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Practical Guidelines for Effective Bank Resolution

Bolzico, Javier; Mascaró, Yira; Granata, Paola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.42%
This study adopts a practical approach in developing a set of guidelines on designing a bank resolution framework and implementing efficient bank resolution methods in Latin America. It identifies six pillars that are useful for establishing a bank resolution framework. The study aims to guide policymakers choose from a set of bank resolution methods, by outlining their advantages and disadvantages and establishing efficiency requirements. The focus is on the good-bank/bad-bank approach, which is a type of purchase and assumption mechanism that has increasingly become part of the newer legal frameworks in Latin America. The good-bank/bad-bank approach is an effective bank resolution method because it can be very successful in meeting certain efficiency criteria, including the minimization of contagion costs and preservation of business.

Dealing with the Crisis

Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.11%
The immediate financial sector policy responses to the financial crisis, including emergency liquidity support, expansion of financial safety nets, and interventions in financial institutions, have succeeded in stemming widespread panic. But the effort has generally been insufficient and ad hoc. Issues that remain include the resolution of problem assets, the restructuring of troubled, systemically important financial institutions, and the development of credible exit strategies. Only a handful of countries have attempted to tackle these issues head-on. As past experience has shown, that may well have negative repercussions for the duration and strength of a subsequent recovery.

Lithuania : Banking System Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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26.21%
The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better managed and supervised institutions. BoL also applied tougher regulation on the banking sector. All commercial banks now need to have their financial records audited every year by an international auditing firm. This report includes the following headings: risks and contingency crisis management in the Lithuanian banking system; credit risk and regulatory issues; and description of corporate debt restructuring procedures in Lithuania.

European and Best Practice Bank Resolution Mechanisms : An Assessment and Recommendations for Policy and Legal Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.38%
The process of bank resolution, or the procedure for handling insolvency of banks using a range of tools, including alternatives to standard bankruptcy processes, has gained major traction since the experience of the 2008-09 financial crisis. In this context, this report reviews models for bank resolution that provide increased flexibility and describes several of the supervisory, legal and instrumental tools that can be used under modernized bank resolution procedures. As well, it looks at the recent European Commission proposals on this matter which take into account international best practices experiences. It also highlights areas of reform and areas where further regulatory considerations and priorities should be considered. The report reviews the bank resolution regimes of a group of European countries as well as those of two non-EU countries to highlight advantages as well as gaps in the legal and regulatory frameworks. This report surveys the banking and deposit insurance laws of six European countries : Poland...

Resolution of Financial Distress : An International Perspective on the Design of Bankruptcy Laws

Claesens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Mody, Ashoka
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
The institutions of bankruptcy have been at the center of the great economic events of the last decade, ranging from the Asian economic crisis, to the transition from socialism to capitalism. Our understanding of the economic, and legal structure of these institutions, as well as of their impact on economic development, has advanced considerably during this period as well. This study provides valuable information on the advances for resolution of financial distress, through theoretical studies, historical data, and evidence from recent worldwide experiences. It illustrates the possibilities, and methods of beneficial legal reform of bankruptcy procedures, as well as the pitfalls of misguided political action. The study is a timely, and valuable resource for economists, lawyers, and all others interested in institutional reform in emerging financial markets.

Europe and Central Asia Housing Finance Crisis Prevention and Resolution : A Review of Policy Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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26.25%
The objective of this paper, besides offering insight in the regional and global development and stability issues, is to initiate a dialog with housing finance market stakeholders on the course of action appropriate for their jurisdictions. The policy options presented in the paper are practical and implementable and should frame discussions between public and private housing finance market participants. It offers observations of the recent Europe and Central Asia (ECA) market developments and presents a menu of policy actions that should be considered by the mortgage regulators to address the current challenges and to better prepare for next cyclical events. The scope of the paper is on the mortgage finance in ECA region. Some of the policy measures discussed deal with the real estate market evolution- notably the market observatories- as the real estate market evolutions are intricately linked with the cyclicality of the mortgage credit (and with the broad business cycles) and this linkage should be analyzed and considered by the mortgage market stakeholders. The policy options discussed in this paper are: (a) interconnected; and (b) need to be tailored to the specific country circumstances. The paper is structured as follows: after an overview of ECA mortgage market characteristics...

Corporate and SME Workouts

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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46.49%
Bank loans can become non-performing because of problems with the borrower s financial health, problems with the design or implementation of lender protection features, or both. In ascertaining how to deal with a problem loan, it is important to distinguish between a borrower s ability to pay and willingness to pay, Making this distinction is not always easy and requires effort. This manual was written as a guide for lending institution staff dealing with non-performing loans (NPLs) extended to corporations and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). It deals with both ad hoc and systemic financial distress and delves into how borrower problems may have arisen in the first place. It provides guidance to lending institutions staff responsible for handling individual problem loans and to senior managers responsible for organizing portfolio-wide asset resolution.

The Use of Asset Management Companies in the Resolution of Banking Crises

Klingebiel, Daniela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Asset management companies have been used to address the overhang of bad debt in the financial system. There are two main types of asset management company: those set up to expedite corporate restructuring and those established for rapid disposal of assets. A review of seven asset management companies reveals a mixed record. In two of three cases, asset management companies for corporate restructuring did not achieve their narrow goal of expediting bank or corporate restructuring, suggesting that they are not good vehicles for expediting corporate restructuring. Only a Swedish asset management company successfully managed its portfolio, acting sometimes as lead agent in restructuring - and helped by the fact that the assets acquired had mostly to do with real estate, not manufacturing, which is harder to restructure, and represented a small fraction of the banking systems assets, which made it easier for the company to remain independent of political pressures and to sell assets back to the private sector. Asset management companies used to dispose of assets rapidly fared somewhat better. Two of four agencies (in Spain and the United States) achieved their objectives...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Bank Crisis Resolution

International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.09%
The FSAP mission to Moldova included an assessment of the financial crisis resolution framework, focusing on bank resolution arrangements. The FSAP did not include an assessment of crisis resolution arrangements in respect of insurance, Financial Market Infrastructure (FMI) or other types of financial institutions. However, many of the findings and recommendations made in this report in relation to bank crisis resolution are also likely to be pertinent to other parts of the financial sector. Accordingly, the authorities are encouraged to draw on this Technical Note to assist them in reviewing the crisis resolution framework applicable to insurance, FMI and other categories of financial institution. The assessment was undertaken having regard to the principles set out in the Financial Stability Board’s (FSB’s) key attributes of effective resolution regimes for financial institutions (key attributes). In undertaking this assessment, the mission reviewed relevant legislation applicable to bank crisis resolution...

Poland : BCBS-IADI Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
During February 19-March 4, 2013 an assessment under the International Monetary Fund (IMF)/World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) was conducted for the Republic of Poland. Poland's financial system has been expanding rapidly and remains dominated by banks. The total assets of the financial system grew from 86 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005 to 124 percent of GDP in 2012. The banking system is dominated by a handful of foreign-owned banks. They control about 65 percent of the sector's assets-a sizeable proportion, but lower than in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. The Polish banking system is well capitalized and liquid. In aggregate, capital adequacy reached 14.7 percent, 90 percent of which is tier capital. Banks' profits in 2011 and 2012 were historically high, and regulations restricting dividend payouts aided capital building. Regulatory and supervisory efforts have helped improve the resilience of the banking system, but the economic slowdown will pose some challenges for banks. Poland's regulatory...

Simple Tools to Assist in the Resolution of Troubled Banks

McGuire, Claire L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
This toolkit is designed to assist authorities in resolving troubled banks. It provides generic forms that can be adapted for use in planning supervisory actions or implementing resolution processes. This toolkit contains forms that are generic and will need to be tailored to the particular country laws and circumstances. The toolkit also contains a least cost or lesser cost model and explanatory guide that provide diagnostic tools to assist authorities in estimating the costs of various resolution methods. The least cost or lesser cost model can also be used to value various assets that may be offered for sale as part of the resolution process. In some circumstances, the decision will be made to liquidate a bank at the end of a long period of utilizing other supervisory tools to try to rehabilitate the bank, thereby providing the authorities with adequate time to gather information about the problem bank and prepare a plan for its closure. In other circumstances, the authorities will have little time to plan for a bank's closing and will have to rely on their general crisis preparedness tools to handle the resolution process as efficiently as possible. Whichever circumstances are present...

A Practical Guide to Managing Systemic Financial Crises : A Review of Approaches Taken in Indonesia, The Republic of Korea, and Thailand

Scott, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
The author examines experiences in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand in confronting systemic financial crises during the 1990s. He draws on the knowledge and experience of World Bank staff who managed the Bank's financial and technical assistance to those countries. In reviewing the principal actions taken by the governments to resolve the crises, the author describes key challenges that governments face in tackling crises, defines basic guidelines and principles for responding to those challenges, and proposes steps to improve the ability of governments to deal with crises when they do occur, as well as to mitigate the risk of crises in the first place. The author addresses matters such as the provision of liquidity, institutional arrangements for crisis resolution, use of public funds, diagnosis of problems, resolution, recapitalization, restructuring of banks, privatization of banks, restructuring of troubled debt, and use of asset management companies. He goes on to develop the conceptual underpinnings for two fundamental improvements in crisis management practices...

Nigeria : Crisis Management and Crisis Preparedness Frameworks

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
This note elaborates on the recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for Nigeria in the areas of contingency planning, crisis management, and bank resolution. It summarizes the findings of the FSAP mission undertaken during September 4 to 19, 2012 and is based upon analysis of the relevant legal and policy documents and extensive discussions with the authorities and private sector representatives. The Nigerian financial system experienced a banking crisis in 2008-2009, partly triggered by the global financial crisis and by domestic events. The decisive crisis response effectively stabilized the banking system, but the challenge now is to devise a credible exit strategy and to strengthen the resolution framework. This note is structured as follows: chapter one sets out an overview of the banking crisis of 2009; chapter two analyses the institutional framework and coordination arrangements for systemic risk monitoring, crisis management, and cross-border coordination; chapter three assesses the approaches to intervene with potential problem institutions at an early stage; chapter four covers crisis management tools including official financial support...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - Crisis Management and Crisis Preparedness Frameworks

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
This note elaborates on the recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for Nigeria in the areas of contingency planning, crisis management, and bank resolution. It summarizes the findings of the FSAP mission undertaken during September 4 to 19, 2012 and is based upon analysis of the relevant legal and policy documents and extensive discussions with the authorities and private sector representatives. The Nigerian financial system experienced a banking crisis in 2008-2009, partly triggered by the global financial crisis and by domestic events. The decisive crisis response effectively stabilized the banking system, but the challenge now is to devise a credible exit strategy and to strengthen the resolution framework. This note is structured as follows: chapter one sets out an overview of the banking crisis of 2009; chapter two analyses the institutional framework and coordination arrangements for systemic risk monitoring, crisis management, and cross-border coordination; chapter three assesses the approaches to intervene with potential problem institutions at an early stage; chapter four covers crisis management tools including official financial support...

A Taxonomy of Financial Crisis Resolution Mechanisms: Cross-Country Experience

Calomiris, Charles W; Klingebiel, Daniela; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
The goals of financial restructuring are to re-establish the creditor-debtor relationships upon which the economy depends for an efficient allocation of capital, and to accomplish that objective at minimal cost. Costs include direct costs to taxpayers of financial assistance and the indirect costs to the economy that result from misallocations of capital and incentive problems resulting from the restructuring. The authors review cases in which countries employed alternative mechanisms to restructure their financial and corporate sectors. Countries typically apply a combination of tools, including decentralized, market-based mechanisms and government-managed programs. Market-based strategies seek to strengthen the capital base of financial institutions and/or borrowers to enable them to renegotiate debt and resume new credit supply. Government-led restructuring strategies often include the establishment of an entity to which non-performing loans are transferred or the government's sale of financial institutions...

Bank Regulation and Supervision around the World : A Crisis Update

Čihák, Martin; Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı; Pería, María Soledad Martinez; Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This paper presents the latest update of the World Bank Bank Regulation and Supervision Survey, and explores two questions. First, were there significant differences in regulation and supervision between crisis and non-crisis countries? Second, what aspects of regulation and supervision changed significantly during the crisis period? The paper finds significant differences between crisis and non-crisis countries in several aspects of regulation and supervision. In particular, crisis countries (a) had less stringent definitions of capital and lower actual capital ratios, (b) faced fewer restrictions on non-bank activities, (c) were less strict in the regulatory treatment of bad loans and loan losses, and (d) had weaker incentives for the private sector to monitor banks' risks. Survey results also suggest that the overall regulatory response to the crisis has been slow, and there is room to improve regulation and supervision, as well as private incentives to monitor risk-taking. Specifically, comparing regulatory and supervisory practices before and after the global crisis...

Financial Sector Assessment : Republic of Tajikistan

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Financial intermediation in Tajikistan has deepened in recent years, albeit from a low base. This is reflected in the overall growth of the financial system, greater diversification, and the expansion of lending to previously under-served sectors, such as agriculture and small- and medium-sized enterprises. Even after the expansion, however, the financial sector remains small and cannot serve all the financing needs of the economy. While banks are generally well capitalized and liquid, their rapid growth has brought new risk exposures that should be carefully monitored and appropriately addressed. In particular, rapid loan growth could lead to a build-up of unrecognized credit risk and give rise to an increase in non-performing loans (NPLs). Because of extensive dollarization, the exposure of banks to exchange-rate induced credit risk is another significant cause for concern. Also, the exceptionally rapid growth of nonresident deposits without clear knowledge of their sources exposes the banking system to reputational risk. Significant strengthening of the regulatory and supervisory framework will be needed to sustain the system's health in the face of rapid growth. Governance in the financial sector needs significant strengthening. Improvements are needed to ensure the integrity of the regulatory bodies and to guarantee that all financial transactions are conducted at arms' length and priced on a market basis. Fair and transparent resolution of the large stock of distressed cotton debt would demonstrate the government's commitment to market principles and good governance.

Principles of Financial Regulation : A Dynamic Portfolio Approach

Stiglitz, Joseph E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Economists seeking explanations for the global financial crisis of 1997-99 are reaching consensus that a major factor was weak financial institutions, which resulted in part from inadequate government regulations. At the same time many developing countries are struggling with an overregulated financial system-one that stifles innovation and the flow of credit to new entrepreneurs and that can stunt the growth of well-established firms. In particular, too many countries are relying excessively on capital adequacy standards, which are inefficient and sometimes counterproductive. The author argues that financial systems can be reformed successfully using a 'dynamic portfolio approach' aimed at managing the incentives and constraints that affect not only financial institutions exposure to risk but also their ability to cope with it. The article sets out general principles of financial regulation and shows how the dynamic portfolio approach can help countries deal with the special problems that arise during the transition to a more liberalized economy as well as those that arise in dealing with a financial crisis similar to the 1997 crisis in East Asia.

Essays in Financial Economics

Shaliastovich, Ivan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1916023 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%

The central puzzles in financial economics commonly include

violations of the expectations hypotheses, predictability of excess returns, and the levels and volatilities of nominal bond yields, in addition to well-known equity premium and the risk-free rate puzzles.

Equally surprising is the recent evidence on large moves in asset prices, and the over-pricing of the out-of-the-money index put options relative to standard models. In this work, I argue that the long-run risks type model can successfully explain these features of financial markets. I present robust empirical evidence which supports the main economic channels in the model. Finally, I develop econometric methods to estimate and test the model, and find that it delivers plausible preference and model parameters and provides a good fit to the asset-price and macroeconomic data.

In the first chapter, which is co-authored with Ravi Bansal, we present a long-run risks based equilibrium model that can quantitatively explain the violations of expectations hypotheses and predictability of returns in bond and currency markets. The key ingredients of the model include a low-frequency predictable component in consumption, time-varying consumption volatility and investor's preferences for early resolution of uncertainty. In this model...

Asymmetric information in financial economics: Asset pricing, liquidity policy and the resolution of financial distress.

Pagratis, Spyros
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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26.27%
This thesis consists of three self contained essays in financial economics where agents interact under asymmetric information about some latent economic fundamentals. The chapter on "Asset pricing under noisy rating signals: Does benchmarking on ratings matter.", demonstrates that, in the presence of noise traders who benchmark their supply of a traded asset to public signals (ratings), informed traders are induced to rationally overreact to news about fundamentals, leading to excess asset price volatility. The analysis also shows that if market participants use public ratings solely for price discovery purposes then, under no circumstances ratings could weaken price efficiency, even in the presence of higher order beliefs. The chapter on "Prudential liquidity regulation and the insurance aspect of lender of last resort" considers prudential liquidity regulation as quid pro quo for emergency liquidity assistance by the central bank. In the presence of bank funding constraints, information-induced bank runs and an objective by the central bank to maintain a balanced budget under its lender of last resort (LOLR) facility, it is shown that prudential liquidity regulation is socially desirable if the banking sector is characterised by sufficient funding constraints...