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A survey on asset allocation in the portuguese real estate market

Vasques, F.; Teixeira, José M. Cardoso; Brandão, Elísio
Fonte: Instituto Superior Técnico Publicador: Instituto Superior Técnico
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
Most important academic theoretical developments in finance and investment have been transferred to widespread practical use, especially in the more efficient securities markets. Real estate investment research has followed these developments, with a lag of about 20 years, but to some extent, common practice of asset allocation in a property portfolio still relies a lot on a qualitative and subjective personal judgment. To assess the reality and extent of this situation among the institutional property investors operating in the Portuguese market, a study based on a survey among a reference group of managers of large real estate portfolios was developed. This includes real estate fund management societies, pension funds and significant real property investment companies. The survey covers management decision-making practices, use of specific information, indices and databases, the role of appraisal, and the use of quantitative models regarding performance measurement, benchmarking and optimization of asset allocation. The aim is to establish the real gap between theory and practice. Research design is presented and justified against economic reality, and recent related and similar studies.

Parametric portfolio policies: An application for a global tactical asset allocation model

Barahona, Ricardo Manuel de Sousa Machado Calvente de
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Finance from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; Despite the extensive literature on the predictability of asset class returns and its economic significance, it is common for many asset managers to implement portfolio models built around active management within an asset class, while generally having passive allocations to each asset class based on the risk profile of the investor. We can exploit some of the predictability by using information on economic factors and momentum that explain broad asset class moves through a parametric portfolio approach introduced by Brandt, Santa-Clara and Valkanov (2009). I obtain significant improvements over fixed allocations and Markowitz optimal portfolios, even when applying significant restrictions.

A Multivariate Model of Strategic Asset Allocation

Chan, Yeung Lewis; Viceira, Luis; Campbell, John
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
We develop an approximate solution method for the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem of an infinitely long-lived investor with Epstein–Zin utility who faces a set of asset returns described by a vector autoregression in returns and state variables. Empirical estimates in long-run annual and post-war quarterly U.S. data suggest that the predictability of stock returns greatly increases the optimal demand for stocks. The role of nominal bonds in long-term portfolios depends on the importance of real interest rate risk relative to other sources of risk. Long-term inflation-indexed bonds greatly increase the utility of conservative investors.; Economics

Unexploited Gains from International Diversification : Patterns of Portfolio Holdings around the World

Didier, Tatiana; Rigobon, Roberto; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
This paper studies how portfolios with a global investment scope are allocated internationally using a unique micro dataset on U.S. equity mutual funds. While mutual funds have great flexibility to invest globally, they invest in a surprisingly limited number of stocks, around 100. The number of holdings in stocks and countries from a given region declines as the investment scope of funds broadens. This restrictive investment practice has costs. A mean-variance strategy shows unexploited gains from further international diversification. Mutual funds investing globally could achieve better risk-adjusted returns by broadening their asset allocation, including stocks held by more specialized funds within the same mutual fund family (company). This investment pattern is not explained by lack of information or instruments, transaction costs, or a better ability of global funds to minimize negative outcomes. Instead, industry practices related to organizational factors seem to play an important role.

Challenges of the Mandatory Funded Pension System in the Russian Federation

Rudolph, Heinz P.; Holtzer, Peter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
The overwhelming number of contributors that have been allocated into the default option is one of the main characteristics of the Russian second pillar. This finding confirms that the level of financial literacy for most of the participants is not sufficient to make informed portfolio selections. The authors argue that the current system is perfectly consistent with a solid second pillar, but the authorities should focus their attention in the strategic asset allocation of pension funds. Since in the short and medium term it is unlikely to see improvements in financial literacy of individuals that may overcome the complexity of these decisions, the authorities can play an important role in designing default investment portfolios that can be aligned with expected replacement rates for the contributors. The current investment regulation of the default option induces investment in inefficient portfolios that are unlikely to bring returns above inflation, and probably will result in very low replacement rates for contributors. Further liberalization of the investments of the pension portfolio; improvements in the governance and supervision of the pension system; and greater certainty about the ownership of the funds are necessary steps to complete the pension reform launched in 2002.

International Asset Allocations and Capital Flows : The Benchmark Effect

Raddatz, Claudio; Schmukler, Sergio L.; Williams, Tomas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
This paper studies channels through which well-known benchmark indexes impact asset allocations and capital flows across countries. The study uses unique monthly micro-level data of benchmark compositions and mutual fund investments during 1996-2012. Benchmarks have important effects on equity and bond mutual fund portfolios across funds with different degrees of activism. Benchmarks explain, on average, around 70 percent of country allocations and have significant impact even on active funds. Benchmark effects are important after controlling for industry, macroeconomic, and country-specific, time-varying effects. Reverse causality does not drive the results. Exogenous, pre-announced changes in benchmarks result in movements in asset allocations mostly when these changes are implemented (not when announced). By impacting country allocations, benchmarks affect capital flows across countries through direct and indirect channels, including contagion. They explain apparently counterintuitive movements in capital flows...

Asset Price Effects of Peer Benchmarking

Acharya, Sushant; Pedraza, Alvaro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This paper estimates the effects of peer benchmarking by institutional investors on asset prices. To identify trades purely due to peer benchmarking as separate from those based on fundamentals or private information, the paper exploits a natural experiment involving a change in a government imposed underperformance penalty applicable to Colombian pension funds. This change in regulation is orthogonal to stock fundamentals and only affects incentives to track peer portfolios allowing the authors to identify the component of demand due to peer benchmarking. The authors find that peer effects among pension fund managers generate excess in stock return volatility, with stocks exhibiting short-term abnormal returns followed by returns reversal in the subsequent quarter. Additionally, peer benchmarking produces an excess in comovement across stock returns beyond the correlation implied by fundamentals.

A class of non-expected utility risk measures and implications for asset allocations

van der Hoek, John; Sherris, Michael
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
This paper discusses a class of risk measures developed from a risk measure recently proposed for insurance pricing. This paper reviews the distortion function approach developed in the actuarial literature for insurance risk. The proportional hazards transform is a particular case. The relationship between this approach to risk and other approaches including the dual theory of choice under risk is discussed. A new class of risk measures with suitable properties for asset allocation based on the distortion function approach to insurance risk is developed. This measure treats upside and downside risk differently. Properties of special cases of the risk measure and links to conventional portfolio selection risk measures are discussed.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505554/description#description; John van der Hoek and Michael Sherris; Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Strategic asset allocation under a fractional hidden markov model

Elliott, R.; Siu, T.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Strategic asset allocation is discussed in a discrete-time economy, where the rates of return from asset classes are explained in terms of some observable and hidden factors. We extend the existing models by incorporating long-term memory in the rates of return and observable economic factors, which have been documented in the empirical literature. Hidden factors are described by a discrete-time, finite-state, hidden Markov chain noisily observed in a fractional Gaussian process. The strategic asset allocation problem is discussed in a mean-variance utility framework. Filtering and parameter estimation are also considered in the hybrid model.; Robert J. Elliott, Tak Kuen Siu

Mutual Fund Investment in Emerging Markets : An Overview

Kaminsky, Graciela L.; Lyons, Richard K.; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
International mutual funds are key contributors to the globalization of financial markets and one of the main sources of capital flows to emerging economies. Despite their importance in emerging markets, little is known about their investment allocation and strategies. This article provides an overview of mutual fund activity in emerging markets. It describes their size, asset allocation, and country allocation and then focuses on their behavior during crises in emerging markets in the 1990s. It analyzes data at both the fund-manager and fund-investor levels. Due to large redemptions and injections, funds' flows are not stable. Withdrawals from emerging markets during recent crises were large, which is consistent with the evidence on financial contagion.

Mutual Fund Investment in Emerging Markets : An Overview

Kaminsky, Graciela; Lyons, Richard; Schmukler, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
International mutual funds are one of the main channels for capital flows to emerging economies. Although mutual funds have become important contributors to financial market integration, little is known about their investment allocation, and strategies. The authors provide an overview of mutual fund activity in emerging markets. First, they describe international mutual funds' relative size, asset allocation, and country allocation. Second, they focus on fund behavior during crises, by analyzing data at the level of both investors, and fund managers. Among their findings: Equity investment in emerging markets has grown rapidly in the 1990s, much of it flowing through mutual funds. Collectively, these funds hold a sizable share of market capitalization in emerging economies. Asian, and Latin American funds achieved the fastest growth, but are smaller than domestic U.S. funds and world funds. When investigating abroad, U.S. mutual funds invest more in equity than in bonds. World funds invest mainly in developed nations (Canada...

Volatility and Correlation Modeling for Sector Allocation in International Equity Markets

Fan, Melanie; Yuan, Kate Xiaoxiao
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 16/04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
Reliable estimates of volatility and correlation are crucial in asset allocation and risk management. This paper investigates Static, RiskMetrics, and Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models for estimating volatility and correlation by testing them in an asset allocation context. Optimal allocation weights for one year found using estimates from each model are carried to the subsequent year and the realized Sharpe ratio is computed to assess portfolio performance. We also study cumulative risk-adjusted returns over the entire sample period. Our findings indicate that DCC does not consistently have an advantage over the other two models, although it is optimal in certain scenarios.; Honors thesis

Alocação de ativos no mercado acionário brasileiro segundo o conceito de downside risk; Asset allocation in the Brazilian stock market according to the downside risk strategy

Andrade, Fabio Wendling Muniz de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
The traditional mean-variance approach for building efficient portfolios was compared to the downside risk approach that substitutes variance of returns by semi-variance or another lower partial momentum of returns. Empirical investigation searched for efficient frontiers using both approaches and strategies for asset allocation which were simulated for comparison. The downside risk approach was shown to be superior in terms of efficiency when investors had asymmetric preferences related to risk. Further the strategy of minimizing downside risk effectively provided greater protection against losses when compared to the strategy of variance minimization, for asset allocation.; O artigo compara a abordagem tradicional de média-variância na determinação de portfólios eficientes com a abordagem de risco assimétrico (downside risk), que substitui a variância pela semivariância ou outro LPM (Lower Partial Moment). Um estudo empírico é realizado para obter as fronteiras eficientes usando-se ambas as abordagens, e estratégias de alocação de ativos são simuladas e comparadas. Resultados demonstram que, se os investidores possuem preferências assimétricas em relação ao risco, a abordagem de média-semivariância é superior em termos de eficiência. Adicionalmente...

Liability valuation and optimal asset allocation

Inkmann, Joachim; Blake, David
Fonte: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Current approaches to asset-liability management employ a sequence of distinct procedures to value liabilities and determine the asset allocation. First, a discount rate that is usually dic-tated by accounting standards is used to value liabilities. Second, the asset allocation is determined by maximizing some objective function in the surplus of assets over liabilities, taken as given the valuation of liabilities. We introduce a model that allows for the joint valuation of liabilities and the determination of the optimal asset allocation using discount rates that ap-propriately reflect default risk. We focus on the case of a defined benefit pension plan.

Stochastic lifestyling: optimal dynamic asset allocation for defined contribution pension plans

Cairns, Andrew J. G.; Blake, David; Dowd, Kevin
Fonte: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
This paper considers the asset-allocation strategies open to members of defined- contribution pension plans. We investigate a model that incorporates three sources of risk: asset risk and salary (or labour-income) risk in the accumulation phase; and interest-rate risk at the point of retirement. We propose a new form of terminal utility function, incorporating habit formation, that uses the plan member's final salary as a numeraire. The paper discusses various properties and characteristics of the optimal stochastic asset-allocation strategy (which we call stochastic lifestyling) both with and without the presence of non-hedgeable salary risk. We compare the performance of stochastic lifestlying with some popular strategies used by pension providers, including deterministic lifestyling (which involves a gradual switch from equities to bonds according to preset rules) and static strategies that invest in benchmark mixed funds. We find that the use of stochastic lifestyling significantly enhances the welfare of a wide range of potential plan members relative to these other strategies.

On the out-of-sample importance of skewness and asymetric dependence for asset allocation

Patton, Andrew J.
Fonte: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Recent studies in the empirical finance literature have reported evidence of two types of asymmetries in the joint distribution of stock returns. The Þrst is skewness in the distribution of individual stock returns, while the second is an asymmetry in the dependence between stocks: stock returns appear to be more highly correlated during market downturns than during market upturns. In this paper we examine the economic and statistical significance of these asymmetries for asset allocation decisions in an out-of-sample setting. We consider the problem of a CRRA investor allocating wealth between the risk-free asset, a small-cap and a large-cap portfolio, using monthly data. We use models that can capture time-varying means and variances of stock returns, and also the presence of time-varying skewness and kurtosis. Further, we use copula theory to construct models of the time-varying dependence structure that allow for greater dependence during bear markets than bull markets. The importance of these two asymmetries for asset allocation is assessed by comparing the performance of a portfolio based on a normal distribution model with a portfolio based on a more ßexible distribution model. For a variety of performance measures and levels of risk aversion our results suggest that capturing skewness and asymmetric dependence leads to gains that are economically signiÞcant...

Robust asset allocation under model ambiguity

Tobelem-Foldvari, Sandrine
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
A decision maker, when facing a decision problem, often considers several models to represent the outcomes of the decision variable considered. More often than not, the decision maker does not trust fully any of those models and hence displays ambiguity or model uncertainty aversion. In this PhD thesis, focus is given to the specific case of asset allocation problem under ambiguity faced by financial investors. The aim is not to find an optimal solution for the investor, but rather come up with a general methodology that can be applied in particular to the asset allocation problem and allows the investor to find a tractable, easy to compute solution for this problem, taking into account ambiguity. This PhD thesis is structured as follows: First, some classical and widely used models to represent asset returns are presented. It is shown that the performance of the asset portfolios built using those single models is very volatile. No model performs better than the others consistently over the period considered, which gives empirical evidence that: no model can be fully trusted over the long run and that several models are needed to achieve the best asset allocation possible. Therefore, the classical portfolio theory must be adapted to take into account ambiguity or model uncertainty. Many authors have in an early stage attempted to include ambiguity aversion in the asset allocation problem. A review of the literature is studied to outline the main models proposed. However...

Aspects of volatility targeting for South African equity investors

Khuzwayo,Bhekinkosi; Maré,Eben
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
We consider so-called volatility targeting strategies in the South African equity market. These strategies are aimed at keeping the volatility of a portfolio consisting of a risky asset, typically an equity index, and cash fixed. This is done by changing the allocation of the assets based on an indicator of the future volatility of the risky asset. We use the three month rolling implied volatility as an indicator of future volatility to influence our asset allocation. We compare investments based on different volatility targets to the performance of bonds, equities, property as well as the Absolute Return peer mean. We examine risk and return characteristics of the volatility targeting strategy as compared to different asset classes.

Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

Saville,AD
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation. This study reviews these arguments as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio. Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

Saville,AD
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation. This study reviews these arguments as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio. Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.