Página 1 dos resultados de 94 itens digitais encontrados em 0.001 segundos

Medidas antidumping: devido processo legal à luz das regras da OMC; Antidumping duties: due process of law according to WTO rules

Kramer, Cynthia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Apesar de o fluxo de comércio afetado por medidas antidumping não chegar nem a 1% do comércio global, aproximadamente 20% das disputas na OMC são sobre antidumping. A OMC é um órgão intergovernamental e seu sistema de solução de controvérsias tem por objetivo analisar se as medidas adotadas por seus Membros estão em conformidade com os compromissos assumidos nos acordos abrangidos. O Acordo Antidumping da OMC (ADA) estabelece os procedimentos investigatórios a serem seguidos por seus Membros para combater o dumping que comprovadamente causa dano à indústria doméstica. O objetivo é evitar que sejam adotadas medidas em circunstâncias descabidas, com o mero intuito protecionista de criar barreiras ao comércio. O dumping é uma prática do setor privado e não dos governos. Portanto, não é o dumping que é questionado perante a OMC, e sim a obediência pela autoridade investigadora dos procedimentos investigatórios estabelecidos no ADA. Tanto os órgãos da Administração Pública como a OMC exercem uma função fundamental para que o devido processo legal seja observado em matéria antidumping. A função legislativa é criar as normas que regularão o procedimento, a função executiva é aplicar/monitorar o procedimento...

Integração econômica e defesa comercial: medidas antidumping nos acordos regionais de comércio; Economic integration and trade remedies: antiduping measures in regional trade agreements

Engelberg, Luciana Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.03%
Atualmente, há um debate acerca dos efeitos da aplicação de medidas antidumping entre as partes de um acordo regional de comércio. Discute-se que o emprego de tais instrumentos pode gerar um óbice ao livre comércio e ao avanço da integração econômica negociados em tais acordos. As regras do sistema multilateral de comércio determinam que direitos antidumping podem ser aplicados quando comprovada a existência de dumping, dano à indústria nacional e a relação causal entre estes. Entretanto, mesmo que haja regras sobre a condução de uma investigação antidumping e a aplicação da medida, ainda há muito espaço para a discricionariedade das autoridades nacionais investigadoras. Isso enseja a preocupação de que a aplicação desse instrumento pode conduzir a uma ineficácia dos objetivos de liberalização comercial negociados nos acordos regionais de comércio, além de neutralizar as concessões tarifárias feitas no âmbito desses acordos, em prol do protecionismo de uma indústria doméstica, muitas vezes, defasada e inapta à concorrência internacional. A presente dissertação pretende demonstrar que, à medida que o antidumping representa um potencial impacto negativo aos ideais dos acordos regionais de comércio...

Impacto da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA) e potencial antidumping

Barbosa, Alexandre Englert
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.97%
Este trabalho tem o intuito de investigar os efeitos de uma das principais barreiras atualmente impostas ao comércio internacional: o antidumping. Embora seja um instrumento legal de combate ao comércio desleal – o dumping –, a utilização do referido instrumento passou a ser mais intensa após a redução das barreiras tarifárias promovidas pelas sucessivas rodadas de negociações multilaterais e acordos preferenciais de comércio. Concomitantemente, a prática indiscriminada do antidumping passou a estar cada vez mais dissociada da existência do próprio dumping. Nesse sentido, este trabalho avalia os impactos do antidumping sob duas óticas. A primeira, ex-post, identifica os efeitos dos processos antidumping iniciados desde o início da década de 1990 pelos EUA sobre diversos produtos brasileiros, especialmente no que tange ao desempenho das importações daquele país. Para tanto, utiliza-se a metodologia de Mudança de Regime Markoviano, que permite avaliar as alterações ocorridas ao longo do tempo na série de importações, avaliando médias, variâncias e probabilidades de transição entre regimes. Os resultados encontrados indicam que as iniciações dos processos antidumping usualmente ocorrem após um longo período – entre dois e três anos – de regime de crescimento (2% a.m)...

A prática antidumping no sistema multilateral : novos tempos, novas regras?

Abreu, Ana Amélia Ramos de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
A utilização crescente das medidas antidumping, tanto como instrumento de defesa comercial como com fins exclusivamente protecionistas, tem sido, cada vez mais, objeto de estudo dos especialistas e estudiosos na área de direito internacional econômico. Seu uso desvirtuado da finalidade para a qual foi concebida prejudica o fim maior que deveria ser protegido: o livre comércio. A evolução da regulamentação nacional e multilateral das medidas não foi suficiente para sanar todas as lacunas existentes e impedir o principal problema: a discricionariedade das autoridades nacionais. Este trabalho procurar identificar as principais lacunas do atual Acordo Antidumping, apresentar a jurisprudência da OMC sobre o tema e sugerir algumas reformas que ajudariam a deixar a regulamentação mais clara, objetiva e mais próxima do ideal proposto.; The increasing utilization of the antidumping measures, both as an instrument of commercial defense as exclusively protectionist goals, has been more and more study object of specialists and scholars in the field of Economic International Law. Its disparaged use of the initially conceived purpose jeopardizes the greater end should be protected: the free trade. The national and multinational regulation evolution of the measures was not enough to heal all the existing gaps and to prevent the main problem: the national authority discretionary. This work tries to identify the main gaps of the current Antidumping Agreement...

O dumping e as normas internas de proteção à concorrência empresarial

Taddei, Marcelo Gazzi
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 234 f.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Direito - FCHS; O processo de globalização intensificou as relações comerciais entre os países no final do Século XX, tornando mais freqüentes práticas empresariais desleais como o dumping e a respectiva utilização da legislação pertinente pelos países participantes do comércio internacional. A aplicação de medidas antidumping para neutralizar os efeitos da prática desleal protege a concorrência em benefício dos empresários do país importador, entretanto, se essas medidas forem aplicadas com finalidade protecionista, prejudicam a livre concorrência, impedindo a entrada de produtos estrangeiros em condições de concorrência com os produtos nacionais. As análises realizadas demonstraram que a legislação brasileira antidumping, de forma genérica, encontra-se em consonância com as normas da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC), que direcionam a aplicação de medidas antidumping no âmbito mundial. Apesar da evolução verificada na Rodada Uruguai, o estudo demonstrou a necessidade de algumas alterações na legislação antidumping da OMC para impedir a possibilidade de diferentes interpretações às normas antidumping pelos Países-Membros. As alterações devem proporcionar maior precisão a alguns conceitos presentes na legislação...

A Economia do Antidumping

Saraiva, Marcelo Menezes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia, 2011.; O direito antidumping é o instrumento de defesa comercial mais utilizado por todos os países. O Brasil não é uma exceção. O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar algumas abordagens disponíveis na literatura econômica para análise do dumping e de suas implicações. Apresenta-se também a regulamentação do direito antidumping no Brasil e no Mundo, levando-se em consideração seus aspectos históricos e institucionais. Adicionalmente, são apresentadas estatísticas do antidumping no Brasil e no Mundo para analisar e dimensionar o problema estudado, com maior foco para o caso brasileiro. Para esta finalidade, utiliza-se para o Brasil o período de 1988 a 2010 e, para os demais países, de 1995 a 2009. De acordo com a literatura consultada, apenas o caso de dumping predatório teria justificativa econômica para a aplicação de medidas antidumping. A literatura também dá conta de que as primeiras leis antidumping foram formuladas com base nas leis antitruste, tendo em vista a grande preocupação com a formação de monopólios, e havia apenas oito usuários da medida até meados da década de 1950. Com o tempo...

The Global Resort to Antidumping, Safeguards, and other Trade Remedies amidst the Economic Crisis

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.02%
This paper examines newly available data from the World Bank-sponsored Global Antidumping Database tracking the worldwide use of trade remedies such as antidumping, countervailing duties, global safeguards and China-specific safeguards during the current economic crisis. The data indicate a marked increase in WTO members combined resort to these instruments beginning in 2008 that continued into the first quarter 2009. The use of these import-restricting instruments is increasingly affecting "South-South" trade, i.e., developing country importers initiating and imposing new protectionist measures primarily affecting developing country exporters, with a special emphasis on exports from China. However, the collective value of imports in 2007 for the major (G-20) economies that has subsequently come under attack by the use of import-restricting trade remedies during the period of 2008 to early 2009 is likely less than $29 billion, or less than 0.45 per cent of these economies total imports, though there is substantial variation across countries. While the level of trade affected thus far may be small for most of these economies...

Political Economy of Antidumping and Safeguards in Argentina

Nogués, Julio J.; Baracat, Elías
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.94%
Beginning in the late 1980s, Argentina implemented a series of reforms that were revolutionary in speed and scope, including trade liberalization. After the implementation of these policies, a record number of antidumping petitions came forward. Under a situation of high inflation, the government reinforced its fiscal and monetary policies by announcing that it would minimize the use of such measures. The flexible disciplines of the existing domestic antidumping regulations facilitated this objective. Later, when the GATT/WTO-sanctioned trade remedies were implemented, the government made a serious attempt to establish discipline by including liberal regulations and creating special institutional arrangements. A presumption built into the construction of the new mechanisms was that adhering to WTO requirements would strengthen the resistance against protection. This presumption turned out to be false. Changing circumstances, including severe peso overvaluation, had significant effects on the number and outcome of antidumping investigations. Regarding safeguards, the government followed the letter and the spirit of the WTO agreement. In relation to the number of petitions, few measures have been implemented. Rejections were based on a concern for consumer costs and on failure of the industry seeking protection to provide a convincing modernization plan. This...

Antidumping and Market Competition : Implications for Emerging Economies

Bown, Chad P.; McCulloch, Rachel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.96%
While the original justification of the antidumping laws in the industrial economies was to protect domestic consumers against predation by foreign suppliers, by the early 1990s the laws and their use had evolved so much that the opposite concern arose. Rather than attacking anti-competitive behavior, dumping complaints by domestic firms were being used to facilitate collusion among suppliers and enforce cartel arrangements. This paper examines the predation and anti-competitiveness issues from the perspective of the "new users" of antidumping -- the major emerging economies for which antidumping is now a major tool in the trade policy arsenal. The paper examines these concerns in light of important ways in which the world economy and international trading system have been changing since the early 1990s, including more firms and more countries participating in international trade, but also more extensive links among suppliers and consumers through multinational firm activity and vertical specialization.

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization : Fighting Fire with Fire; Salvaguardias y antidumping en la liberalizacion comercial de America Latina : combatiendo el fuego con fuego

Finger, J. Michael; Nogués, Julio J.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.04%
This book is a report on success-success in trade liberalization and in the removal of trade barriers so as to integrate Latin American economies into the international economy. More particularly, this book is about how several Latin American governments created and managed safeguards and antidumping mechanisms as part of this liberalization. The core of this book is a set of studies describing how seven Latin American countries-Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru-have used these trade instruments. Each country study was conducted by analysts from that country. Many of the analysts were high government officials during their country's liberalization, so they have hands-on experience with the construction and the management of these instruments.

China in the World Trade Organization : Antidumping and Safeguards

Messerlin, Patrick A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.11%
China finds itself in a unique situation on antidumping and safeguard issues. It is by far the main target of antidumping measures, but (so far) one of the smallest users of such measures. China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession protocol includes stringent antidumping and safeguard provisions that its trading partners may use against its exports. The article examines three related concerns: how quickly large developing economies can become intensive users of antidumping measures, an evolution raising concerns about China's recent antidumping enforcement; how China could minimize its exposure to foreign antidumping cases, a recipe for both improving trade outcomes and for China's taking a leading role in reforming WTO antidumping; and the opportunities that the Doha round of trade negotiations offer to China for negotiating stricter disciplines both on WTO contingent protection and on the use by China's trading partners of the special provisions included in China's accession protocol.

Antidumping, Retaliation Threats, and Export Prices

Avsar, Veysel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
Utilizing four-dimensional (firm-product-destination-year) Brazilian firm-level export data, the paper shows that antidumping (AD) duties result in a significant and dramatic increase in the unit values of the products that firms export to duty-imposing countries. Furthermore, it examines the effect of potential (retaliatory) AD duties on the unit price of the firms' shipments. The findings suggest that AD activities in Brazil lead Brazilian exporting firms to increase their unit export prices for the named industries' products to decrease the dumping margin and avoid the threat of retaliation by the target countries.

Trade Policy Flexibilities and Turkey : Tariffs, Antidumping, Safeguards, and WTO Dispute Settlement

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.97%
Trade policy commitments to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entail short and long-run political-economic costs and benefits. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the exercise of trade policy flexibilities is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically-based assessment of ways that Turkey exercised trade policy flexibilities during the global economic crisis of 2008-11. First, and despite multilateral and customs union commitments that might limit changes to applied tariffs, Turkey made changes to both its applied Most Favored Nation and preferential tariffs that cumulatively affect nearly 9 percent of manufacturing imports and 10 percent of import product lines. Second, Turkey's cumulative application of temporary trade barrier (TTB) policies -- antidumping, safeguards and countervailing duties -- are estimated to impact by 2011 an additional 4 percent of imports and 6 percent of product lines. Other surprising results on Turkey's use of flexibilities include: extending the duration of previously imposed antidumping and safeguards beyond expected removal dates...

A Survey of Non-Tariff Measures in the East Asia and Pacific Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
This report seeks to give a multifaceted view of non-tariff issues facing countries in the East Asia and Pacific region both vis-a-vis their most important export markets as well as intra-regionally. While the first perspective is important today given the high dependence of East Asian and Latin American countries on the markets of the EU, the US and Japan, the second is important in the context of countries' efforts to bring about ever closer regional integration. A large part of liberalization efforts have in the past focused on reducing tariff barriers to facilitate the integration of goods markets across the world and within particular regions. However, countries which were more serious about integration also recognized early on the importance of eliminating trade-reducing measures other than tariffs, so-called non-tariff measures or NTMs, which, if not already present, often sprung up precisely where tariffs were reduced. Country studies which draw on firm level surveys and interviews with government agencies and exporters' associations in East Asia and Latin America are presented in Part II of this report.

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization

Finger, J. Michael; Nogues, Julio J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.05%
The binding of tariff rates and adoption of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization-sanctioned safeguards and antidumping mechanisms provided the basis to remove a multitude of instruments of protection in the Latin American countries discussed in this paper. At the same time, they helped in maintaining centralized control over the management of pressures for protection in agencies with economy-wide accountabilities. The World Trade Organization's procedural requirements (for example, to follow published criteria, or participation by interested parties) helped leaders to change the culture of decision-making from one based on relationships to one based on objective criteria. However, when Latin American governments attempted to introduce economic sense - such as base price comparisons on an economically sensible measure of long-run international price rather than the more generous constructed cost concept that is the core of WTO rules - protection-seekers used the rules against them. They pointed out that World Trade Organization rules do not require the use of such criteria...

The World Trade Organization and Antidumping in Developing Countries

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
Since the 1995 inception of the World Trade Organization (WTO), developing countries have become some of the most frequent users of the WTO-sanctioned antidumping trade policy instrument. This paper exploits newly available data to examine the pattern of actual industrial use of antidumping in nine of the major "new user" developing countries - Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, Turkey and Venezuela. For these countries we are able to match data from two newly available sources: data on production in 28 different 3-digit ISIC industries from the Trade, Production and Protection Database to data on antidumping investigations, outcomes and imports at the 6-digit Harmonized System (HS) product level from the Global Antidumping Database. Our econometric analysis is to estimate a two-stage model of the industry-level decision to pursue an antidumping investigation and the national government's decision of whether and how much antidumping import protection to provide. First, we find evidence consistent with the theory of endogenous trade policy: larger industries that face substantial import competition are more likely to pursue an antidumping investigation, and larger and more concentrated industries receive greater antidumping protection from imports. Second...

U.S. Antidumping : Much Ado About Zeroing

Bown, Chad P.; Prusa, Thomas J.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
The United States use of "zeroing" in its antidumping procedures has become a political flash point threatening some legitimacy of the WTO's dispute settlement system. This paper provides a positive analysis of the zeroing issue, explains how it has evolved and who is likely to be affected by it. The authors use economic theory to identify how export price volatility accentuates the impact of zeroing on the size of U.S. antidumping tariffs and review the WTO caseload over zeroing. They describe the impact that the U.S.'s retrospective system for assessing antidumping margins has on zeroing and the political economy implications as the U.S. struggles to generate policy reform. The authors survey existing evidence of the impact of the zeroing on dumping margins and contribute their own evidence to suggest that zeroing is just as likely to impact the size of U.S. antidumping duties applied on developing country exports as developed economy exports. Thus while developed economies have filed the vast majority of WTO disputes against the U.S. over zeroing...

Antidumping Mechanisms and Safeguards in Peru

Webb, Richard; Camminati, Josefina; Thorne, Raúl León
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
Peru's experience in the application of antidumping and safeguard measures is characterized by a radical change in the philosophy and procedures of trade at the beginning of the 1990s, and by an increasing use of these mechanisms. Trade liberalization was accompanied by the liberalization of foreign currency transactions and of financial and labor markets. Also, the internal revenue administration was modernized, institutions for regulation and competition defense were created, and state enterprises were transferred to private owners or concessionaires. New laws and institutions were created to regulate markets, including INDECOPI, a novel government agency charged with antimonopoly regulation and consumer defense, and which houses the Antidumping and Subsidies Commission. This highly autonomous and technical Commission became the central player in the implementation of WTO rules and procedures for fair trade. Since the reform was launched, a total of 81 trade protection cases have been presented, of which 57 were followed by a dumping investigation. The application of antidumping duties was approved for 29 of the cases investigated. Only two cases of safeguard investigations were recorded, one of which (Chinese textile clothing articles) is still in the negotiation phase. This paper reviews that case experience in detail...

Antidumping and Safeguard Measures in the Political Economy of Liberalization : The Mexican Case

de la Torre, Luz Elena Reyes; González, Jorge G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.04%
Mexico's creation and use of safeguard and antidumping processes to advance its liberalization illustrate three key points: (1) The country was able to use the instruments without losing political control. In a period of crisis that threatened congressional approval of critical steps in the liberalization-brought on by currency overvaluation and recession, along with unexpected demands from the United States in the North American Free Trade Agreement negotiations-the government applied a number of trade defense measures. Once the problems were addressed with adequate instruments the number of measures dropped drastically. The instruments had not been captured by protection-seeking interests; (2) The country adopted a liberalization-accepting measure of international norms. An important innovation that Mexico made operational was the use within World Trade Organization (WTO) rules of prevailing international prices as the measure of competition that industry was expected to meet. The WTO rules would also have allowed the use of other standards-as in traditional antidumping-using countries-that impose less discipline. Moreover, the Mexican standard was consistent with the government-industry understanding that though Mexican industry would be protected against extraordinary circumstances it would be expected to face up to international competition; (3) Political judgment and political courage are essential. While mastery of the technical elements of a safeguard or antidumping investigation is mandatory...

Como o uso de medidas antidumping ajuda a entender as Relações comerciais entre Brasil e Argentina.

Figueiredo, Jéssica Filardi Milker
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
A exportação de produtos abaixo do valor normal de mercado é o que determina a existência do dumping. Se sua ocorrência ocasionar qualquer tipo de dano material a indústria doméstica do país importador, o dumping é passível de retaliação via medidas antidumping. A partir do entendimento de como a requisição de contramedidas é tratada dentro do âmbito do Mercosul, visualiza-se o impacto dessas nas relações comerciais entre Brasil e Argentina. A análise do número de ocorrências de pedidos de implementação de medidas antidumping registradas na Organização Mundial do Comércio e do incremento do fluxo de comércio entre os mercados brasileiro e argentino mostra os efeitos negativos e protecionistas desse instrumento nas transações comerciais, além de salientar o viés político de sua adoção.; Products’ export below a normal market value determines the existence of dumping. Its occurrence may injure the domestic industry of an importing country, being, then, subject to retaliation through antidumping measures. By understanding countermeasures request’s treatment within Mercosur, it is possible to view the impact of trade relations between Brazil and Argentina. The study analyses the implementing orders’ number of anti-dumping measures filed at the World Trade Organization and the trade flow between the Brazilian and Argentine markets...