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Industrial upgrading nas cadeias produtivas globais: reflexões a partir das indústrias têxtil e do vestuário de Honduras e do Brasil. ; INDUSTRIAL UPGRADING IN GLOBAL PRODUCTIVE CHAINS: REFLECTIONS ON THE TEXTILE AND APPAREL INDUSTRIES OF HONDURAS AND BRAZIL. (English) / AVANCE INDUSTRIAL EM LAS CADENAS PRODUCTIVAS GLOBALES: REFLEXIONES A PARTIR DE LAS INDUSTRIAS TEXTIL Y DEL VESTIDO DE HONDURAS Y DE BRASIL. (Español)

Cruz-Moreira, Juan Ricardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
O estudo apresenta uma análise sobre as trajetórias de Progressão Industrial em empresas/setores produtivos de países em desenvolvimento que participam de cadeias globais de formação de valor. Para isto são estudadas as cadeias produtivas do complexo têxtil-vestuário em Honduras e no Brasil. A análise usa as abordagens de Cadeias de Formação de Valor - Global Commodity Chains, assim como os modelos de Industrial Upgrading e a tipologia de Modernização Industrial. Estas abordagens julgaram-se complementares para a construção do referencial teórico do estudo. Em Honduras a pesquisa focalizou o caso das empresas maquiladoras de roupa, no Brasil estudaram-se as cadeias lideradas por empresas brasileiras que atuam no mercado nacional e internacional. “Estudos de Casos Múltiplos” foi a metodologia escolhida para a realização da pesquisa de campo, em função da necessidade de estudar casos complexos em contextos diferenciados. A reflexão final conclui que há diversos caminhos de inserção nas cadeias produtivas globais para as empresas dos países em desenvolvimento. Os avanços em termos Progressão Industrial para as empresas que participam dessas cadeias são limitados não só por aspectos tecnológicos ou de habilidades da força de trabalho local se não também pelas regulamentações do comércio internacional. Os acordos preferenciais e as barreiras comerciais são fundamentais para determinar as relações entre as empresas líderes e as subcontratadas...

Shopping for apparel: how can kiosk systems help?

Koller,Monika; Königsecker,Andrea
Fonte: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo Publicador: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.67%
When shopping for apparel, many consumers seek advice from friends and family or store personnel. In-store kiosk systems might serve as an alternative decision support system. In the present study we address the key question of how such kiosk systems are evaluated by consumers. We conducted three focus group discussions with regular apparel shoppers aged between 23 and 39 years. In sum, qualitative information from 15 participants was subject to a qualitative content analysis with the aim of gaining a more comprehensive understanding of how apparel shoppers experience the shopping process. Getting a more in-depth understanding of the needs and wishes associated with the apparel shopping process gives a basis for evaluating the potential acceptance of electronic decision support systems in apparel shopping. Although our study is exploratory in nature, we are able to draw an initial picture of how kiosk systems could be used in apparel shopping.

From garment to fashion production: an analysis of the evolution of the apparel industry in Brazil

Pinto,Marcelo Machado Barbosa; Souza,Yeda Swirski de
Fonte: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração Publicador: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.82%
This study aims at contributing to the analysis of the evolution of apparel industry in Brazil by answering the following questions: (a) Does global sourcing still explain the value upgrading process in the apparel production chains?; (b) Are there new sources of value upgrading to be considered?; (c) Is the dynamics of the apparel production pervaded by a phenomenon that is strongly related to a cultural and creative know-how? Two theoretical approaches are considered to unveil the value upgrading process in the apparel production: (a) theory about global value chains and (b) studies about cultural and creative industries. To investigate the research questions we analyzed the case of the Brazilian apparel industry evolution through the use of a methodological perspective nurtured by aspects of grounded theory. The findings of this study indicate that companies are able to upgrade not only through improvements in manufacturing steps but also by means of incorporating elements of cultural distinction in the apparel production. Analysis of the Brazilian case led us to propose an integrative theoretical approach where elements of the global apparel value chains are combined with studies of cultural and creative industries. We consider that an integrative approach can better explain value creation in the apparel industry in a context of new markets...

The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade and the Crisis : Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries

Gereffi, Gary; Frederick, Stacey
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.85%
This paper examines the impact of two crises on the global apparel value chain: the World Trade Organization phase-out of the quota system for textiles and apparel in 2005, which provided access for many poor and small export-oriented economies to the markets of industrialized countries, and the current economic recession that has lowered demand for apparel exports and led to massive unemployment across the industry s supply chain. An overarching trend has been the process of global consolidation, whereby leading apparel suppliers (countries and firms alike) have strengthened their positions in the industry. On the country side, China has been the big winner, although Bangladesh, India, and Vietnam have also continued to expand their roles in the industry. On the firm side, the quota phase-out and economic recession have accelerated the ongoing shift to more streamlined global supply chains, in which lead firms desire to work with fewer, larger, and more capable suppliers that are strategically located around the world. The paper concludes with recommendations for how developing countries as well as textile and apparel suppliers can adjust to the crisis.

Vertical and Regional Integration to Promote African Textiles and Clothing Exports : A Close Knit Family?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
Apparel production is especially labor intensive, with low start-up investments and easily transferable technology. Furthermore, the labor requirements can be easily met with low and semi-skilled workers, especially women. As a result, many countries with competitive labor costs, especially in South and East Asia, have captured significant shares in the world market during the last four decades. Despite the potential development benefits and their various sources of comparative advantage, few African countries have managed to establish a presence in the global textiles and apparel markets until recently. As a result, Africa as a whole remains a net importer of textiles and clothing even though it is a net exporter of cotton. The future of apparel exporters in sub-Saharan Africa is, however, rather uncertain as they face two major challenges for their products: i) increased competition from large, low-wage producers such as India, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan following the phase-out of quotas after the expiry of the ATC; and...

Female Wages in the Apparel Industry Post-MFA : The Cases of Cambodia and Sri Lanka

Savchenko, Yevgeniya; Lopez Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.86%
The end of the Multi-fiber Arrangement/Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in 2005 was a major policy change that affected the allocation of global apparel productions well as the lives of workers involved in this sector. Since the apparel industry is often the major female employer in developing countries, this policy change was expected to have major implications for women. This paper analyzes the wages and working conditions of women in the apparel sector in Cambodia and Sri Lanka following the phase-out the Multi-fibre Arrangement. In both countries, apparel is a major source of exports, and women constitute 70 to 80 percent of the workers employed in the apparel industry. The paper finds that after the removal of the Multi-fibre Arrangement, apparel prices declined as a result of the increased competition. The theoretical model suggests that a decrease in prices would lead to a decrease in apparel wage premiums relative to other industries in the short run and the widening of the male-female wage gap in the long run. The empirical findings support these theoretical predictions. Wage premiums in the apparel sector relative to other industries went down post-Multi-fibre Arrangement in Cambodia and Sri Lanka and the male-female wage gap increased. The paper finds mixed results in terms of working conditions in Cambodia and Sri Lanka.

The Promise and Peril of Post-MFA Apparel Production

Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Robertson, Raymond
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.67%
For anyone concerned about the effects of globalization on poverty in developing countries, the apparel sector in general and the end of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) and the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) in particular are key areas of interest. As an important first step toward industrialization, the apparel sector continues to provide an alternative for workers in low-wage agriculture or service jobs (especially less-skilled workers and women), even after other manufacturing sectors are established. By providing formal labor experience, these jobs hold the promise of lifelong participation in the labor market, which in the long term can help workers move out of poverty. Therefore, understanding how employment, wage premiums, and the structure of the apparel industry have changed after the end of the MFA and ATC is important to appreciate the effects of this significant policy change on poverty.

Incentives, Exports and International Competitiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa : Lessons from the Apparel Industry

Conway, Patrick; Shah, Manju
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.85%
This country-level analysis of international trading patterns examines all sub-Saharan (SSA) countries for which trade data exist. Firm-level analysis is restricted to five countries: Kenya, Mauritius, Madagascar, Swaziland, and Lesotho, for which enterprise surveys are available from the period just before or after the elimination of the final quotas in 2005, under the Agreement for Textiles and Clothing (ATC). Comparators were selected from Asia (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Vietnam), and North Africa (Morocco, Egypt), as benchmarks for the SSA countries, and also to examine their performance relative to normal world trading patterns and volumes. The findings, along with corresponding policy recommendations, are summarized, and key issues are addressed, including which countries adjusted to this with lowest cost; what lessons can the SSA countries draw from this episode in their negotiation and exploitation of trade preferences offered by the US, EU and other potential markets; and how does an SSA country create or attract an export-ready apparel firm. Does the poor performance of sub-Saharan African (SSA) exporters in the period since the removal of quotas in 2005...

Preferential Market Access Design: Evidence and Lessons from African Apparel Exports to the US and the EU

de Melo, Jaime; Portugal-Perez, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.79%
Least developed countries rely on preferential market access. Proof of sufficient transformation has to be provided to customs in importing countries by meeting Rules of Origin requirements to benefit from these preferences. These Rules of Origin have turned out to be complicated and burdensome for exporters in the least developed countries. Starting around 2001, under the United States Africa Growth Opportunity Act, 22 African countries exporting apparel to the United States can use fabric from any origin (single transformation) and still meet the criterion for preferential access (the so-called Special Rule), while the European Union continued to require yarn to be woven into fabric and then made into apparel in the same country (double transformation). This paper uses panel estimates over 1996-2004 to exploit this quasi-experimental change in the design of preferences. The paper estimates that this simplification contributed to an increase in export volume of about 168 percent for the top seven beneficiaries or approximately four times as much as the 44 percent growth effect from the initial preference access under the Africa Growth Opportunity Act without the single transformation. This change in design also mattered for diversity in apparel exports...

Price Effects of Preferential Market Access: The Caribbean Basin Initiative and the Apparel Sector

Özden, Çaglar; Sharma, Gunjan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Preferential trade arrangements should be evaluated by analyzing their effect on prices, rather than the total value of trade, as emphasized in the theoretical literature but rarely implemented empirically. The authors analyze the impact of the unilateral preferences granted by the U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) on the prices received by eligible apparel exporters. They use fixed effects generalized least squares (GLS) estimation to isolate the effects of various other factors (such as quality, exchange rates, and transactions costs) and identify the effects of tariff preferences. The authors find that CBI exporters only capture around two-thirds of their preference margin, despite the fairly competitive nature of the apparel market. This translates into a 9 percent increase in the relative prices they receive, but these numbers vary across countries and years. Countries specializing in higher-value items capture more of the preference margin while implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement has a negative effect. The authors analyze the effect of Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA) quotas imposed on third countries (such as China) and find that the benefits of CBI preferences will be significantly reduced once the quotas are fully removed in 2005.

Cut from the Same Cloth: The US Textile and Apparel Industry and Post-Disaster Designs for Haiti.

Edwards, Ransford F., Jr.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the aftermath of the 2010 Haitian earthquake, various neoliberal strategies have been advanced to help in short-term disaster mitigation and reconstruction, as well as more long-term improvements in the country’s overall economic integration and growth. One such strategy has been focused on revitalizing the country’s apparel assembly industries through an aggressive expansion of export processing zones (EPZs). The disaster, it appears, represented an important opportunity to improve economic conditions by reorganizing the country’s role in the global apparel commodity chain. However, this reorganization conflicts with the preferences of US textile and apparel producers who have used trade preference programs to position Haiti as an off-shore apparel assembly hub. An examination of trade policies enacted in response to a series of disasters reveals The continued shift of power from the traditional textiles protectionist bloc to more transnationally-oriented apparel producers. This study traces these conflictual business interests within the context of global supply chains, transnational capitalism, and enduring US national economic interests. Ultimately, the 2010 Haitian earthquake represents a redefinition of the country’s role in the apparel commodity chain; a role within a global network defined by locationally fluid...

Market Access and Welfare under Free Trade Agreements : Textiles under NAFTA

Cadot, Olivier; Carrere, Celine; de Melo, Jaime; Portugal-Perez, Alberto
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.76%
The effective market access granted to textiles and apparel under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is estimated, taking into account the presence of rules of origin. First, estimates are provided of the effect of tariff preferences combined with rules of origin on the border prices of Mexican final goods exported to the United States (U.S.) and of U.S. intermediate goods exported to Mexico, based on eight-digit harmonized system tariff-line data. A third of the estimated rise in the border price of Mexican apparel products is found to compensate for the cost of complying with NAFTA's rules of origin, and NAFTA is found to have raised the price of U.S. intermediate goods exported to Mexico by around 12 percent, with downstream rules of origin accounting for a third of that increase. Second, simulations are used to estimate welfare gains for Mexican exporters from preferential market access under NAFTA. The presence of rules of origin is found to approximately halve these gains.

Bringing HOPE to Haiti's Apparel Industry : Improving Competitiveness through Factory-level

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.86%
In October 2008 the United States Congress enacted legislation that gave the Republic of Haiti expanded, flexible access to the U.S. market for its apparel exports. The Second Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement act of 2008 (HOPE II, updated from the original legislation passed in 2006) was welcomed for its potential to revitalize a decaying industry, attract new foreign investment, expand formal sector employment, and jumpstart growth and opportunity for Haiti's people. The purpose of the analysis of Haiti's apparel value-chain in this report is to provide a comprehensive view of the advantages and challenges of manufacturing in Haiti relative to manufacturing in the Caribbean and Central America and elsewhere. It situates Haiti's attributes and suggests priorities for improving its competitiveness relative to that of other suppliers. An apparel buyer in the United States today juggles an impressive list of potential suppliers from China and elsewhere in Asia and from Latin America and beyond. Each country offers a unique combination of workforce skills...

Price Effects of Preferential Market Access : Caribbean Basin Initiative and the Apparel Sector

Özden, Çaglar; Sharma, Gunjan
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.7%
Preferential trade arrangements should be evaluated by their effect on prices rather than by their effect on the total value of trade. This point is emphasized in the theoretical literature but rarely implemented empirically. This article analyzes the U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative's (CBI's) impact on the prices received by eligible apparel exporters. The CBI's apparel preferences are the most important and heavily used unilateral preferences because of high trade barriers imposed on exports from the rest of the world. A fixed effect generalized least squares (GLS) estimation is used to isolate the effects of other factors (such as quality, exchange rates, and transaction costs) and to identify the effects of tariff preferences. CBI exporters capture only about two-thirds of their preference margin despite the high degree of competition among importers. This translates into a 9 percent increase in the relative prices they receive, with some variance across countries and years. Countries specializing in higher value items capture more of the preference margin...

The transformation of the North American apparel industry: is NAFTA a curse or a blessing?

Gereffi, Gary
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.76%
Includes bibliography; Abstract The article uses the global commodity chains framework to explain the transformations in production, trade and corporate strategies that altered the global apparel industry over the past decades and changed the conditions for industrial upgrading. The apparel industry is identified as a buyer-driven commodity chain that contains three types of lead firms: retailers, marketers and branded manufacturers. As apparel production has become globally dispersed and competition between these firms has intensified, each type of lead firm has developed extensive global sourcing capabilities. While 'de-verticalizing' out of production, they are fortifying their activities in the high value-added design and marketing segments of the apparel chain, leading to a blurring of the boundaries between these firms and a realignment of interests within the chain.Industrial upgrading in the global apparel industry is primarily associated with the shift from assembly to full-package production. Compared with the mere assembly of imported inputs, full-package production fundamentally changes the relationship between buyer and supplier in a direction that gives far more autonomy and learning potential for industrial upgrading to the supplying firm. Full-package production is needed because the retailers and marketers that order the garments do not know how to make them. Particular places such as the East Asian newly industrializing economies of Hong Kong...

Early stages of apparel design: how to define collaborative needs for PLM and fashion?

SEGONDS, Frédéric; MANTELET, Fabrice; MARANZANA, Nicolas; GAILLARD, Stéphane
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.47%
Companies are faced with increasing challenges in their own environment. In several areas of the industry, but also among the suppliers, more and more competitors emerge. Companies react to this pressure by trying to implement new technologies for their products and offering more innovative products to successfully face direct competition. Overall, globalisation put pressure on companies in terms of innovation, costs and time to market. This climate of economic competition forces businesses to adapt to the expectations of their customers. To achieve this change, it becomes necessary amongst other things to reduce design time. Thus, practices in apparel design have evolved in order to be able to manage projects in new work environments. After presenting a literature review of collaborative functionalities used in product design, our paper presentsan illustration of a case study for Product Lifecycle Management research in the apparel industry, focusing on the definition of needs in terms of collaborative functions to support the design of apparel products, in an industrial context.

A Framework for Inter-Firm Sustainability Collaboration: Evidence From the Global Apparel and Footwear Sector

Murphy, Alison Joy
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 23/04/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.74%
Corporate sustainability has matured, evolved, and expanded in scope, however social and environmental issues continue to persist globally. Many firms now recognize that inter-firm collaboration is a cost-effective way to address systemic issues that are bigger than any one firm, and unlock the shared value that comes with systemic change. There are many examples where firms have worked together in collaborative relationships, only to fall short of their goals due to competitive self-interest, a shortage of trust, and the absence of a fully shared purpose. These successes and failures beg the question as to why some collaborative groups are more effective and create more value than others. To examine this question more deeply, we looked at collaboration in the global apparel and footwear sector. The sector’s widespread impacts are associated with rapidly changing market forces, including downward pressure on production costs, geographically dispersed production, high pricing volatility, low market predictability, and typically low profit margins. The highly integrated, complex, and competitive industry results in a downward spiral of quality, labor standards, and environmental pollution. Despite significant action and investment by firms...

BEHIND THE RUNWAY: A Global Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Apparel Export Competitiveness in the Last Fifteen Years

Estefan, Silvana
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This Senior Honors Paper examines the recent and current changes in the fascinating and volatile apparel industry. Why have some countries increased their export market share while others have lost their competitive edge in the global arena of apparel manufacturing? Are low wages the only indicator of apparel export competitiveness? What is the impact of international trade regulations and worldwide governance indicators such as regulatory quality? I explore the effect of international trade regulations and non-trade variables. More specifically, I theoretically and empirically analyze the effects the Multi-Fiber Arrangement, wages, and regulatory quality on apparel export competitiveness across countries since 1995. A cross-national empirical analysis had never been pursued covering a year-by-year analysis of the last decade and a half, a period where vast changes have shaped the apparel export market. Additionally, most of the research conducted in this topic is based on either a managerial, social and environmental, or strictly trade-related sphere. The significance of this Senior Honors Thesis lies in its contribution to the literature as a whole by enlarging the number of countries and years studied, by expanding the analysis across fields...

Forecasting 2.0: using Web 2.0 for market research in apparel product development

Williams, Shahera
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.82%
Orzada, Belinda; Web 2.0 technologies have allowed for increased conversations regarding fashion and apparel products and brands. Wickett, Gaskill, and Damhorst’s Revised Apparel Retail Product Development Model (1999) shows the steps undergone in the traditional in-house product development process. This qualitative research study aimed to examine the use of Web 2.0 tools, specifically social networking systems, to conduct market research within the apparel product development process. Three research questions guided this study: 1) Are Web 2.0 social networking tools being utilized in product development processes? 2) What stages within the Apparel Retail Product Development cycle most benefit from Web 2.0 social networking tools? 3) What stages of innovation adoption in regards to Web 2.0 are seen in different apparel companies? Ten apparel industry professionals were interviewed on the use of Web 2.0 social networking applications in their positions and within their firm. This non-probability sample responded to thirteen questions investigating the connection between apparel product development and Web 2.0 consumer data collection. Responses were analyzed and coded based on relevant themes and varying levels of adoption of Web 2.0 social networking tools into apparel product development processes were found. Designers were found to utilize blogs and social networking the most for inspiration and information on target consumers. Small and developing apparel firms were the most innovative in their use of social media. It is inevitable that more apparel firms will utilize and adopt this new technology since social networking tools are becoming more wide spread. Fashion brands are taking note that this is an enhanced way to communicate with their consumers...

Avaliação dos mecanismos de aprendizagem tecnológica de empresas de pequeno porte no aranjo produtivo local vestuarista de Santa Catarina; Evaluation of technological learning mechanisms in smal-sized companies in the local production of apparel of Santa Catarina: a case study

Santos, Bruna Melo; UFSC; Cario, Silvio Antonio Ferraz; UFSC; Fernandes, Ricardo Lopes; UNICAMP
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8085.2009v12n2p29O desenvolvimento de atividades inovativas constitui um requerimento fundamental para as empresas construírem melhores condições competitivas. Para tanto, empresas desenvolvem mecanismos de aprendizagem visando promover mudanças técnicas relevantes em produtos, processos e gestão. Considerando este referencial, o presente estudo avalia os processos de aprendizagem tecnológica nas micro e pequenas empresas do arranjo produtivo vestuarista em Brusque, Santa Catarina. Com tal propósito, foram entrevistadas 46 empresas de pequeno porte, cujas informações permitiram constatar a existência rotineira de processos inovativos. Estes ocorrem, sobretudo, a partir dos mecanismos de aprendizagem que se processam na produção através dos trabalhadores (learning by doing), com fornecedores (learning by  interacting) e clientes (learning by using). Como resultado, os esforços inovativos têm possibilitado às empresas acompanharem as mudanças no padrão tecnológico, postas em termos de moda, design e estilo dos produtos no mercado.; The development of innovative activities constitutes a fundamental requirement for companies to constitute improved competitive conditions. Thus, companies develop apprenticeship mechanisms with the objective of promoting relevant technical changes on products...