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The economics of personal bankruptcy

Link, Frederick, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 183 p.; 6888475 bytes; 6888281 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the effect of bankruptcy law on consumer borrowing and welfare. The thesis consists of four theoretical chapters and two empirical chapters. Chapter 1 presents a simple model of consumer borrowing where the repayment of debt is governed by a bankruptcy law which allows a consumer to protect income below a given exemption level from creditors. Increasing bankruptcy exemption levels are found to increase borrowing and to increase consumer welfare so long as the consumer is borrowing less than the maximum amount possible. If consumers are borrowing the maximum amount possible, increasing exemption amounts increases credit constraints and decreases borrowing. Consumer welfare is maximized at the point where the marginal benefit the amount of insurance provided by the bankruptcy regime equals the marginal cost to reducing borrowing. Chapter 2 expands the model described in chapter 1 to include consumers who differ as to either their demand for credit or their ability to repay loans. The optimal exemption level is found to occur where the marginal cost due to increasing credit constraints to consumers with a higher demand for credit or a lower ability to repay is balanced against the increased insurance benefit provided to other borrowers.; (cont.) Chapter 3 considers the effect of bankruptcy law on credit markets with asymmetric information. I find that the possibility to receive a discharge of debt provided by bankruptcy law may cause consumers to distort their borrowing choices. Optimal exemption levels balance costs due to distortions in borrowing with benefits associated with increases in insurance. Chapter 4 presents a model of the effect of bankruptcy law on incentives to work. I find that increasing exemption levels may either increase or decrease incentives to work or to take risk. Chapter 5 examines the effect of exemption levels on household borrowing. I find that increasing personal property exemption levels are associated with higher levels of home mortgage debt and decreased probabilities that non-homeowners have greater than $50...

An empirical study of subordination levels in commercial mortgage backed securities; Subordination levels in CMBS

Padhi, Romina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 55 leaves; 263129 bytes; 262940 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The CMBS market has been in existence since the mid 1980s; however, it was during the mid 1990s that the market began to grow. A combination of favorable interest rate environment, entry of new players in the market and the amount of demand for commercial real estate assets, led to a record US CMBS issuance in 2004, with the 2005 outlook being even better. However, the subordination or credit enhancement level of these securities has been on a downward trend since 1995. The thesis attempts to analyze the risk factors such as loan to value ratio, debt service coverage ratio, floating versus fixed rate, large and conduit deal types, as well as diversification factors (property type and geographic location), and their impact on subordination levels. Finally, market forces such as spreads on CMBS are also analyzed for their influence on subordination levels. For the analysis, data were collected on 430 commercial mortgage backed securities issued from 1995 through mid 2005. The information was obtained from Trepp, which tracks all the commercial mortgage backed securities issued in the market. The trend in subordination levels of each of the tranches or bond classes was analyzed over the period of study and a quantitative regression analysis was performed to analyze the influence of the above mentioned factors on the subordination levels.; (cont.) The results indicate that the loan to value ratio...

Essays on banking

Erel, Isil
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 131 leaves; 7690164 bytes; 7695636 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis consists of two chapters that investigate two important issues in banking of the past decade: the effect of banking consolidation on the borrowers and the regulatory capital requirements for banks. The first chapter analyzes the effect of bank mergers on loan prices, and the welfare implications for borrowers. In particular I test the hypothesis that mergers create efficiency gains which are, in fact, passed on to borrowers through a reduction in interest rates. The alternative hypothesis is that mergers lead to greater market concentration and in turn an increase in the cost of capital for borrowers. Using a proprietary loan-level data set for U.S. commercial banks, I find that acquiring banks, on average, reduce the spreads on their new commercial and industrial loans after a merger. The reduction in loan spreads is both larger and also more persistent for the smaller acquirers, with total gross assets less than $10 billion. These findings seem to be driven by cost efficiencies due to mergers, since the results are stronger for the sample of acquirers with larger than median declines in their operating costs after their mergers. Moreover, the reduction in spreads is much larger if the acquirer and the target have some geographical overlap of markets before the merger...

Macroprudential Regulation of Credit Booms and Busts : The Experience of the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia

Celeska, Frosina; Gligorova, Viktorija; Krstevska, Aneta
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper provides an overview of the macroprudential measures undertaken by the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia to prevent further deterioration of the systemic risk and to promote resilience of the banking system. The measures were generally aimed at addressing the time dimension of the systemic risk and were intended to protect the banking system against the increase of credit risk arising from the credit boom. The paper also outlines the future challenges facing financial regulation and supervision, as well as the most important quantitative and qualitative impacts of the utilized macroprudential measures.

Mortgage Lending in Korea : An Example of a Countercyclical Macroprudential Approach

Chang, Soon-taek
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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55.98%
Regulatory regimes are actively discussing macroprudential policy. Korea pursued a countercyclical macroprudential approach to prevent the overheating of mortgage lending and to minimize the risk of loan default. The Korean financial supervisory authority made adjustments in response to both the condition of the housing market and trends in mortgage loans. The lessons learned from the Korean experience are applicable to other situations. First, regulations regarding loan-to-value and debt-to-income ratios and other restrictions on mortgage lending can be employed as an important part of a countercyclical framework. Next, measures need to be applied in a timely manner and according to the specific conditions of each country. Finally, authorities should preemptively prepare macroprudential instruments before banks enter a period of rapid mortgage lending to avoid reckless mortgage lending operations and weaken any speculative motive in the housing market.

Credit Constraints and Investment Behavior in Mexico’s Rural Economy

Love, Inessa; Sanchez, Susana M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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45.97%
This paper uses two recently completed surveys of individual entrepreneurs (farmers and microentrepreneurs) and registered enterprises (agricultural and nonagricultural) operating in Mexico s rural sector to provide new evidence about the factors influencing the incidence of credit constraints and investment behavior. To measure the incidence of credit constraints, the authors use self-reported information on whether economic agents have a demand for loans, separating formal and informal markets. They define credit constraints as a situation where rural agents report an unsatisfied demand for loans (formal or informal), which originates from rural agents having projects that are too risky or from impediments hindering the ability of rural agents and lenders to reduce information asymmetries. The authors find that the self-reported demand for loans is low. Nevertheless, the incidence of credit constraints is pervasive, especially among individual entrepreneurs. The low use of loans has consequences for the amount of investments that occur in the rural economy...

Cyclical Effects of Bank Capital Requirements with Imperfect Credit Markets

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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55.73%
This paper analyzes the cyclical effects of bank capital requirements in a simple model with credit market imperfections. Lending rates are set as a premium over the cost of borrowing from the central bank, with the premium itself depending on firms effective collateral. Basel I- and Basel II-type regulatory regimes are defined and a capital channel is introduced through a signaling effect of capital buffers on the cost of bank deposits. The macroeconomic effects of various shocks (a drop in output, an increase in the refinance rate, and a rise in the capital adequacy ratio) are analyzed, under both binding and nonbinding capital requirements. Factors affecting the procyclicality of each regime (defined in terms of the behavior of the risk premium) are also identified and policy implications are discussed.

Global Development Finance 2008 : The Role of International Banking, Volume 2. Summary and Country Tables

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This report is comprised of two volumes. Global Development Finance (GDF) 2008 volume one provides analysis of key trends and prospects, including coverage of the role of international banking in developing countries. Volume two provides summary and country tables contain statistical tables on the external debt of the 134 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed debt under the Debtor Reporting System (DRS). It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting countries as well as summary tables for regional and income groups. It is the culmination of a year-long process that requires extensive cooperation from people and organizations around the globe-national central banks, ministries of finance, major multilateral organizations, and many departments of the World Bank.

Bank Lending to Small and Medium Enterprises : The Republic of Serbia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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45.95%
This report presents findings of a study of Bank lending to small and medium enterprises (SME) in Serbia. The study uses methodology developed by the Bank and already used in a number of studies in South America. The study is based on answers to standard questionnaires and detailed on-site interviews with eight banks. The interviewed banks are the most active in SME lending in Serbia and account for about 70 percent of the total market. Banks are currently offering a fairly broad range of both tailored and standardized products and are increasingly flexible with product pricing. This includes checking, savings and time deposit accounts; export and import loans; overdrafts for working capital and investment loans; business credit cards; various types of payment services; Internet and phone banking. The report is organized as follows: section two describes the banking sector and markets in Serbia, reviews definition of SMEs and provides key characteristics of the SME finance market in Serbia. Section three discusses details of SME access to finance. It describes the drivers and obstacles...

Banking and Regulation in Emerging Markets : The Role of External Discipline

Vives, Xavier
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article reviews the main issues of regulating and supervising banks in emerging markets with a view toward evaluating the long-run options. Particular attention is paid to Latin America and East Asia. These economies face a severe policy commitment problem that leads to excessive bailouts and potential devaluation of claims of foreign investors. This exacerbates moral hazard and makes a case for importing external discipline (for example, acquiring foreign short-term debt). However, external discipline may come at the cost of excessive liquidation of entrepreneurial projects. The article reviews the tradeoffs imposed by external discipline and examines various arrangements, such as narrow banking, foreign banks and foreign regulation, and the potential role for an international agency or international lender of last resort.

The Banking and Financial Sector of Lao PDR : Financial Sector Note

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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During the second half of the 1980s, Lao PDR embarked on an ambitious program of economic reforms, called the New Economic Mechanism, whose main purpose was to gradually transform its centrally-planned economy into a market-oriented economy. The initial reform momentum lasted about one decade. The far-reaching reform program encompassed many critical components including: (a) promotion of private production through improved incentives; (b) institutional infrastructure to improve market economy operations; (c) the strengthening of Lao comparative advantages through trade liberalization and further specialization; and (d) the establishment of price stability through macroeconomic policy measures. The systemic changes introduced in Lao PDR have contributed to a significant transformation of the country s economic system, away from a rigorously centrally-planned economy and towards a form of market economy based on private ownership. The percentage of poor declined based on the national poverty line from 45 to 39 percent between 1992-93 and 1997-982. But the percentage of very poor did not decline and remained at slightly above 30 percent evidencing the need for even broader and faster growth. Moreover...

The Role of Transnational Family Distribution in Shaping Remittance Flows

Bartolini, Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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Migration experiences are often associated with some sort of transnational economic activity which connects the past and the present of migrants abroad, and specifically with remittances. Motivations to send money at origin have been deeply investigated at the micro as well as at the macro level, as remittances can affect recipient households’ well-being, investment and consumption levels in the receiving countries and play an insurance role against external shocks. This paper contributes to the literature on migrants’ remittances providing evidence for migrants from Morocco, Peru and Romania, three traditional labor-exporting countries with a medium level of economic development, from three different geographical areas and with different migration patterns to Italy. Exploiting a relatively rich, albeit small-scale, dataset we analyze the spatial distribution of migrants’ nuclear families and households and we build three different migratory profiles, Loners, Pioneers and followers, characterized by the timing and sequence of the migration event with respect to the rest of the nuclear family. Then author test a negative binomial model to describe the variation in the variable ‘remittances amount’. Beyond cross-country variations and after controlling for the most commonly used individual demographic and economic characteristics...

The Ministry of Finance and the disclosure of bad debts in Japan: A model

Eto, Takaharu
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 446083 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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The reluctance of The Ministry of Finance (MOF) to disclose non-performing loans in the banking industry caused a delay in its rescue operations and, as a result, exacerbated the financial crisis in Japan in the 1990s. This paper attempts to answer the question of why the MOF balked at disclosing the bad loan problem. We focus on the reputation concern of the MOF, and develop a model which explores factors that prevented the MOF from truth-telling. The model predicts that the reputation effect might be high in booms and low in recessions. Indeed, the MOF was beginning to announce the amount of bad loans after the economy had entered a recession. The model also enables us to assess the recent development of the Japanese financial system from the perspective of reputation effects.; no

Determinants of Repayment Performance in Indian Micro-Credit Groups

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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Despite their potential importance and ease of modification, impacts of monitoring and loan recovery arrangements on micro-credit groups' repayment performance have rarely been studied. Data on 3,350 expired group loans in 300 Indian villages highlight that regular monitoring and audits, high repayment frequency, consumption smoothing support through rice credit, and having group savings deposited with the lender all significantly increase repayment rates. Estimated magnitudes of their effects vastly exceed those of members' socio-economic characteristics. Significantly lower repayment on loans originating in externally provided grant resources suggests that stringent monitoring will be essential for these to have a sustainable impact.

Drivers and Obstacles to Banking SMEs : The Role of Competition and the Institutional Framework

de la Torre, Augusto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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45.97%
This paper studies the factors banks perceive as drivers and obstacles to financing small and medium enterprises (SMEs), focusing on the role of competition and the institutional framework. Using a survey of banks in Argentina and Chile, the paper shows that, despite alleged differences in the countries' environments regarding rules, regulations, and ease of doing business, SMEs have become a strategic segment for most banks in both countries. In particular, banks have begun to target SMEs due to the significant competition in the corporate and retail sectors. They perceive the SMEs market as highly profitable, large, and with good prospects. Moreover, banks are developing coping mechanisms to overcome the particular institutional obstacles present in each country and to compete for SMEs. Banks' interest in SMEs is not based on government programs, yet policy action might help reduce the cost of providing financing, especially long-term lending.

Republic of Kazakhstan : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
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55.66%
This report on the report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) in Kazakhstan provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Kazakhstan. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in European Union (EU) Member States, to assess the framework for financial reporting and to make policy recommendations. The policy recommendations aim to help the Kazakhstan Government to support the country's integration into the global economy, in particular through strengthening the corporate sector's accounting, financial reporting and auditing practices. The financial sector, which is dominated by private commercial banks, has been one of the fastest growing sectors in Kazakhstan. However, while lending to the private sector has increased...

Macro-Prudential Regulation of Credit Booms and Busts : The Case of Poland

Kruszka, Michal; Kowalczyk, Michal
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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The last several years before the global downturn of 2008-2009 saw rapid credit growth in Poland. The credit-to-gross domestic product ratio rose from about 25 percent in 2004 to close to 50 percent in 2009. Such an expansion itself might potentially be a source of risks to financial stability, but it was also coupled with relatively new phenomena, such as massive foreign currency lending. Thanks to the pro-active attitude of the Polish authorities and sound economic fundamentals, the risks largely have not materialized. Since 2006 the financial supervisor has addressed in its recommendations for banks the problem of foreign exchange lending, which contributed to the high quality of the portfolio. Before the economy slowed down, the Polish Financial Supervisory Authority persuaded banks to accumulate an additional capital buffer that helped protect them from the negative consequences of the downturn. Some regulatory concepts that had been put into place in Poland in the previous years, including quantitative liquidity requirements...

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Republic of Poland - Credit, Growth, and Financial Stability

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
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Two main issues at the interface between economic growth and financial stability are germane to this year's article four consultation and the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update: the first is why the recent pace of financial catching-up has been so much slower in Poland than in its regional peers, and whether this might hamper Poland's long-term economic prospects; and the second question is how significant the prudential risks associated with rapid growth in housing loans are. The chapter is organized as follows: section II.B discusses credit developments in the last decade and factors driving these developments and assesses implications for economic growth. Section II.C examines reasons for rapid growth of foreign currency lending and implications for financial stability. Section II.D (and appendix) review cross-country experiences with policy responses to rapid credit growth of foreign currency credit and discuss recent policy measures taken in Poland. Section II.E concludes the chapter.

Microfinance and Moneylenders: Long-Run Effects of MFIs on Informal Credit Market in Bangladesh

Berg, Claudia; Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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Using two surveys from Bangladesh, this paper provides evidence on the effects of microfinance competition on village moneylender interest rates and households' dependence on informal credit. The views among practitioners diverge sharply: proponents claim that competition of microfinance institutions reduces both the moneylender interest rate and households' reliance on informal credit, while the critics argue the opposite. Taking advantage of recent econometric approaches that address selection on unobservables without imposing standard exclusion restrictions, this paper finds that microfinance competition does not reduce moneylender interest rates, thus partially repudiating the proponents. The effects are heterogeneous; there is no perceptible effect at low levels of coverage, but when microfinance coverage is high enough, the moneylender interest rate increases significantly. In contrast, households' dependence on informal credit tends to go down after they become a member of a microfinance institution, which contradicts part of the critic's argument. The evidence is consistent with a model where microfinance institutions draw away better borrowers from the moneylender, and fixed costs are important in informal lending.

The Cross-Country Magnitude and Determinants of Collateral Borrowing

Nguyen, Ha; Qian, Rong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Using the World Bank Enterprise Survey covering 6,800 firms across 43 developing countries, this paper investigates the prevalence and determinants of collateralized borrowing. It focuses on the following two aspects: (1) whether firms' loans from financial institutions require collateral (the extensive margin) and (2) the collateral value relative to the loan value (the intensive margin). On the first aspect, it finds that collateral borrowing is prevalent. On average, 73 percent of loans from financial institutions require collateral. Firms that are small or sell domestically are significantly less likely to pledge collateral. Shorter loans and loans from non-bank financial institutions are also less often associated with collateral. On the second aspect, it finds that on average the loan value is at least 72 percent of the collateral value. The only robust and significant determinants of the collateral value are the type of assets used for collateral. The analysis also checks whether countries' income and institutions affect collateralized borrowing. It finds that firms in countries with higher income and better institutions and credit information are significantly less likely to pledge collateral. These factors...