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Análise de medidas de desempenho de ativos de risco: um estudo dos índices de potencial de investimento, Sharpe e Sharpe generalizado; Risky assets performance measures analysis: a study of potential investment, Sharpe ratio and generalized Sharpe ratio indexes.

Santos, Claudinei de Paula
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/10/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
A dissertação aborda e compara as características dos índices de Sharpe (SR) e suas variantes, SRc e SRd, Sharpe generalizado (GSR ) e potencial de investimento (IP), sendo os índices GSR e IP associados a alguma função de utilidade. Pelo fato de o GSR e o IP serem idênticos, testes empíricos foram realizados entre SRc e o GSR. Ambos foram avaliados teoricamente sob dois aspectos, o que definimos de análise retrospectiva, i.e., análise de séries de log-retornos mensais observados, e a análise prospectiva, i.e., séries a ocorrer. No âmbito prospectivo, ex ante facto, o SRc (índice de Sharpe com variável de estado normal) e o SRd (índice de Sharpe com variável de estado lognormal), por estarem associados à função de utilidade quadrática, apresentam distorções como o ponto bliss e o agente econômico bomba de dinheiro. O mesmo ocorre no âmbito retrospectivo, ex post facto, com o GSR (potencial de desempenho de ativos de risco para indivíduos com função de utilidade HARA) quando o coeficiente de aversão ao risco é igual a um negativo, gama=-1. No entanto, o GSR pode ser associado a funções de utilidade diferentes da quadrática evitando seus efeitos indesejáveis. Sob a suposição de movimento browniano geométrico (MBG) e da utilidade HARA para o preço mensal ajustado de ações brasileiras e americanas e para pontos mensais de índices brasileiros e americanos...

Reclassificação dos ativos financeiros e os possíveis impactos nos indicadores prudenciais e de rentabilidade dos bancos brasileiros; Reclassification of financial assets and possible impacts on prudential and profitability ratios of Brazilian banks.

Almeida, Diana Lúcia de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
Motivados pela crença de que um único conjunto de normas contábeis tecnicamente robusto seria fundamental para maior transparência nas informações, redução dos custos de capital, eliminação dos custos de adequação das demonstrações financeiras para outro conjunto de normas, redução dos riscos e, consequentemente, atração de mais investimentos, em 2002 o FASB assina o acordo de convergência com o IASB, no qual os órgãos se comprometem a desenvolver conjuntamente padrões contábeis compatíveis e de alta qualidade, que possam ser usadas no ambiente doméstico e internacional. A norma IAS 39, por ter sido considerada complexa desde sua emissão, já havia entrado no escopo de revisão conjunta entre o IASB e o FASB. Entretanto, a crise financeira de 2008 trouxe à tona algumas fraquezas da norma e ambos os órgãos foram pressionados a acelerar o processo de sua revisão. Em resposta à crise, o projeto foi dividido em três etapas, das quais a primeira é sobre classificação e mensuração dos instrumentos financeiros. Como parte do projeto, em novembro de 2009 foi emitida a IFRS 9 Instrumentos Financeiros. Esta norma introduz novos requerimentos para a classificação e mensuração dos ativos financeiros. Dentre as mudanças as quatro categorias de mensuração dos ativos financeiros - valor justo pelo resultado...

Utilidade do valor justo de ativos biológicos para a análise de crédito de corporações brasileiras baseadas no agronegócio; Fairvalue utility of biological assets for Brazilian companies credit analysis based on agribusiness

Acuña, Benjamim Cristobal Mardine
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
A dúvida sobre a utilidade da informação do valor justo de Ativos Biológicos para o usuário externo estimulou esta investigação. Em um mercado como o brasileiro no qual o agronegócio é fundamental e o crédito bancário ocupa espaço de destaque no financiamento das operações e dos investimentos, o problema de pesquisa se mostra relevante e, por isso, investigou se essa informação estaria relacionada com o custo da dívida bancária. Os objetivos foram, de modo mais abrangente, verificar se esse modelo de mensuração era desejado pelos analistas de crédito e, de modo mais específico: (i) verificar se havia correlação entre a variação, entre trimestres, da proporção entre a variação do valor justo na Demonstração do Resultado e a receita total, (ii) da variação da proporção entre o Ativo Biológico e o ativo total, (iii) do tamanho das companhias de agronegócio, estes três sobre o custo da dívida bancária; além (iv) verificar se havia preferência pela mensuração ao Valor Justo ou ao Custo e, (v) conhecer a forma como esses analistas realizam o tratamento dessa informação. Não fez parte do escopo, todavia, a elaboração de um modelo de análise de crédito, com identificação de todas as variáveis que a afetam; a investigação está limitada ao quanto a marcação ao Valor Justo menos as Despesas de Venda a impactaram do ponto de vista quantitativo...

Bank relationships : effect on the availability and marginal cost of credit for firms in Argentina

Streb, Jorge Miguel
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The paper provides evidence on what affects at the margin the cost and availability of bank credit for firms in Argentina. We study in particular how banks use different pieces of private and public information to screen firms and overcome informational asymmetries in the credit market. Some private information is transferable, like balance sheet data. Private information generated in relationships is not. To capture the closeness of bank relationships, we resort to the concentration of bank credit and the number of credit lines in a bank. We also consider public information available in the Central de Deudores. The cost of credit is measured using overdrafts, the most expensive line of credit, at the bank that charges the highest rate for overdrafts. We find that the cost of credit is smaller for a firm with a close relationship to the marginal bank. Firms with large assets, a high sales/assets ratio, and a low debt/assets ratio pay a lower interest rate at the margin. A good credit history (no debt arrears and no bounced checks) and collateral also reduce the marginal interest rate. The availability of credit is measured by unused credit lines as a proportion of total liabilities with the main bank. The availability of credit depends positively on a close relationship with the main bank. Large assets...

Essays in Financial Economics

Zhang, Fan
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
This dissertation presents three essays. The first essay finds that the household risky ratio, the ratio of high risk assets over low risk assets directly owned by households, is a strong negative predictor of the equity premium on the US stock market. The predictability is robust to definition of the asset classes, first versus second half of sample, and the finite-sample bias of Stambaugh (1999). The predictability is stronger than, and not subsumed by popular predictors like price-earnings ratios, yield spread, equity share of issues, or consumption-wealth ratios. The main predictive power is decomposed into three similar parts: 1) the household tilt of risky assets, which is novel and generally orthogonal to known predictors; 2) a valuation ratio component; and 3) an issuance component of high risk versus low risk assets.; Economics

Has the Global Banking System Become More Fragile over Time?

Anginer, Deniz; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
This paper examines time-series and cross-country variations in default risk co-dependence in the global banking system. The authors construct a default risk measure for all publicly traded banks using the Merton contingent claim model, and examine the evolution of the correlation structure of default risk for more than 1,800 banks in more than 60 countries. They find that there has been a significant increase in default risk co-dependence over the three-year period leading to the financial crisis. They also find that countries that are more integrated, and that have liberalized financial systems and weak banking supervision, have higher co-dependence in their banking sector. The results support an increase in scope for international supervisory co-operation, as well as capital charges for "too-connected-to-fail" institutions that can impose significant externalities.

Islamic vs. Conventional Banking : Business Model, Efficiency and Stability

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Merrouche, Ouarda
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
This paper discusses Islamic banking products and interprets them in the context of financial intermediation theory. Anecdotal evidence shows that many of the conventional products can be redrafted as Sharia-compliant products, so that the differences are smaller than expected. Comparing conventional and Islamic banks and controlling for other bank and country characteristics, the authors find few significant differences in business orientation, efficiency, asset quality, or stability. While Islamic banks seem more cost-effective than conventional banks in a broad cross-country sample, this finding reverses in a sample of countries with both Islamic and conventional banks. However, conventional banks that operate in countries with a higher market share of Islamic banks are more cost-effective but less stable. There is also consistent evidence of higher capitalization of Islamic banks and this capital cushion plus higher liquidity reserves explains the relatively better performance of Islamic banks during the recent crisis.

Bank Activity and Funding Strategies : The Impact on Risk and Returns

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This paper examines the implications of bank activity and short-term funding strategies for bank risk and returns using an international sample of 1,334 banks in 101 countries leading up to the 2007 financial crisis. Expansion into non-interest income generating activities such as trading increases the rate of return on assets, and it may offer some risk diversification benefits at very low levels. Non-deposit, wholesale funding, by contrast, lowers the rate of return on assets, although it can offer some risk reduction at commonly observed low levels of non-deposit funding. A sizeable proportion of banks, however, attract most of their short-term funding in the form of non-deposits at a cost of enhanced bank fragility. Overall, banking strategies that rely prominently on generating non-interest income or attracting non-deposit funding are very risky, which is consistent with the demise of the U.S. investment banking sector.

Natural Disasters and the Dynamics of Intangible Assets

López, Ramón
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Empirical evidence suggests that the higher-order effects of natural disasters, which affect intangible assets, may be even more important than the material inter-industry effects. However, most existing general equilibrium models ignore higher order effects concerning human capital. Moreover, it is recognized that natural resource dependence increases vulnerability to natural disasters. Recent studies have indeed shown the potential importance of subsistence traps caused by asset losses in low-income economies from a partial equilibrium perspective. This paper presents an analysis that allows for endogenous investments in real assets (physical capital) as well as in human capital, explicitly considering the potential for subsistence traps arising from minimum consumption and minimum natural resource irreversibility thresholds. The general equilibrium ramifications of subsistence traps are developed. The main issue is that the economy may be subject to hysteresis: A temporary shock such as a natural disaster may leave permanent consequences for the economy. An obvious permanent effect of a one-time disaster shock is that physical man-made and natural assets owned especially by poor households may end up completely wiped out. The disaster may not be the direct cause; it may be that poor households would have to obtain minimum subsistence consumption out of depleted assets. However...

Financial Sector Assessment : Bulgaria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) summarizes the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) findings for Bulgaria, and reports on the actions of the government and the Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) to date in response to the FSAP recommendations. The FSAP mission visited Sofia during the period October 29 to November 14, 2001. The Bulgaria FSAP took place after five years of aggressive financial reforms in response to the deep economic and financial crisis of 1996-97. After the collapse of the banking system and establishment of the Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) in July 1997, the government and the BNB pursued structural and institutional reforms in both the enterprise and banking sectors, including the privatization of about 85 percent of the banking system assets, mainly to foreign financial institutions, and the upgrading of banking supervision capabilities at the BNB. The FSAP mission occurred at a time when the banking system had stabilized, but financial intermediation remained low compared to the more advanced transition economies. In addition to the assessments of compliance with standards and codes...

What Are the Causes of the Growing Trend of Excess Savings of the Corporate Sector in Developed Countries? An Empirical Analysis of Three Hypotheses

Brufman, Leandro; Martinez, Lisana; Pérez Artica, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
This paper analyzes annual accounting data for a sample of 5,000 publicly traded manufacturing firms from Germany, France, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The analysis uses data from 1997 to 2011 and finds an increasing trend of excess savings (defined as the difference between gross saving and capital formation) and a gradual decline of gross capital formation. This trend is accompanied by a steady deleveraging process and a decrease in the share of operating assets in total assets. This process is more acute among the more credit constrained, the more volatile, and the less dynamic firms.

Are Microcredit Borrowers in Bangladesh Over-indebted ?

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Faruqee, Rashid; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Microcredit programs in Bangladesh have experienced spectacular growth in recent years, with a growing number of borrowers availing credit from multiple microcredit agencies. There is a growing concern that if there are not sufficient returns to borrowing from microfinance institutions (MFIS), some borrowers might be taking loans that they will not be able to repay. A household may be considered over-indebted, for example, if its debt liability exceeds 40 percent of its income or assets. Using a long panel of household survey data from Bangladesh, the paper finds that some 26 percent of microcredit borrowers are over-indebted on this measure versus 22 percent of non-microcredit borrowers. Econometric analysis suggests that both MFI competition and multiple borrowing raise indebtedness. However, repeated borrowing, while it affects short-term liability adversely, does affect the long-term debt-asset ratio favorably. That is, repeated borrowing helps increase assets more than debt over time. Microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh are thus not necessarily over-indebted. But when borrowing is seen as protection against shocks such as floods even at the cost of being indebted...

Protecting Your Assets: A Well-Defined Credit Policy Is The Key

Moll, Steven V.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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36.24%
In - Protecting Your Assets: A Well-Defined Credit Policy Is The Key – an essay by Steven V. Moll, Associate Professor, The School of Hospitality Management at Florida International University, Professor Moll observes at the outset: “Bad debts as a percentage of credit sales have climbed to record levels in the industry. The author offers suggestions on protecting assets and working with the law to better manage the business.” “Because of the nature of the hospitality industry and its traditional liberal credit policies, especially in hotels, bad debts as a percentage of credit sales have climbed to record levels,” our author says. “In 1977, hotels showing a net income maintained an average accounts receivable ratio to total sales of 3.4 percent. In 1983, the accounts receivable ratio to total sales increased to 4.1 percent in hotels showing a net income and 4.4 percent in hotels showing a net loss,” he further cites. As the professor implies, there are ways to mitigate the losses from bad credit or difficult to collect credit sales. In this article Professor Moll offers suggestions on how to do that. Moll would suggest that hotels and food & beverage operations initially tighten their credit extension policies, and on the following side...

Bias and consistency of the maximum Sharpe ratio

Maller, Ross A; Durand, Robert B; Lee, P. T
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 172849 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
We show that the maximum Sharpe ratio obtained via the Markowitz optimization procedure from a sample of returns on a number of risky assets is, under commonly satisfied assumptions, biased upwards for the population value. Thus investment advice, decisions and assessments based on the estimated Sharpe ratio will be overly optimistic. The bias in the estimator is shown theoretically and illustrated using a data set of Spiders and iShares. We obtain bounds on the difference between the sample maximum Sharpe ratio and its population counterpart and show that the sample estimator is consistent for the population value; thus the bias disappears asymptotically, under some reasonable assumptions. However, the bias can be significant in finite samples and persist even in very large samples. We demonstrate this with simulations based on portfolios formed from normally and t–distributed returns. As expected, the over-optimistic risk-return tradeoff predicted by the procedure is not reflected in corresponding good out-of-sample portfolio performance of the Spiders and iShares.; no

Bank Ownership and Lending Patterns during the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis : Evidence from Latin America and Eastern Europe

Cull, Robert; Martínez Pería, María Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This paper examines the impact of bank ownership on credit growth in developing countries before and during the 2008-2009 crisis. Using bank-level data for countries in Eastern Europe and Latin America, it analyzes the growth of banks' total gross loans as well as the growth of corporate, consumer, and residential mortgage loans. Although domestic private banks in Eastern Europe and Latin America contracted their loan growth rates during the crisis, there are differences in foreign and government-owned bank credit growth across regions. In Eastern Europe, foreign bank total lending fell by more than domestic private bank credit. These results are primarily driven by reductions in corporate loans. Furthermore, government-owned banks in Eastern Europe did not act counter-cyclically. The opposite was true in Latin America, where the growth of government-owned banks' corporate and consumer loans during the crisis exceeded that of domestic and foreign banks. Contrary to the case of foreign banks in Eastern Europe...

Do We Need Big Banks? Evidence on Performance, Strategy and Market Discipline

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
For an international sample of banks, the authors construct measures of a bank's absolute size and its systemic size defined as size relative to the national economy. They examine how a bank's risk and return, its activity mix and funding strategy, and the extent to which it faces market discipline depend on both size measures. Although absolute size presents banks with a trade-off between risk and return, systemic size is an unmitigated bad, reducing return without a reduction in risk. Despite too-big-to-fail subsidies, the analysis finds that systemically large banks are subject to greater market discipline as evidenced by a higher sensitivity of their funding costs to risk proxies, suggesting that they are often too big to save. The finding that a bank's interest cost tends to rise with its systemic size can also in part explain why a bank's rate of return on assets tends to decline with systemic size. Overall, the results cast doubt on the need to have systemically large banks. Bank growth has not been in the interest of bank shareholders in small countries...

Credit Unions in Poland : Diagnostic and Proposals on Regulation and Supervision

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
A new amendment to the Law on Credit Unions (CU) dated November 5, 2009, will pass CU supervision to the Polish Financial Services Authority (PFSA), the body that regulates other financial institutions in Poland. Currently, CUs (also known as SKOKs by their Polish acronym) are regulated under the Credit Union Act of December 14, 1995. In Articles 33-35, the National Association of Credit Unions (NASCU) was given the responsibility to regulate and supervise the CUs. However, the new law is not yet operational, as it is being reviewed by the Constitutional Court and there is no date set for the Court's ruling. The law would come into force within sixty days of the Court's decision confirming that the law is in line with the Constitution. This report provides information on the Polish CU experience, analyzes the new regulatory and supervisory framework created by the new CU Law, and provides recommendations for its implementation. Recommendations are accompanied by relevant experience from other countries.

Corporate Governance and Bank Insolvency Risk : International Evidence

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, Kebin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This paper finds that shareholder-friendly corporate governance is positively associated with bank insolvency risk, as proxied by the Z-score and the Merton's distance to default measure, for an international sample of banks over the 2004-08 period. Banks are special in that "good" corporate governance increases bank insolvency risk relatively more for banks that are large and located in countries with sound public finances, as banks aim to exploit the financial safety net. Good corporate governance is specifically associated with higher asset volatility, more nonperforming loans, and a lower tangible capital ratio. Furthermore, good corporate governance is associated with more bank risk-taking at times of rapid economic expansion. Consistent with increased risk-taking, good corporate governance is associated with a higher valuation of the implicit insurance provided by the financial safety net, especially in the case of large banks. These results underline the importance of the financial safety net and too-big-to-fail policies in encouraging excessive risk-taking by banks.

The Leverage Ratio : A New Binding Limit on Banks

D'Hulster, Katia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Excessive leverage by banks is widely believed to have contributed to the global financial crisis. To address this, the international community has proposed the adoption of a non-risk-based capital measure, the leverage ratio, as an additional prudential tool to complement minimum capital adequacy requirements. Its adoption can reduce the risk of excessive leverage building up in individual entities and in the financial system as a whole. The leverage ratio has inherent limitations, however, and should therefore be considered as just one of a set of macro- and micro-prudential policy tools.

Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust

Rozendaal, Jeroen; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/12/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets and largest asset value. But this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results derive from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio...