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Essential steps to providing reliable results using the Analytical Quality Assurance Cycle

Olivares, Igor Renato Bertoni; Lopes, Fernando Antunes
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Considering how demand for quality assurance (QA) has grown in analytical laboratories, we show the trends in analytical science, illustrated through international standard ISO/IEC 17025, validation, measurements of uncertainty, and quality-control (QC) measures. A detailed review of the history of analytical chemistry indicates that these concepts are consistently used in laboratories to demonstrate their traceabilities and competences to provide reliable results. We propose a new approach for laboratory QA, which also develops a diagram to support routine laboratories (which generally apply a quality system, such as ISO/IEC 17025) or research laboratories (that have some difficult applying this international standard). This approach, called the Analytical Quality Assurance Cycle (AQAC), presents the major QA concepts and the relationships between these concepts in order to provide traceability and reliable results. The AQAC is a practical tool to support the trend towards QA in analytical laboratories. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Programa de controle da qualidade dosimétrico, validado com auxílio de filme radiocrômico, aplicado à radioterapia estereotáxica; Dosimetric quality assurance with the help of the radiochromic film, applied to stereotactic radiotherapy.

Amaral, Leonardo Lira do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2012 Português
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A Radioterapia de lesões cerebrais próximas a estruturas críticas necessitam de uma alta precisão na localização e na dose. O rigor na liberação da dose deve ser acompanhado por um preciso controle da qualidade nos aparelhos que envolvam a prática. O comissionamento do sistema de planejamento consiste em averiguar e confirmar os cálculos realizados pelo sistema. Porém, mesmo com todo controle da qualidade no comissionamento, existem vários aspectos que podem influenciar na administração da dose no volume alvo, o que exige a necessidade de se fazer uma avaliação final, no ato do tratamento, in vivo. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver uma técnica de dosimetria in vivo como parte de um programa de controle da qualidade em radioterapia estereotáxica. Na técnica de dosimetria in vivo, utilizaram-se segmentos de filme radiocrômico, com dimensões de 1x1 cm2, acoplados na área externa ao colimador formado por micro-lâminas, Moduleaf. Estes filmes foram inseridos na região central do feixe. Os filmes foram irradiados e calibrados para obtenção dos fatores campos, na configuração da técnica. Com estes dados foi elaborado um programa computacional, o qual calcula a densidade relativa que um filme deve adquirir quando submetido a uma exposição nesta configuração. Como a técnica de dosimetria in vivo usa os dados do TPS...

Quality in Higher Education: internal quality assurance systems and the quality management models

Sá, Paula S.; Sampaio, Paulo; Rosa, Maria J.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Quality assurance and accreditation processes related to Portuguese higher education are a relatively new phenomenon, deserving special relevance today after the creation, by the Portuguese State, of the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education - A3ES. The creation of this organism determined the obligation of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) accredit their study cycles and, later, implement internal systems for quality assurance. Thus, it is important to realize that these institutions have to decide which direction they have to take to better meet the requirements of the entities that steer them, and meet the needs of the market where they operate. To do this, they need to make strategic decisions that will allow them to apply effective evaluation and quality assurance mechanisms. The implementation of quality assurance internal systems implies that HEIs develop structures, mechanisms, indicators and models that support a dynamic culture of internal evaluation, allowing also responding to the requirements of external evaluation and accreditation systems. With this communication one intends to discuss how quality management models already known and universally accepted, namely ISO 9001 and EFQM, may help to address these requirements and consequently the implementation of such systems in institutions like these...

Quality Assurance System to monitor the teaching and learning process at the University of Aveiro (Portugal)

Huet, I.; Rafael, J.; Costa, N.; Oliveira, J. M.
Fonte: European University Association Publicador: European University Association
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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At the University of Aveiro (UA), in Portugal, institutional initiatives are being undertaken so that high levels of quality teaching and learning are achieved. This paper presents (a) the design of an evaluation model for quality assurance of teaching and learning and (b) the results of its application in a pilot study that ran in 2008/09 at the Departments of Electronics and Telecommunications, and Physics, of the UA. The Quality Assurance System (QAS) to monitor the process of teaching and learning at the UA emerges as extremely important, not only to regulate the teaching and learning process, following the quality assurance orientations at a national and international level, but also to reflect and share teaching practices that enhance the whole academic experience, both from students, teachers, and researchers‟ perspectives. The authors explore the design of the model and some findings of the pilot study, more specifically the identification of problematic and good practice situations identified by the students‟ survey and reports.

Review of the Quality Assurance and Accreditation Policies and Practices in the Portuguese Higher Education: Self Evaluation Report

Santos, Sérgio Machado dos; Gonçalves, Luís Carrilho; Silva, João Duarte; Fonseca, Luís Adão da; Filipe, António Ferrão; Vieira, Carlos; Lima, Maria de Jesus; Oliveira, Mário Ferraz
Fonte: CNAVES, Conselho Nacional de Educação do Ensino Superior Publicador: CNAVES, Conselho Nacional de Educação do Ensino Superior
Tipo: Livro
Português
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1.1 The present review of the quality assurance and accreditation policies and practices in the Portuguese higher education was determined by a Ministerial decision of 21 November 2005 in the scope of a comprehensive international evaluation of the national higher education system. In this sense, the review does not fit strictly into the cyclical external reviews of ENQA’s member agencies foreseen in the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area adopted at the Ministerial Summit in Bergen, since it was not an initiative from the higher education evaluation councils or from CNAVES, which are in a process of adaptation to the European standards and at the proper time could decide on the best way to be revised, under the general principles for the cyclical reviews proposed in the European Guidelines, namely in what concerns the subsidiarity principle. Also, in the present circumstances the review must go quite beyond an exercise of conformity with more or less routine procedures. Indeed, the Portuguese quality assurance system was developed under special circumstances, in a contractual way in which the initiative was mainly on the side of the higher education institutions. The evaluation process was first launched as a pilot-project of the Portuguese University Rectors’ Conference (CRUP)...

The relevance of follow-ups in data collection for the quality assurance system of the Portuguese population and housing census

Vicente, P.; Reis, E.; Rosa, A.
Fonte: Statistics Canada Publicador: Statistics Canada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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The operationalization of the Population and Housing Census in Portugal is managed by a hierarchical structure in which Statistics Portugal is at the top and local government institutions at the bottom. When the Census takes place every ten years, local governments are asked to collaborate with Statistics Portugal in the execution and monitoring of the fieldwork operations at the local level. During the Pilot Test stage of the 2011 Census, local governments were asked for additional collaboration: to answer the Perception of Risk survey, whose aim was to gather information to design a quality assurance instrument that could be used to monitor the Census operations. The response rate of the survey was desired to be 100%, however, by the deadline of data collection nearly a quarter of local governments had not responded to the survey and thus a decision was made to make a follow up mailing. In this paper, we examine whether the same conclusions could have been reached from survey without follow ups as with them and evaluate the influence of follow ups on the conception of the quality assurance instrument. Comparison of responses on a set of perception variables revealed that local governments answering previous or after the follow up did not differ. However the configuration of the quality assurance instrument changed when including follow up responses.

Conceptions of Quality and Approaches to Quality Assurance in Ontario’s Universities

Goff, Lori-Ann
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Many international, political, and economic influences led to increased demands for development of new quality assurance systems for universities. Like many policies and processes that aim to assure quality, Ontario’s Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) did not define quality. This study sought to explore conceptions of quality and approaches to quality assurance used within Ontario’s universities. A document analysis of the QAF’s rationale and structure suggested that quality was conceived primarily as fitness for purpose, while suggested indicators represented an exceptional conception of quality. Ontario universities perpetuated such confusion by adopting the framework without customizing it to their institutional conceptions of quality. Drawing upon phenomenographic traditions, a qualitative investigation was conducted to better understand various conceptions of quality held by university administrators and to appreciate ways in which they implemented the QAF. Three main approaches to quality assurance were identified: (a) Defending Quality, characterized by conceptions of quality as exceptional, which focuses on administrative accountability and uses a hands-off strategy to defend traditional notions of quality inputs and resources; (b) Demonstrating Quality...

Framework to assist healthcare delivery organisations and medical device manufacturers establish security assurance for networked medical devices

Finnegan, Anita; Mc Caffery, Fergal; Coleman, Gerry
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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peer-reviewed; This paper introduces an assurance framework for networked medical device development. This work is being conducted to address the everincreasing concerns of medical device security with a specific focus on medical devices to be incorporated into IT networks. The framework utilises a Process Assessment Model and a Process Reference Model to address system development lifecycle processes, security assurance processes and a focused risk management process. There is currently no governance for the development of secure medical devices in place and so, this work sets out to resolve this problem by increasing the awareness of medical device security risks, threats and vulnerabilities among Medical Device Manufacturers, IT vendors and Healthcare Delivery Organisations

A process assessment model for security assurance of networked medical devices

Finnegan, Anita; Mc Caffery, Fergal; Coleman, Gerry
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
peer-reviewed; The recent introduction of networked medical devices has posed many benefits for both the healthcare industry and improved patient care. However, because of the complexity of these devices, in particular the advanced communication ability of these devices, security is becoming an increasing concern. This paper presents work to develop a framework to assure the security of medical devices being incorporated into an IT network. It begins by looking at the development processes and the assurance of these through the use of a Process Assessment Model with a major focus on the security risk management processes. With the inclusion of a set of specific security controls, both the Healthcare Delivery Organisations and the Medical Device Manufacturers work together to establish fundamental security requirements. The Medical Device Manufacturer reports the achieved security assurance level of their device through the development of a security assurance case. The purpose of this approach is to increase awareness of security vulnerabilities, risks and controls among Medical Device Manufacturers and Healthcare Delivery Organisations with the aim of increasing the overall security capability of medical devices.

Towards Security Assurance in Round-Trip Engineering: A Type-Based Approach; Electronic notes in theoretical computer science

Pavlich-Mariscal, Jaime; Franky, María Consuelo; Lopez, Ariel
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Formato: 83-94
Português
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Vol. 292; Security assurance is a property that ensures that the application code behaves consistently with the access control policy specified at the design level. Security assurance proofs are valid as long as software engineers do not modify the generated code. This assumption does not hold in Round-Trip Engineering, since programmers may modify the generated code and the models are automatically re-generated. This paper proposes a round-trip engineering approach for access control that preserves security assurance both when generating code from models and vice versa. The approach is to extend programming languages’ typing mechanisms with additional rules that ensure consistency between models and code, even when code is arbitrarily modified by programmers. This paper presents a formal description of the solution and an initial sketch of the required proofs of correctness. Ongoing work is the development of a prototype to automate most of the process and its validation in a case study.

Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices

Materu, Peter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This report maps and assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance (QA) in Sub-Saharan Africa. It centers on quality assurance in degree-granting tertiary institutions, but also incorporates, where available, information on other types of tertiary education. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints. The research for this report was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006 through document and web reviews, interviews and six detailed country case studies covering Cameroon, Ghana, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania. This study has two main purposes, one being to establish a baseline on the status of quality assurance in higher education in Africa. A second is to provide information to education policymakers, stakeholders (including employers) and development partners involved in tertiary education in Africa that may assist them with identification and prioritization of capacity enhancement needs for quality improvement.

Quality Assurance in Higher Education : A Comparison of Eight Systems

Weber, Luc; Mahfooz, Sara Bin; Hovde, Kate
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Quality in higher education is difficult to measure. Incentives to improve (or not) are often different for public and private institutions, and approaches to quality assurance have to be adapted to different situations. Poland is reforming its higher education institutional framework and the World Bank conducted a review, comparing strategies followed by (largely) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries with regard to quality assessment, to help the country assess educational services at its higher education institutions. Based on the research, some of the most comprehensive quality assessment frameworks for public universities were found in the Irish, Scottish and Hong Kong educational systems; for private universities, the Austrian and Swiss systems present interesting examples.

An Independent Oversight Body for Quality Assurance Review in the Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The paper is part of a program to provide support to a major recommendation in the Philippine Review of Standards and Codes on Accounting and Auditing (ROSC-A&A). The ROSC-A&A brought out that there were major improvements in the accounting and auditing scene since the last assessment made in 2001. Substantially complete improvements include the adoption of the international standards for accounting, auditing, and professional ethics. The objects of this program were as follows: First, to develop a strategic plan to provide for the adoption and implementation of a QAR (Quality Assurance Review) program for auditing firms in the Philippines. Second, begin devloping a cooperative arrangement between Philippine regulatory authorities and the accounting professional body, and develop rules and regulations subjecting auditors and/or auditing firms to such a quality assurance review program. This would include administrative steps to be taken by the relevant government authority to initiate this program. Third...

The organization of the software quality assurance process

Boger, Dan C.; Lyons, Norman R.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper discusses and analyzes approaches to the problem of so.)Ctware quality assurance. The approaches offered in the fiterature usually focus on "designing in "quality. This can be a productive approach, but there are also benefits to be gained by establishing an independent quality assurance (QA) group to review all aspects of the software development process. This paper discusses the organization of such a group using the function o fan operations auditing group as a model.

Coupling artificial intelligence and a system dynamics simulation to optimize quality assurance and testing in software development

Agan, Christopher E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 159 p.
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The allocation of effort to quality assurance and testing is vitally important to the successful development and maintenance of a software system. There is no quantitative method for finding the right allocation policy. The most common methods include allocating fixed percentage of effort for all software projects or using allocations that have been used for similar projects in the past. The benefits of choosing the correct manpower allocation to suit a particular project can be substantial. Using the System Dynamics Model of Software Project Management an optimal quality assurance and testing level for project's development lifecycle can be found. The focus of this thesis is to design an expert system that can be coupled with the model in order to find the optimal allocation of quality assurance and testing effort for a particular project. Two expert system modules were developed, that when coupled with the system dynamics model, will find optimum quality assurance and testing distributions for a software project. The expert system modules were then used to perform sensitivity analysis experiments on the results.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

An evaluation of approaches to assessing the quality of nursing care using (predetermined) quality assurance tools

Harvey, G.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 Português
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This paper examines the implementation of four of the most common approaches to nursing quality assurance in England, namely Monitor, Qualpacs, nursing audits and a patient satisfaction questionnaire entitled 'What the Patient Thinks'. The primary aim of the study was to look more closely at the context, processes and outcomes of selecting and implementing specific quality assurance tools. Data were analysed at three distinct levels. The findings are presented around the structure of this three-level framework and indicate that the process of implementing a quality assurance tool is more important than the tool itself. It is suggested that a bottom-up approach to implementation, which locates ownership and control of the quality assurance tool with practitioners, is seen to result in more favourable staff responses and positive programme outcomes. The implementation of Qualpacs is used to illustrate some of the tensions that can occur between the inherent principles of the tool and the method of implementation. In studying the factors that might influence the method of implementing a quality assurance tool, a number of organizational and managerial factors are identified.; Gillian Harvey

Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information, together with an analysis of the current situation of the education sector, describes the motivation for the study and demonstrates the urgent need to shift the focus in education policy to quality assurance. Chapter III describes the conceptual framework developed for the analysis of how successful systems carry out education quality assurance. The framework developed identifies education participants, including: students; teachers; principals and school administrators; schools; local governments (districts, municipalities); regional governments (states, provinces); and the national government. Chapter IV applies the framework to the nine education systems selected as comparisons and presents a summary of the quality assurance functions and institutions in each selected education system. Chapter V describes the four alternative instructional visions for quality assurance in education developed as a result of the international review. Finally...

QoS Representation, Negotiation and Assurance in Cloud Services

Zheng, Xianrong
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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36.88%
Cloud services are Internet-based IT services. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) are three representative examples. As the cloud market becomes more open and competitive, Quality of Service (QoS) will be more important. However, cloud providers and cloud consumers have different and sometimes opposite preferences. If such a conflict occurs, a Service Level Agreement (SLA) cannot be established without negotiation. To allow service consumers to express their QoS requirements, and negotiate them with service providers, we argue for cloud service negotiation. It aims to establish and enforce SLAs for cloud services. Specifically, we study how to measure, negotiate, and enforce QoS requirements for cloud services, and so formulate three research problems, i.e., QoS measurement, QoS negotiation, and QoS assurance. In terms of its scope, the topic covers business side automated negotiation and technical side resource allocation techniques. As a result, it has a potential impact on cloud service adoption. To address QoS measurement, we initiate a quality model named CLOUDQUAL for cloud services. It is a model with quality dimensions and metrics that targets general cloud services. CLOUDQUAL contains six quality dimensions...

Strengths and obstacles for quality assurance in the European Higher Education Area: The Spanish case

Edwards Schachter, Mónica E.; Tovar Caro, E.; Sánchez Ruiz, Luis Manuel
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 460673 bytes; application/pdf
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Trabajo presentado a la International Conference on Engineering Education & Research celebrada del 23 al 28 Agosto de 2009 en Seul (Corea del Sur).; Quality assurance and accreditation in higher education are a priority aim in the convergence process to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although the majority of European universities are working around these issues, there exist diverse tensions between the national legislation, accreditation and quality assurance, both in internal and external contexts. Spanish Higher Education Institutions must ensure the fulfillment of the goals related to their different degree programs, in a context of continuous improvement. This paper presents the evolution, some examples and the more recent trends related to quality assurance and accreditation in Spain. It comments some instruments that have been developed by the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation of Spain (ANECA), like the guidelines developed in the AUDIT program whose purpose is to provide guidance in designing internal quality assurance systems.; Peer reviewed

Quality assurance systems of higher education - The case of european institutions: origin, evolution and trends;

Corengia, Ángela; Universidad Austral; Del Bello, Juan Carlos; Pita Carranza, María; Adrogué, Cecilia; UdeSA-Universidad Austral-CONICET
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/11/2014 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2014v7n3p61The purpose of this research is to analyze the origin, evolution, performance and trends of higher education quality assurance systems in the following European countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. It also studies the performance and impact of the organizations that join the European Quality Assurance Agencies together. The main sources of data collection were in situ semi-structured interviews to members of these agencies. It was found that in higher education institutions there is a strong trend towards the development of ‘internal quality assurance systems' in response to the public policies known as 'quality audits'. This overview about what is taking place in Europe may provide innovative instruments that could be considered for higher education quality evaluation and accreditation in Latin-American countries: quality audits, disciplinary agencies, evaluation of the quality assurance agencies, among others.;