transboundary water resource management: The Mesta/Nestos 'HELP' basin

Ganoulis,J; Skoulikaris,H; Monget,JM
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Alternative options for new private and public investment projects in the transboundary Mesta/Nestos River catchment between Bulgaria and Greece involve new dams and water storage reservoirs, agricultural irrigation systems, new tourist resorts and various water-related facilities for urban and industrial water supply. These developments are designed to be implemented in both parts of the basin (in Greece and Bulgaria), where different socio-economic conditions prevail, resulting in each country having different preferences and objectives. Alternative options should consider environmental consequences, to the impact on ecosystems and human health, and also financial and social risks. Any negative impacts on the environment, and whether these negative impacts can be prevented, should be weighted against the economic and social benefits foreseen. Sustainable implementation of private or public utility projects cannot be achieved without public participation and a clear consensus between stakeholders. The UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy) initiative provides a rationale for breaking the 'paradigm lock' existing between the most recent scientific findings on the one side and the public, stakeholders and decision makers on the other. In this paper stakeholder involvement in the decision making process is promoted firstly by communicating the results of integrated modelling of water resource management at the basin scale...

Options for improving water use efficiency under worsening scarcity: evidence from the middle olifants sub-basin in South Africa

Walter,Teresa; Kloos,Julia; Tsegai,Daniel
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
Following the political changes in the early 1990s, the South African government introduced a comprehensive reform process for the water sector with the goal of achieving an enhanced and more equitable water management system. This paper analyses the existing water allocation situations and applies a non-linear optimisation model to investigate the optimal intra- and inter-regional allocation regimes in the Middle Olifants sub-basin of South Africa. Economic issues such as efficiency gains related to water transfers are discussed and calculated water price elasticities and estimated water demand functions provide necessary fundamentals for further modelling work. Social and environmental aspects are accounted for by including constant water demands in the model. Results show higher benefits from inter-regional water allocation. Reducing water supply levels to conform to the sustainable water supply policy, it can be shown that although water supply is reduced by approximately 50%, total benefits from water use are only reduced by 5% and 11% for inter- and intra-regional allocation regimes, respectively. These results indicate that alternative water allocation mechanisms can serve as policy instruments to offset the effects of water scarcity.

Use of calcium sulphate dihydrate as an alternative to the conventional use of aluminium sulphate in the primary treatment of wastewater

Vázquez-Almazán,Maria C; Ventura,Eusebio; Rico,Enrique; Rodríguez-García,Mario E
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
The application of calcium sulphate dihydrate (CaSO4'2H2O) as a coagulant-flocculant alternative to the conventional use of aluminium sulphate in the primary treatment of wastewater was evaluated using a jar test apparatus. Samples from the State Water Commission (CEA) in Queretaro, Mexico, were collected for the experiments. Turbidity and pH were measured before and after applying the calcium sulphate dihydrate (CaSO4'2H2O). Turbidity readings obtained for the doses of 4 g-f"¹ of aluminium sulphate varied from 3.91 to 3.87. The corresponding water pH was 3.90, giving the water an acidic character. Use of aluminium sulphate in the clarification of wastewater, thus, has financial and environmental implications due to the need to raise the pH of the treated water to 6.5-8.5, the recommended optimum interval for the physical-chemical-biological removal of pollutants. By contrast, calcium sulphate di-hydrate (CaSO(4)2H2O) (gypsum) doses of 1, 1.5 and 2 gt"¹ resulted in a pH of between 7.04 and 7.51 repeatedly. These findings suggest that the application of calcium sulphate di-hydrate (CaSO4'2H2O) as coagulant-flocculant, followed by the process of sedimentation, may be a suitable alternative for the clarification of wastewater. However...