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As (des)vantagens de ser invisível – a violência sexual contra homens sob o prisma do direito humanitário internacional

Antunes, Gabriela Souza
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
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46.64%
Ao longo das décadas, a história dos conflitos tem testemunhado a devastação de comunidades e etnias quase inteiras, o cometimento de crimes bárbaros e impensáveis, a constante violação de direitos em todos os espaços da vida e do corpo. A violência sexual vem sendo utilizada como forma de humilhar, dispersar e dominar grupos adversários. Estima-se que esse tipo de violência vem permeando conflitos desde o início dos tempos, no entanto, relatos e dados a respeito de tais violências tendem a representar somente vítimas do sexo feminino, negligenciando a população masculina que sofre o mesmo tipo de violações. Exemplos como as cerca de 200.000 mulheres estupradas durante a batalha de independência de Bangladesh, em 1971 os estupros realizados pelas milícias Janjaweed nos campos de Darfur, os horrores relatados na ex- Iugoslávia, os atos impensáveis de Ruanda, todos esses incidentes relatam violências cruéis reconhecendo, no entanto somente uma das vítimas, invisibilizando os demais atingidos. Estabelecida como crime contra a humanidade desde 1949 pela IV Convenção de Genebra, a violência de gênero e, especialmente, a violência sexual em tempos de guerra teve seu reconhecimento reafirmado por diversos documentos internacionais...

On the complexity of analyzing armed opposition: objectives, labeling, and reflections on Ethiopia’s Somali Region

Ylönen, Aleksi
Fonte: Department of History of the University of West Bohemia Publicador: Department of History of the University of West Bohemia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Since the end of the Cold War, a significant number of armed conflicts have taken place in Africa. Most of these conflicts have occurred within states and many African governments have faced opposition movements resorting to violence and armed struggle. However, the political claims and trajectories of armed opposition groups have differed to a large degree in relation to their distinct political contexts. While some have become considerably apolitical over time, others have sought to live up to their initially-stated ideologies and objectives. Moreover, the often complex, disputed, and fragmented nature of the leaderships of armed opposition organizations in Africa tends to mask their ultimate political objectives, which are usually difficult to pinpoint. This article presents a selection of tentative findings from a study on armed opposition groups in the greater Horn of Africa. Focusing on the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) in Ethiopia, it highlights the problems associated with determining the political objectives of armed opposition organizations, as well as the difficulties associated with labeling such groups. The article argues that denominating rebel groups as “terrorist” serves to justify certain approaches towards them...

Medical Care in Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law and State Responses to Terrorism

Lewis, Dustin Andrew; Modirzadeh, Naz Khatoon; Blum, Gabriella
Fonte: Harvard Law School Program on International Law and Armed Conflict Publicador: Harvard Law School Program on International Law and Armed Conflict
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
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The surge in armed conflicts involving terrorism has brought to the fore the general question of medical care in armed conflict and the particular legal protections afforded to those providing such care to terrorists. Against this backdrop, we evaluate international humanitarian law (IHL) protections for wartime medical assistance concerning terrorists. Through that lens, we expose gaps and weaknesses in IHL. We also examine tensions between IHL and state responses to terrorism more broadly. In studying the IHL regime applicable to medical care, substantive fragmentation and gaps in legal protection between states and across types of conflict emerge. These ruptures are not new. But they are increasingly noticeable as terrorism is more frequently conceptualized as forming part of armed conflicts and as more states undertake aggressive responses to terrorist threats. The U.N. Security Council has been a key driver of these responses, requiring member states to take more and broader steps to obviate terrorist threats. Yet so far the Council has not required that, in doing so, states fully exempt impartial wartime medical care, even in circumstances that would render such care protected under IHL. Rather, the Council seems to consider providing medical assistance and supplies to al-Qaeda and its associates as at least a partial ground for designating those who facilitate such care as terrorists themselves. The overall result today is unsatisfactory. By prosecuting physicians for supporting terrorists through medical care in armed conflicts...

Forests, Fragility and Conflict : Overview and Case Studies

Harwell, Emily; Farah, Douglas; Blundell, Arthur G.
Fonte: Program on Forests (PROFOR), World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Program on Forests (PROFOR), World Bank, Washington, DC
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This book provides a synthesis of key themes and current knowledge about the links among forests, armed conflict, poverty, and various aspects of state fragility. The main themes addressed are: how predatory, incapable, or absent states are fragile in different ways, and their diverse relationships to forests and conflict; the mechanisms by which forests facilitate or prolong conflict, including financial flows from logging to state and non-state belligerents, the use of forests as patronage, the traffic of weapons by loggers, and the employment of belligerents by logging companies for security; the impact of conflict and fragility on forests and forest livelihoods, with a focus on cross-sectoral issues associated with managing forests after conflicts end; and the focus of reform in post conflict interventions to more effectively protect forests and forest-based livelihoods, and to mitigate further conflict. Because forests have multiple and often competing constituencies for commercial, subsistence...

The Applicability of International Humanitarian Law to “Transnational” Armed Conflicts

VASHAKMADZE, Mindia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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States are increasingly involved in violent conflicts with non-state actors. This new situation challenges the classical distinction of international humanitarian law (IHL) between international and non-international armed conflicts. However, it does not lessen the importance of IHL. The essence of this body of law – to protect civilians and those out of combat and to lessen unnecessary harm during armed conflict – remains the same. This paper examines the question as to what extent the existing body of humanitarian law applies to transnational conflicts.

The Role of Private Military and Security Companies in Non-international Armed Conflicts: Ius ad Bellum and Ius in Bello Issues

VIERUCCI, Luisa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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46.77%
The paper addresses ius ad bellum and ius in bello issues arising from the activities of private military and security companies (PMSCs) in non-international armed conflicts (NIAC). This legal analysis, which has so far been neglected by scholars, is crucial given that most conflicts where PMSCs are involved qualify at least in part as internal (e.g. Iraq, Afghanistan, Darfur (Sudan)). The ius ad bellum analysis hinges upon a distinction between the right of the legitimate government - and to some extent of national liberation movements- to make recourse to PMSCs to restore or maintain internal law and order or to repel an aggression, and the prohibition to use PMSC for combat purposes or other action on the part of armed opposition groups or third parties. At the same time, several arguments are presented to the effect that the right of the government to use foreign armed force, including services provided by private actors, is subject to a number of limitations. As to the ius in bello inquiry, where the question of the status of PMSCs, their scope of protection from attack, their treatment in case of deprivation of liberty and the responsibility of an armed opposition group under international humanitarian law are analysed, places special attention to the notion of armed forces applicable...

Armed conflicts and natural resources - Scientific report on Global Atlas and Information Centre for Conflicts and Natural Resources

KUCERA Jan; KAUFFMANN MAYEUL; DUTA ANA-MARIA; SOLER Ivette Tarrida; TENERELLI PATRIZIA; TRIANNI GIOVANNA; HALE Catherine; RIZZO Lauren; FERRI Stefano
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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The project “Global Atlas and Information Centre for Conflicts and Natural Resources” had the aim to collect and to analyse the data related to the link between armed conflicts and natural resources. Four pilot study areas were selected: African Great Lakes, Horn of Africa, Western Africa and Central Asia. The project was composed of three parts: the collection and analysis of relevant datasets, statistical conflict modelling and the creation of a data repository accessible through a dedicated website. The project had the following objectives: • To establish an information centre that collects and maintains all types of relevant information related to the exploitation and degradation of natural resources and conflicts • To statistically model the link between natural resources and conflicts • To set up a web site for sharing the data and the project outputs; JRC.G.2-Global security and crisis management

La Enfermería y los grandes conflictos bélicos; Nursing and great armed conflicts

Fernández Fernández, María José
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Português
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La profesión de Enfermería, tal y como la conocemos hoy en día, no hubiese sido posible sin los avances que se han producido en los últimos ciento sesenta años. Este período de la “Historia de la Enfermería” está paradójicamente vinculado a una serie de conflictos bélicos de consecuencias devastadoras que, sin embargo, resultaron determinantes en la evolución de los cuidados de salud. Desde 1853 con el inicio de la “Guerra de Crimea”, pasando por la “I Guerra Mundial” y la “II Guerra Mundial”, veremos el determinante papel que jugó la Enfermería en estas contiendas. Nos aproximaremos a los campos de batalla, auténticos laboratorios en materia de cuidados y atención de los heridos, a las deplorables condiciones en materia de higiene, al hacinamiento, que contribuía a la propagación de enfermedades, y a aquellas personas que, gracias a su dedicación, consiguieron implantar sistemas de ayuda sanitaria con objeto de aminorar y paliar la morbilidad y proporcionar unos cuidados cada vez más completos y profesionalizados a los heridos, reduciendo así el número de víctimas de guerra.; The profession of Nursing, as we know it nowadays, would not have been possible without the advances that have taken place in the last one hundred sixty years. This period of the “History of Nursing” is paradoxically linked to a series of armed conflicts of devastating consequences that...

Hitos del Derecho de la guerra en el siglo XX: Se consolida y evoluciona; Landmarks in the Llaw of war in the XXth century:Consolidation and evolution

Abrisketa Uriarte, Joana
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
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La guerra como parte de la realidad de las relaciones internacionales fue uno de los primeros ámbitos regulados por el Derecho Internacional. Desde finales del siglo XIX, el Derecho de los conflictos armados, también llamado Derecho internacional humanitario (DIH), ha venido limitando la capacidad de los combatientes de usar la fuerza armada. A su vez, el ámbito de protección personal de las víctimas se ha ampliado. Todo esto ha contribuido a amortiguar los efectos de los conflictos armados. El artículo distingue tres fases en la evolución del DIH durante el siglo XX: el periodo embrionario, el periodo de consolidación y el periodo de expansión. Cada una de ellas representa un hito decisivo y refleja el proceso de maduración en el que está inmerso el históricamente llamado Derecho de la guerra. Sin embargo, diversos factores, como la creciente participación de la población civil en los conflictos armados, la violencia estructural en los llamados Estados fallidos y la privatización de la fuerza armada han contribuido a poner en duda la concepción tradicional de este ámbito del Derecho internacional (fundamentalmente convencional) y a plantear nuevas vías de regulación y de control, aún no exploradas en su conjunto.; War...

German volunteers in the armed conflicts of the Italian Risorgimento 1834-70

GÖHDE, Ferdinand Nicolas
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Between 1834 and 1870, Germans participated in the armed conflicts of the Italian Risorgimento in the ranks of both Mazzini and Garibaldi and of the Pope and Francis II of Naples. While acknowledging the difficulty in analysing the motives of historical actors, the essay compares the reasons that led these Germans to volunteer and fight. For those who fought for the cause of Italian unity, the networks created in exile in the 1830s remained decisive down to 1870, whereas the mobilization of volunteers in Germany for the Papal states reached its height only later between 1867 and 1870. Despite these chronological differences, the methods used in terms of the media and forms of organization to mobilize the volunteers and to legitimize war were very similar across the political spectrum. The foreign volunteers were described by their own side as brothers, but as mere mercenaries by the respective enemy side. At the same time, Germans and Italians brought their national stereotypes to the various armed groups and armies in which they served and in ways that made the latter important places for the staging of national 're-virilization' achieved through heroic fighting.

Asymmetrical war and the notion of armed conflict - a tentative conceptualization

PAULUS, Andreas; VASHAKMADZE, Mindia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.75%
States across the globe are increasingly involved in violent conflicts with non-state groups both within and across borders. This new situation challenges the classic distinction in international humanitarian law between international and non-international armed conflicts. However, the changing face of warfare does not diminish the importance of IHL. The essence of this body of law - to protect civilians and persons hors de combat and to lessen unnecessary harm during armed conflict - remains the same. The applicability of IHL must therefore be determined according to objective criteria and must not be left to the discretion of the warring parties. This article seeks to conceptualize the notion of armed conflict and examines the extent to which the existing body of humanitarian law applies to the new asymmetrical conflicts. It finds that the definition given by the ICTY Appeals Chamber in its Tadic Decision on Jurisdiction, which was taken up by Article 8(2)(f) of the Rome Statute, is a useful starting point for an analysis of the `triggering mechanism' of international humanitarian law in asymmetrical conflicts.

International cultural heritage law in armed conflict

LOSTAL BECERRIL, Marina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Examining Board: Professor Dennis Patterson, European University Institute (EUI Supervisor) Professor Craig Forrest, University of Queensland (External Supervisor) Professor Patty Gerstenblith, DePaul University Professor Martin Scheinin, European University Institute.; Defence date: 11 June 2013; The field of cultural property protection in armed conflict is composed of many conventions but little law. This is because: (1) there is no single understanding of the concepts of "cultural property" or "protection" (2) due to the principle of reciprocity, the more international an armed conflict is, the lower the chances that a treaty concerning cultural property will apply and (3) no convention has yet devised a specific safeguarding regime for "cultural heritage", which refers to the most outstanding class of cultural objects. Legal scholarship often accepts this situation, or suggests adopting a new convention to solve the field's problems. However, attempting to counteract law's failure with more laws is a nonsensical exercise that would, in the long-run, worsen the current situation. This thesis rejects law-making as an alternative and argues in a new direction. It contends that it is already possible to identify a branch of international cultural heritage law (ICHL) underpinned by a set of specific principles and a systemic objective (telos). The cross-fertilisation of such principles and telos with those of IHL provides the rationale underlying the protection of cultural property in armed conflict. The thesis proposes to re-interpret this field in light of such rationale using the World Heritage Convention as its common legal denominator. Pursuant to the postulate of systemic integration and that of effet utile...

Trade barriers and subsidies

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom Publicador: Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom
Tipo: Parte de Livro Formato: 26 pages
Português
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Every four years since 2004, the Copenhagen Consensus Center has organized and hosted a high profile thought experiment about how a hypothetical extra $75 billion of development assistance money might best be spent to solve twelve of the major crises facing the world today. Collated in this specially commissioned book, a group of more than 50 experts make their cases for investment, discussing how to combat problems ranging from armed conflicts, corruption and trade barriers, to natural disasters, hunger, education and climate change. For each case, 'Alternative Perspectives' are also included to provide a critique and make other suggestions for investment. In addition, a panel of senior economists, including four Nobel Laureates, rank the attractiveness of each policy proposal in terms of its anticipated cost-benefit ratio. This thought-provoking book opens up debate, encouraging readers to come up with their own rankings and decide which solutions are smarter than others.

Conflict in Somalia : Drivers and Dynamics

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.69%
Somalia's history of conflict reveals an intriguing paradox--namely, many of the factors that drive armed conflict have also played a role in managing, ending, or preventing war. For instance, clannism and clan cleavages are a source of conflict--used to divide Somalis, fuel endemic clashes over resources and power, used to mobilize militia, and make broad-based reconciliation very difficult to achieve. Most of Somalia's armed clashes since 1991 have been fought in the name of clan, often as a result of political leaders manipulating clannism for their own purposes. Yet traditional clan elders are a primary source of conflict mediation, clan-based customary law serves as the basis for negotiated settlements, and clan-based blood-payment groups serve as a deterrent to armed violence. Likewise, the central state is conventionally viewed as a potential source of rule of law and peaceful allocation of resources, but, at times in Somalia's past, it was a source of violence and predation. Economic interests, too, have had an ambiguous relationship with conflict in Somalia. In some places, war economies have emerged that perpetuate violence and lawlessness, while in other instances business interests have been a driving force for peace, stability...

Colombia : Essays on Conflict, Peace, and Development

Solimano, Andres
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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A purpose of this book is to present recent World Bank analytical work on the causes of violence and conflict in Colombia, highlighting pilot lending programs oriented to promote peace and development. The Bank's international experiences in post-conflict situations in different countries and their relevance for Colombia are also examined in this volume. The identification of socio-economic determinants of conflict, violence, and reforms for peace came about as a key element of the Bank's assistance strategy for Colombia, defined in conjunction with government authorities and representatives of civil society. This report is organized as follows: After the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 provides a conceptual framework for understanding a broad spectrum of political, economic, and social violence issues; identifies the role played by both the country's history and the unequal access to economic and political power in the outbreak and resilience of political violence; and examines as costs of violence the adverse impact on Colombia's physical...

Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi : Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper combines household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for province of residence, birth cohort, individual and household characteristics, and province-specific time trends, the authors find that children exposed to the war have on average 0.515 standard deviations lower height-for-age z-scores than non-exposed children. This negative effect is robust to specifications exploiting alternative sources of exogenous variation.

Partial Peace Rebel Groups Inside and Outside Civil War Ssettlements

Nilsson, Desirée
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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46.58%
Previous research proposes that peace is more likely to become durable if all rebel groups are included in the settlement reached. The argument implies that if actors are excluded and continue to pursue the military course, this could have a destabilizing effect on the actors that have signed an agreement. This article argues that all-inclusive peace deals - signed by the government and all rebel groups - are not the panacea for peace that many seem to believe. Given that the parties are strategic actors who are forward-looking when making their decisions, the signatories should anticipate that the excluded parties may continue to fight. Therefore, the risk of violent challenges from outside actors is likely to already be factored into the decision-making calculus when the signatories decide to reach a deal, and so does not affect their commitment to peace. Implications from this theoretical argument are tested using unique data on the conflict behavior of the government and each of the rebel groups in internal armed conflicts during the post-Cold War period. The results are well in line with the theoretical expectations and show that whether an agreement leaves out some actor does not affect whether the signatories stick to peace. The results demonstrate that even when excluded rebel groups engage in conflict...

The European Union's policies to curtail the trade in natural resources that fund armed conflicts

Vlaskamp, Martijn C.
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Durant els últims 15 els recursos naturals que financen recursos armats han rebut una creixent atenció per part de la investigació acadèmica. La Unió Europea (UE) també ha reconegut la problemàtica dels anomenats "recursos de conflicte", però fins ara li ha mancat un enfocament coherent per afrontar el problema. En alguns casos, la UE ha optat per mesures multilaterals per trencar el vincle entre els recursos naturals i els conflictes, però en altres casos, la Unió ha actuat d'una manera unilateral o no ha actuat en absolut. Aquesta falta de coherència pot semblar sorprenent ja que la UE és percebuda generalment com un ‘campió mundial' de promoure solucions multilaterals pels problemes globals. La tesi es pregunta per tant: per què en situacions similars relacionades amb els recursos de conflicte la Unió Europa ha optat per polítiques diferents? Per respondre a aquesta pregunta s'ha dissenyat un marc analític que integra factors externs i interns. A nivell extern, en primer lloc s'ha examinat el nivell de suport a les institucions europees i els estats membres de polítiques com la restricció del comerç d'aquests recursos de conflictes. En segon lloc, s'ha estudiat el context mundial per les polítiques d'aquest tipus...

Do giant oilfield discoveries fuel internal armed conflicts?

Lei, Yu-Hsiang; Michaels, Guy
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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We use new data to examine the effects of giant oilfield discoveries around the world since 1946. On average, these discoveries increase per capita oil production and oil exports by up to 50 percent. But these giant oilfield discoveries also have a dark side: they increase the incidence of internal armed conflict by about 5-8 percentage points. This increased incidence of conflict due to giant oilfield discoveries is especially high for countries that had already experienced armed conflicts or coups in the decade prior to discovery.

South African private security contractors active in armed conflicts: citizenship, prosecution and the right to work

Bosch,S; Maritz,M
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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South Africa has adopted two pieces of legislation since 1998 aimed at restricting one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy: the private security industry. Not only is this legislation completely unique, but it appears wholly at odds with international opinion. In this article we place private security contractors (PSCs) under the microscope of international law, exploring the role they play in armed conflicts, and the status afforded them by international humanitarian law (IHL). We address the issue of prohibited mercenarism, questioning whether PSCs should be categorised as mercenaries. We then shift our focus to the South African legislation and discuss the ambit of its application as compared with international law obligations to outlaw mercenaries. We discuss the likelihood of successful prosecution of PSCs, and the potential penalties that PSCs might face in terms of the South African legislation. Lastly we consider the constitutional challenges which might emerge as this legislation, and a proposed amendment to the South African Citizenship Act threaten the constitutionally protected rights of South African PSCs to practise a profession and enjoy citizenship.