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A Economia do Antidumping

Saraiva, Marcelo Menezes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.72%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia, 2011.; O direito antidumping é o instrumento de defesa comercial mais utilizado por todos os países. O Brasil não é uma exceção. O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar algumas abordagens disponíveis na literatura econômica para análise do dumping e de suas implicações. Apresenta-se também a regulamentação do direito antidumping no Brasil e no Mundo, levando-se em consideração seus aspectos históricos e institucionais. Adicionalmente, são apresentadas estatísticas do antidumping no Brasil e no Mundo para analisar e dimensionar o problema estudado, com maior foco para o caso brasileiro. Para esta finalidade, utiliza-se para o Brasil o período de 1988 a 2010 e, para os demais países, de 1995 a 2009. De acordo com a literatura consultada, apenas o caso de dumping predatório teria justificativa econômica para a aplicação de medidas antidumping. A literatura também dá conta de que as primeiras leis antidumping foram formuladas com base nas leis antitruste, tendo em vista a grande preocupação com a formação de monopólios, e havia apenas oito usuários da medida até meados da década de 1950. Com o tempo...

Exploring the patterns and determinants of U.S. antidumping actions against Latin American imports, 1980-2004

Feinberg, Robert M.
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Includes bibliography; This paper presents data on trends in U.S. antidumping filings against Latin America and Caribbean nations since 1980, investigates the economic determinants of these cases, and explores the effects for economies of the region. Of 2438 antidumping cases filed from 1995 to 2003, the U.S. filed 329 cases, 36 of these against Latin America. By way of comparison, 513 cases were filed by Latin American and Caribbean nations, with 113 of these targeting other Latin American countries and 57 cases directed at the U.S. Over the longer period from 1980-2004, the countries of the region were targeted by 150 U.S. antidumping cases, 83 percent of these filed against just four countries: Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, and Argentina. From the perspective of the economic significance of U.S. filings against Latin America, on average a very small share of trade has been subject to successful cases; however, this probably understates the impact of U.S. antidumping policy on Latin American exporters since even unsuccessful cases may have adversely affected them during the period of investigation (and may have disrupted distribution channels even after the conclusion of the case);. Of course, particular countries have occasionally had a significant share of their exports affected by an antidumping case. A statistical examination of the economic determinants of U.S. antidumping filings against Latin America found macroeconomic determinants to play a role in promoting antidumping actions. This suggests that global recessions are likely to lead to a ratcheting up of protectionism to the disadvantage of all countries...

U.S.-Japan and U.S.-China Trade Conflict : Export Growth, Reciprocity, and the International Trading System

Bown, Chad P.; McCulloch, Rachel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
First Japan and more recently China have pursued export-oriented growth strategies. While other Asian countries have done likewise, Japan and China are of particular interest because their economies are so large and the size of the associated bilateral trade imbalances with the United States so conspicuous. In this paper the authors focus on U.S. efforts to restore the reciprocal GATT/WTO market-access bargain in the face of such large imbalances and the significant spillovers to the international trading system. The paper highlights similarities and differences in the two cases. The authors describe U.S. attempts to reduce the bilateral imbalances through targeted trade policies intended to slow growth of U.S. imports from these countries or increase growth of U.S. exports to them. They then examine how these trade policy responses, as well as U.S. efforts to address what were perceived as underlying causes of the imbalances, influenced the evolution of the international trading system. Finally, the authors compare the macroeconomic conditions associated with the bilateral trade imbalances and their implications for the conclusions of the two episodes.

Import Protection, Business Cycles, and Exchange Rates : Evidence from the Great Recession

Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
This research estimates the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on import protection policies over 1988:Q1-2010:Q4 for the United States, European Union, and three other industrialized economies. First, estimates on a pre-Great Recession sample provide evidence of three key relationships for the US and EU. Increases in domestic unemployment rates and real appreciations in bilateral exchange rates led to substantial increases in antidumping and related forms of import protection. Furthermore, economies historically imposed these bilateral import restrictions on trading partners going through their own periods of weak economic growth. Second, estimates from the pre-Great Recession model predict a major trade policy response during 2008:Q4-2010:Q4, given the realized macroeconomic shocks. New US and EU trade barriers were projected to cover up to an additional 15 percentage points of nonoil imports, well above the baseline level of 2-3 percent of import coverage immediately preceding the crisis. Third, re-estimating the model on data from the Great Recession period illustrates why the realized trade policy response differed from model predictions based on historical data. While exchange rate movements played an important role in limiting new import protection...

Political Economy of Antidumping and Safeguards in Argentina

Nogués, Julio J.; Baracat, Elías
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Beginning in the late 1980s, Argentina implemented a series of reforms that were revolutionary in speed and scope, including trade liberalization. After the implementation of these policies, a record number of antidumping petitions came forward. Under a situation of high inflation, the government reinforced its fiscal and monetary policies by announcing that it would minimize the use of such measures. The flexible disciplines of the existing domestic antidumping regulations facilitated this objective. Later, when the GATT/WTO-sanctioned trade remedies were implemented, the government made a serious attempt to establish discipline by including liberal regulations and creating special institutional arrangements. A presumption built into the construction of the new mechanisms was that adhering to WTO requirements would strengthen the resistance against protection. This presumption turned out to be false. Changing circumstances, including severe peso overvaluation, had significant effects on the number and outcome of antidumping investigations. Regarding safeguards, the government followed the letter and the spirit of the WTO agreement. In relation to the number of petitions, few measures have been implemented. Rejections were based on a concern for consumer costs and on failure of the industry seeking protection to provide a convincing modernization plan. This...

Antidumping and Market Competition : Implications for Emerging Economies

Bown, Chad P.; McCulloch, Rachel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
While the original justification of the antidumping laws in the industrial economies was to protect domestic consumers against predation by foreign suppliers, by the early 1990s the laws and their use had evolved so much that the opposite concern arose. Rather than attacking anti-competitive behavior, dumping complaints by domestic firms were being used to facilitate collusion among suppliers and enforce cartel arrangements. This paper examines the predation and anti-competitiveness issues from the perspective of the "new users" of antidumping -- the major emerging economies for which antidumping is now a major tool in the trade policy arsenal. The paper examines these concerns in light of important ways in which the world economy and international trading system have been changing since the early 1990s, including more firms and more countries participating in international trade, but also more extensive links among suppliers and consumers through multinational firm activity and vertical specialization.

Emerging Economies, Trade Policy, and Macroeconomic Shocks

Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
This paper estimates the impact of aggregate fluctuations on the time-varying trade policies of 13 major emerging economies over 1989-2010. By 2010, these World Trade Organization member countries collectively accounted for 21 percent of world merchandise imports and 22 percent of world gross domestic product. The paper examines determinants of carefully constructed, bilateral measures of new import restrictions on products arising through the temporary trade barrier (TTB) policies of antidumping, safeguards, and countervailing duties. The approach explicitly addresses changes to the institutional environment facing these emerging economies as they joined the WTO and adopted disciplines to restrain their application of other trade policies, such as applied import tariffs. The paper presents evidence of a counter-cyclical relationship between macroeconomic shocks and new TTB import restrictions in addition to an important role for fluctuations in bilateral real exchange rates. Furthermore, for the subset of major Group of 20 emerging economies...

The Effects of NAFTA on Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Activity

Blonigen, Bruce A.
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
Treatment of unfair trade laws has become an important topic in negotiations on preferential trading areas. Recent preferential trading areas involving the United States (U.S.), one of the most significant users of these laws, have established special bi-national dispute settlement panels to arbitrate disagreements. Using a panel database of U.S. antidumping and countervailing duty activity from 1980 through 2000, the article examines whether the use of dispute settlement panels has reduced such activity between the United States and its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners. The analysis finds little evidence for any effect, calling into question the effectiveness of dispute settlement panels in reducing unfair trade law activity.

Antidumping as Safeguard Policy

Finger, J. Michael; Ng, Francis; Wangchuk, Sonam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.91%
Antidumping is by far the most prevalent instrument applied by countries to impose new import restrictions. In the 1980s antidumping was used mainly by a handful of industrial countries. More recently developing countries have used it increasingly often. Since the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements went into effect in 1995, developing countries have initiated 559 antidumping cases, developed countries 463 (through June 2000). Per dollar of imports ten developing countries have initiated at least five times as many antidumping cases as the United States. Even so, the WTO community continues to take up antidumping as if it were a specialized instrument. In reality, present WTO rules allow it to be applied in any instance of politically troubling imports. The authors argue that, as a "pressure valve" to help maintain an open trade policy, antidumping has serious weaknesses: Its technical strictures do not distinguish between instances that advance rather than harm the national economic interest. And its politics of branding foreigners as unfair strengthens rather than mutes pressures against liberalization.

Trade Policy Strategies and Enforcement Choices: An examination of the 1992 Steel Antidumping Cases

Brook, Douglas A.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08853900390152818; The decade of the 1990s was marked by signiflcant changes in trading regimes around the world. New regional trading blocs, such as the European Community and the North American Free Trade area, emerged; traditional trade barriers, primarily tariffs, were substantially reduced or are headed toward elimination; many quotas and voluntary export restraints have expired; and, the Uruguay Round of global trade negotiations concluded in 1993 with new rules and a new World Trade Organization. These developments suggested an inexorable movement toward freer and more open trade. But, as the more recognizable trade barriers disappeared, administered trade became proportionately more important. "The reductions in tariffs have led governments to resort to other practices which constrain trade, and the restriction most often applied is antidumping law" (Anderson et al., 1995, p. 321).

Emerging Economies and the Emergence of South-South Protectionism

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Do exports resume when import-restricting temporary trade barriers such as antidumping are finally removed? To establish the importance of this question for emerging economies, this paper uses newly available data from the World Bank's Temporary Trade Barriers Database to update a number of inter-temporal indicators of import protection along three dimensions: additional time coverage through 2011, additional policy-imposing country coverage, and a more comprehensive depiction of impacted trading partner coverage. It then turns to the emerging economy exporters affected by temporary trade barriers and highlights the economic significance of frequently bilateral import restrictions imposed by other emerging economies, i.e., South-South protectionism. Finally, it then investigates empirically whether country-level exports resume when the previously imposed -- but temporary -- import protection is finally removed. China's exporters respond quickly and aggressively to the market access opening embodied in the removal of such import restrictions. This differs markedly from the slow and tepid export response of other emerging economies...

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization : Fighting Fire with Fire; Salvaguardias y antidumping en la liberalizacion comercial de America Latina : combatiendo el fuego con fuego

Finger, J. Michael; Nogués, Julio J.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
This book is a report on success-success in trade liberalization and in the removal of trade barriers so as to integrate Latin American economies into the international economy. More particularly, this book is about how several Latin American governments created and managed safeguards and antidumping mechanisms as part of this liberalization. The core of this book is a set of studies describing how seven Latin American countries-Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru-have used these trade instruments. Each country study was conducted by analysts from that country. Many of the analysts were high government officials during their country's liberalization, so they have hands-on experience with the construction and the management of these instruments.

China in the World Trade Organization : Antidumping and Safeguards

Messerlin, Patrick A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.86%
China finds itself in a unique situation on antidumping and safeguard issues. It is by far the main target of antidumping measures, but (so far) one of the smallest users of such measures. China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession protocol includes stringent antidumping and safeguard provisions that its trading partners may use against its exports. The article examines three related concerns: how quickly large developing economies can become intensive users of antidumping measures, an evolution raising concerns about China's recent antidumping enforcement; how China could minimize its exposure to foreign antidumping cases, a recipe for both improving trade outcomes and for China's taking a leading role in reforming WTO antidumping; and the opportunities that the Doha round of trade negotiations offer to China for negotiating stricter disciplines both on WTO contingent protection and on the use by China's trading partners of the special provisions included in China's accession protocol.

Self-Enforcing Trade Agreements : Evidence from Time-Varying Trade Policy

Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
This paper estimates a model of a government making trade policy adjustments under a self-enforcing trade agreement in the presence of economic shocks. The empirical model is motivated by the formal theories of cooperative trade agreements. The authors find evidence that United States' use of its antidumping policy during 1997-2006 is consistent with increases in time-varying "cooperative" tariffs, where the likelihood of antidumping is increasing in the size of unexpected import surges, decreasing in the volatility of imports, and decreasing in the elasticities of import demand and export supply. The analysis finds additional support for the theory that some US antidumping use is consistent with cooperative behavior through a second empirical examination of how trading partners responded to these new US tariffs. Even after controlling for factors such as the expected cost and benefit to filing a WTO dispute or engaging in antidumping retaliation, the analysis find that trading partners are less likely to challenge such "cooperative" US antidumping tariffs that were imposed under terms-of-trade pressure suggested by the theory.

China’s Export Growth and the China Safeguard : Threats to the World Trading System?

Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.68%
Is there evidence from China's pre-WTO accession period that newly imposed U.S. or EU import restrictions deflect Chinese exports to third markets? The authors examine this question by drawing on a newly constructed data set of U.S. and EU product-level import restrictions on Chinese trade imposed between 1992 and 2001 and estimate their impact on Chinese exports to 38 alternative markets. There is no systematic evidence that the import restrictions imposed during this period resulted in Chinese exports surging to such alternate destinations. To the contrary, there is weak evidence of a chilling effect on China's exports to third markets.

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization

Finger, J. Michael; Nogues, Julio J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
The binding of tariff rates and adoption of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization-sanctioned safeguards and antidumping mechanisms provided the basis to remove a multitude of instruments of protection in the Latin American countries discussed in this paper. At the same time, they helped in maintaining centralized control over the management of pressures for protection in agencies with economy-wide accountabilities. The World Trade Organization's procedural requirements (for example, to follow published criteria, or participation by interested parties) helped leaders to change the culture of decision-making from one based on relationships to one based on objective criteria. However, when Latin American governments attempted to introduce economic sense - such as base price comparisons on an economically sensible measure of long-run international price rather than the more generous constructed cost concept that is the core of WTO rules - protection-seekers used the rules against them. They pointed out that World Trade Organization rules do not require the use of such criteria...

Antidumping Mechanisms and Safeguards in Peru

Webb, Richard; Camminati, Josefina; Thorne, Raúl León
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
Peru's experience in the application of antidumping and safeguard measures is characterized by a radical change in the philosophy and procedures of trade at the beginning of the 1990s, and by an increasing use of these mechanisms. Trade liberalization was accompanied by the liberalization of foreign currency transactions and of financial and labor markets. Also, the internal revenue administration was modernized, institutions for regulation and competition defense were created, and state enterprises were transferred to private owners or concessionaires. New laws and institutions were created to regulate markets, including INDECOPI, a novel government agency charged with antimonopoly regulation and consumer defense, and which houses the Antidumping and Subsidies Commission. This highly autonomous and technical Commission became the central player in the implementation of WTO rules and procedures for fair trade. Since the reform was launched, a total of 81 trade protection cases have been presented, of which 57 were followed by a dumping investigation. The application of antidumping duties was approved for 29 of the cases investigated. Only two cases of safeguard investigations were recorded, one of which (Chinese textile clothing articles) is still in the negotiation phase. This paper reviews that case experience in detail...

Antidumping and Safeguard Measures in the Political Economy of Liberalization : The Mexican Case

de la Torre, Luz Elena Reyes; González, Jorge G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
Mexico's creation and use of safeguard and antidumping processes to advance its liberalization illustrate three key points: (1) The country was able to use the instruments without losing political control. In a period of crisis that threatened congressional approval of critical steps in the liberalization-brought on by currency overvaluation and recession, along with unexpected demands from the United States in the North American Free Trade Agreement negotiations-the government applied a number of trade defense measures. Once the problems were addressed with adequate instruments the number of measures dropped drastically. The instruments had not been captured by protection-seeking interests; (2) The country adopted a liberalization-accepting measure of international norms. An important innovation that Mexico made operational was the use within World Trade Organization (WTO) rules of prevailing international prices as the measure of competition that industry was expected to meet. The WTO rules would also have allowed the use of other standards-as in traditional antidumping-using countries-that impose less discipline. Moreover, the Mexican standard was consistent with the government-industry understanding that though Mexican industry would be protected against extraordinary circumstances it would be expected to face up to international competition; (3) Political judgment and political courage are essential. While mastery of the technical elements of a safeguard or antidumping investigation is mandatory...

Antidumping and the global financial crisis: the impact on Latin America and the Caribbean

Feinberg, Robert M.
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.83%
Includes bibliography; Global antidumping activity peaked in 2001, with 366 petitions initiated world-wide, and rapidly diminished to just 163 cases in 2007. With the onset of the current major world-wide recession some observers feared that antidumping usage would climb dramatically; however while antidumping activity was up by 28% in 2008 (to 208 cases initiated, according to WTO statistics), the rise was not nearly commensurate with the financial distress, and new antidumping initiations for the first three quarters of 2009 -at 154 cases- are on pace to show little change for the full year compared to the previous one (based on data from Bown's Global Antidumping Database). However, antidumping has largely become a problem of the developing world, both in terms of major importing country users (e.g., the three largest users in 2008 were India, Brazil, and Turkey, the three largest users in 2009 so far have been Pakistan, India, and Argentina), and of targets (with China by far the largest exporting country hit by antidumping petitions, but Thailand, Taiwan and Indonesia the next largest targets of cases filed in 2008).

The echoing phenomenon in antidumping cases

Gonçalves, Ana Raquel Hipólito
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; The practice of antidumping law has been increasing in the past decades, allowing for the rise of new trends in the world trade panorama. One of these new trends is the echoing phenomenon. This work contains an extended research of echoing between antidumping users, using identical products' codes for identifying the echoing cases. The results show that the USA and Canada are the major players in echoing antidumping suits, with echoing cases representing 14% and 29% of the total antidumping lings, respectively. Indeed, this is a new phenomenon of great importance, as it might be de ning trade patterns worldwide furtively.