Este artigo discute os conceitos concernentes à tecnologia social num mundo globalizado, em contraposição às propostas que defendem a adoção, pelas multinacionais, de estratégias organizacionais focadas na base da pirâmide social. Uma análise de aplicação desse novo conceito de tecnologia social é feita a partir de um estudo de caso. Como resultado, identificou-se o potencial inovador dessas tecnologias, em termos de eficácia, possibilidade de multiplicação e desenvolvimento em escala para a solução de problemas que afetam a maioria dos seres humanos, como os relacionados com a demanda por água, alimentos, educação, energia, saúde, entre outros, ao mesmo tempo que promovem a inclusão social e protegem o meio ambiente.; This article discusses the concepts of social technology in a globalized world, in contrast with more recent views that advocate the adoption, by multinational companies, of organizational strategies focused on the base of the social pyramid. An analysis of the application of this new social technology concept is made through a case study. As a result, the innovative potential of these technologies was identified, in terms of efficiency, possibility of dissemination, and scale development, in order to solve problems that affect most people...
In recent years we have seen a confluence of science and technology that portends great impact to business strategy and product development. Just as physicists, chemists and biologists have extended their knowledge to other fields in pursuit of their own research, so, too, must senior business managers extend beyond competency in finance and marketing to comprehend fundamental scientific principles in order to make strategic business decisions. In addition to technical knowledge specific to their particular industry, successful leaders of the very near future will have to understand the ebb and flow of new technology discoveries "emerging" from the lab to the market, and will skillfully leverage these dynamics to navigate their companies through waves of innovation. The speed of scientific discovery and the convergence of multiple technologies to influence a single product create a compelling argument for corporate investigation of a range of emerging technologies and tracking of developments in multiple industries. "Technical intelligence" is knowledge, derived from analysis of appropriate metrics, trends and activities, which informs strategic planning and decision-making. This research surveys the academic literature and examines some methods and tools for gathering and employing technical intelligence. We conclude that an amalgamation of strategic evaluation methods...
This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate these impacts: 1. Reduce consumption; 2. Select materials to minimize impacts; and 3. Explore alternative new materials that have lesser impacts. The main findings and recommendations in each of these areas are as follows: Reduce Consumption: While absolute consumption of materials will grow with a growing population, recycling and reuse of structural members can reduce use of virgin material. Since recycling is already widely practiced, reuse of structural members is the primary means of further reducing consumption. Barriers to reuse can be eliminated by establishing design standards and regulations for reuse of structural sections, and creating functioning markets for re-useable sections. Select materials to minimize impacts: While designers are keen to select materials with minimum impacts, they do not have appropriate education or tools for the purpose. Standardization and simplification of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools, and education of designers are identified as the main areas for improvement. The main recommendations are: i) standardize LCA tools; reduce the number of impact categories...
This thesis examines the problem of resource allocation in Africa to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It focuses on the use of one specific technology, the anti-HIV antibody test. After describing the characteristics of the epidemic, the special problems that accompany the allocation of health resources in Africa are explored. A short description of the biological and technical aspects of HIV testing is followed by three case studies which examine different uses of the technology. (1) A model of the use of HIV testing to screen blood donors is demonstrated in several hypothetical situations to evaluate under which circumstances HIV screening is cost-effective and which is the most cost-effective of a number of testing systems. (2) Use of the HIV test is considered from a cost-effectiveness perspective for the purpose of helping to confirm the diagnosis of HIV-related disease. Possible benefits of testing (including more rapid initiation of appropriate treatment, avoidance of the cost and iatrogenic complications of inappropriate treatment, and more efficient rationing of health care resources) are compared to possible costs (including monetary costs, emotional costs, and costs associated with false test results). A detailed protocol is presented of a prospective study to evaluate the appropriate use of the HIV test in the inpatient hospital setting. (3) Serologic surveys...
Given the range of events that can occur at a nuclear power plant throughout its lifetime, the appropriate course of action associated with addressing these events is equally variant. While the issues concerning quantification of the frequency associated with these events can be addressed using reliability models or PSA, the actual path and decisions made concerning the appropriate outcome is not readily obvious. Decisions are made on the basis of importance of cost, health and safety to the decision maker. These decisions include external influences, such as regulation and media attention, as well as internal influences. Using a formalized decision making process, the importance of these factors to the decision maker can be determined utilizing sets of weights and values for cost, health and safety (performance measures). Having assigned weights and values to each performance measure, an integral part of the decision making process is comparing assigned values to ensure consistency. It is useful to examine the "value of a life" in order to perform these consistency or "sanity checks." A case study is performed on decision making for a nuclear power plant and presented reflecting the data collection process for formal decision making with the aid of consistency checks. The formal decision methodology is completed by the consistency checks. Having established consistency checks and completed the analysis through their use...
In 2000 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in conjunction with CARE International began working with several local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the Nyanza Province of Kenya to reduce the rate of waterborne diseases. In 2002, CDC partnered up with the Society for Women and AIDS in Kenya (SWAK), a local NGO, to implement safe water treatment in SWAK-affiliated communities. SWAK is seeking ways to improve and expand sales of safe water treatment products in all of its communities. The water treatment sales expansion study has two components: · A technical component that addresses the most appropriate treatment · A business component that addresses marketing and sales of the products. This study focuses on the technical component. Its purpose is to evaluate the most appropriate water treatment in SWAK communities in the Nyanza Province. Three water treatment products were assessed - WaterGuard®, PuR®, and an alternative naturally occurring coagulant made of seeds from the Moringa tree. WaterGuard® is a chlorine- based disinfectant; PuR® is a coagulant and chlorine-based disinfectant. Both are already being marketed by SWAK. Moringa trees are indigenous to the region. Research was conducted in the United States and Kenya from October to April 2005. Field evaluation in Nyanza during January consisted of surveys that addressed water treatment practices...
This thesis considers the problem of the large amount of unwanted email that is being sent and received, which lowers the aggregate value of email as a communication medium from what it would otherwise be. This problem is commonly known as the "spam problem." Solutions to the spam problem involve curbing the adverse affects of existing technology as well as steering technology development in a socially beneficial direction. Unlike some other technology and policy problems, the reasons for the existence of this problem are well known and the desired effects of ideal solutions can be readily articulated. However, attempted solutions to date have not made much progress at solving the problem. I posit that this failure stems from the fact the spam problem is really a complex system, and that solutions to date have not been designed to interact with this system in a useful manner. I show that the spam problem is a complex system, and should be dealt with by developing strategies to holistically interact with it. Such strategies must embrace both technical and legal realities simultaneously in order to be successful. They must also avoid causing negative side effects that negate their purpose. First, I build a model of the system surrounding the spam problem in the form of a Causal Loop Diagram. This diagram shows the causal interactions between the various technical...
A study was performed to determine possible factors that contribute to successful implementation of new technologies in developing nations. Engineers and other inventors have devoted great effort to Appropriate Technology design over the last two decades, but few comprehensive case studies currently exist examining factors that lead to technology success. Existing studies of appropriate technology were summarized and a quantitative model was created to tabulate the data. Factors of local maintenance, local production, and local need of a technology were found to be the most important to sustainable technology implementation. The model was then tested with a current Appropriate Technology project to examine the relevance of its results. Overall, the model proved applicable, though furthers studies are suggested to refine the model.; by Edward F. Hsieh.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references.
New emerging modeling and simulation environments have the potential to provide easy access to design models and simulations on the Internet, much as the World Wide Web (WWW) has provided easy access to information. To support sharing, integration and reuse of web-enabled applications (design models and simulations), a search engine for functionally appropriate/similar models is needed. There are ongoing efforts to develop ontological descriptions for web content and simulation model functionality, where semantics of available services are explicitly represented using a shared knowledge representation of concepts and rules. Simulation publishers are responsible of semantically marking up the interfaces with such ontological annotations. In contrast to such an approach, this work proposes a flexible, implicit, pattern matching solution that does not require any extra annotations to accompany, the models, much as the way current web search engines operate. A learning-through-association, similarity-based approach was developed. It uses only pre-existing low-level information in web-enabled simulation interfaces-such as model and parameters names, parameter units, parameter scale, input/output structure, causality, and documentation - to synthesize templates that become archetypes for functional concepts.; (cont.) Then...
The identification of alternative venues of learning that provide people with life and professional skills is valuable in societies where educational resources are constrained. To better understand paths of learning not found in the traditional educational system, and the incidental benefits that accrue from those types of learning, this thesis examines the lives and careers of five-star hotel employees. The high-class hotel industry was chosen as an appropriate place in which to locate personal and professional benefits due to the sophisticated training programs offered in the industry and the multi-faceted nature of hotel work, which could potentially provide employees opportunities to gain a diversity of skills. By presenting one case in the hotel industry of a learning process that may be taking place more widely in other industries, the thesis seeks to provide evidence that could help governments more effectively reallocate educational resources. Based on criteria that included hotel type, hotel location, existence of training programs, and cooperation level of hotel employees, two hotels in Seoul, South Korea were selected for the study. Interviews were conducted in both hotels with employees from various departments and levels.; (cont.) Surveys were also distributed to a larger set of employees in both hotels. The findings from the interview responses were categorized into thirteen themes...
As a large-scale, long-term transportation project, the Chuo Shinkansen Maglev Project in Japan includes various uncertainties. Among them, two major uncertainties are identified in this thesis: the uncertainty of demand and the risk of R&D. Because each Maglev train requires a dedicated Power Conversion System (PCS) but a different one as it moves along the route, it is required to estimate the future demand accurately to determine the number of PCSs to construct. At the same time, the R&D to advance the technologies of PCS has the possibility of improving the project value by enabling staged flexible system development strategies. Since it is difficult to correctly estimate demand and R&D results, a framework that can evaluate projects with explicit considerations of these uncertainties is needed. In the light of the above background, this thesis develops a quantitative model that is appropriate for evaluating the Chuo Shinkansen Project. More specifically, this thesis applies the hybrid real options model, which is suitable for appraising projects with both market risks and R&D risks, in an innovative manner, addressing four major complexities that arise when applying the model to the project:; (cont.) the difficulty of estimating the demand of a new train system...
This thesis recommends the use of horizontal-flow roughing filters to treat spring water of variable annual quality in MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand. The public drinking water system for 45,000 refugees is overseen by Aide Medicale Intemacionale, with which this project was conducted. Half the drinking water for the camp is provided by thirteen springs. The volume and turbidity of these springs varies annually, correlating with the rainy and dry seasons. Treating the varying turbidity and volume at these sources so that the water can be effectively disinfected is the treatment goal. Available materials and operation and maintenance capabilities are also design parameters. Horizontal-flow roughing filtration was determined to fit these parameters and a design with two equivalent filters operating in parallel is recommended. One important feature of the filters is baffles that dictate the flow path of water through the filter. A second feature is an outflow at the top of the filter that will maintain a constant water volume in the filter. The feasibility of the design is based on flow tests and turbidity measurements taken on site as well as weekly flow rates and turbidities for 2007 provided by AMI. The requirements for mechanical regeneration of the filter are also determined.; by Katherine Ann Vater.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
The authors develop an endogenous growth
model that combines structural change with repeated product
improvement. That is, the technologies in one sector of the
model become not only increasingly capital-intensive, but
also progressively productive over time. Application of the
basic model to less developed economies shows that the
(optimal) industrial structure and the (most) appropriate
technologies in less developed economies are endogenously
determined by their factor endowments. A firm in a less
developed country that enters a capital-intensive, advanced
industry in a developed country would be nonviable owing to
the relative scarcity of capital in the factor endowments of
less developed countries.
Whereas evaluation has often been
considered an activity required by donors, but fundamentally
foreign to local culture, there is however plenty which has
been done recently to develop participatory, and empowering
modes of program evaluation, giving local stakeholders
active roles, and a say in how evaluation is performed.
Furthermore, unanticipated results of participatory
evaluation practices in West Africa has brought to light
local attitudinal approaches to evaluation, thus creating a
basis for the development of an appropriate evaluation
methodology. Incredibly, one of the means for such results
was the use of proverbs, which encapsulate local attitudes,
and provide insight in evaluation-related issues, such as
accountability, performance, and social responsibility. Such
"proverbial" culture placed evaluation at its best
form of collective decision-making, making the participatory
approach to evaluation a leitmotif. This attitude creates
the basis for helping beneficiaries develop a
culturally-appropriate technology of democratic self-governance.
The purpose of this report is to show
how development issues and policy initiatives shaped the
design and structure of the science, technology, and
innovation (STI) capacity-building program that eventually
emerged from the partnership between the Government of
Rwanda and the World Bank. Too often, government STI
capacity building programs do not closely link specific STI
investments and the country's economic and social
development objectives, almost as if investing in science
and research and development (R&D) obviated the need to
design detailed programmatic linkages and develop mission
oriented capacity-building programs. These challenges fall
into two broad categories: (a) improving the lives of the
rural poor, reducing poverty, and achieving the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) and (b) generating wealth,
diversifying the economy, and supporting private sector
initiatives to produce and sell value-added natural resource
(mostly agricultural) exports.
It has been proposed that the field of appropriate technology (AT) - small-scale, energy efficient and low-cost solutions, can be of tremendous assistance in many of the sustainable development challenges, such as food and water security, health, shelter, education and work opportunities. Unfortunately, there has not yet been a significant uptake of AT by organizations, researchers, policy makers or the mainstream public working in the many areas of the development sector. Some of the biggest barriers to higher AT engagement include: 1) AT perceived as inferior or ‘poor persons technology’, 2) questions of technological robustness, design, fit and transferability, 3) funding, 4) institutional support, as well as 5) general barriers associated with tackling rural poverty. With the rise of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for online networking and knowledge sharing, the possibilities to tap into the collaborative open-access and open-source AT are growing, and so is the prospect for collective poverty reducing strategies, enhancement of entrepreneurship, communications, education and a diffusion of life-changing technologies. In short, the same collaborative philosophy employed in the success of open source software can be applied to hardware design of technologies to improve sustainable development efforts worldwide. To analyze current barriers to open source appropriate technology (OSAT) and explore opportunities to overcome such obstacles...
Este artigo é uma narrativa sobre a trajetória do fenômeno das tecnologias apropriadas, a partir de sua origem na Índia até o Brasil do primeiro decênio do século XXI, por meio da qual se pretende responder duas questões:
Qual o caminho ou quais os descaminhos percorridos pela ideia de tecnologia apropriada desde os anos 50? Qual a pertinência em se resgatar o debate sobre tecnologia apropriada?
No Brasil, a narrativa é construída a partir de três experiências: município de Lages (SC); estado de São Paulo, no governo de Franco Montoro (SP); Distrito Federal, no governo de Cristovam Buarque.
A partir do ano 2000 muitas dessas práticas começaram a ser identificadas como tecnologia social. Neste longo percurso, ocorrem dois movimentos: a prática desconhecia o nome; e a prática é reconhecida como tecnologia social. Em ambos, a ideia de tecnologia apropriada não é explícita.
Os ensinamentos das experiências de Lages, São Paulo e Distrito Federal foram esquecidos. O esquecimento não é gratuito e se justifica pelas seguintes hipóteses: ausência de criatividade; disseminação de práticas onerosas; racionalidade política eleitoral dependente de vultosos recursos financeiros.
Muito desse “esquecimento” também foi resultado...
The energy sector faces a multitude of challenges related to climate change and energy security. These challenges will likely prompt considerable changes in the coming decades, including significant investment and new market design. To help fulfill multiple goals and limit the necessary tradeoffs among them, industry and policymakers alike are looking to new technologies. However, uncertainty regarding the challenges, the solutions, and the behavior of the energy system, make it difficult to discern which investment is right for what time. This thesis reviews the potential changes in today's energy system and examines the difficulties of addressing challenges that appear urgent yet elusive. An extensive literature review considers the problems of clean energy investment decision-making in modern energy systems, and evaluates the potential contributions of a real options approach and system dynamics. A case study on the market growth of Gas-to-Liquids technology provides more detail on the use of system dynamics to gauge market uncertainties. Admitting to the lack of appropriate tools to objectively evaluate strategies for tackling today's energy challenges, this thesis helps answer why such questions as the appropriate timing investment are so difficult to answer...
Parte-se da hipótese de que para satisfazer as necessidades de saúde do povo será necessário, entre outras coisas, que os serviços de saúde utilizem tecnologias adequadas, quando e como definir o que se considera "adequado", e quem deverá fazê-lo. Para tanto foi realizada pesquisa para detectar e analisar comparativamente a definição que, a partir das perspectivas da população e dos profissionais, se faz da tecnologia apropriada em obstetrícia e também da tecnologia utilizada nos distintos setores da assistência (público, de obras sociais e privado). São apresentados alguns dados referentes a dois aspectos da assistência: utilização de técnicas e procedimentos biomédicos e consideração das relações interpessoais no processo de assitência. Observou-se que foram utilizadas modalidades de assistência diferenciadas segundo o setor, sendo, no privado mais tecnologizadas e medicalizadas, bem como nesse mesmo setor são levadas mais em consideração as relações interpessoais. Além disso, as opiniões dos profissionais, quanto ao que se considera adequado, estão mais em concordância com as das mães deste setor, sendo suas necessidades satisfeitas em maior intensidade que as dos demais. Como resultado deste enfoque...