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Defesa da concorrência e bem-estar do consumidor; Competition defense and consumer welfare

Pfeiffer, Roberto Augusto Castellanos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
O objeto da tese de doutorado é a análise da relação entre a defesa da concorrência e a proteção do consumidor, duas políticas públicas que proporcionam benefícios mútuos e devem ser executadas de modo harmônico, havendo substrato normativo e teórico para incluir a preocupação com o bem-estar do consumidor como um dos objetivos da política de defesa da concorrência. No Brasil tal harmonização é uma imposição constitucional, já que a livre concorrência, a repressão ao abuso do poder econômico e a defesa do consumidor são princípios conformadores da ordem econômica. É defendida a utilização de um conceito unificado de consumidor, sendo adotada a teoria finalista, que o define como o destinatário final econômico do bem ou serviço. As duas políticas utilizam diferentes instrumentos e perspectivas na tutela do bem-estar do consumidor, o que fica claro na proteção do direito de escolha. O Código de Defesa do Consumidor oferece a isonomia como remédio para compensar a vulnerabilidade, estabelecendo regras destinadas à uma escolha consciente, sobretudo o direito à informação adequada e veraz. Já as normas de defesa da concorrência resguardam a liberdade preocupando-se em preservar a possibilidade de escolha entre mais de um fornecedor de produtos ou serviços. O exemplo mais contundente dá-se no controle de estruturas: a atuação das autoridades responsáveis pela análise dos atos de concentração é vinculada à preservação do excedente do consumidor e das condições imprescindíveis ao exercício do direito de escolha...

Auxílio na prevenção de doenças crônicas por meio de mapeamento e relacionamento conceitual de informações em biomedicina; Support in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases by means of Mapping and Conceptual Relationship of Biomedical Information

Pollettini, Juliana Tarossi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Pesquisas recentes em medicina genômica sugerem que fatores de risco que incidem desde a concepção de uma criança até o final de sua adolescência podem influenciar no desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas da idade adulta. Artigos científicos com descobertas e estudos inovadores sobre o tema indicam que a epigenética deve ser explorada para prevenir doenças de alta prevalência como doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes e obesidade. A grande quantidade de artigos disponibilizados diariamente dificulta a atualização de profissionais, uma vez que buscas por informação exata se tornam complexas e dispendiosas em relação ao tempo gasto na procura e análise dos resultados. Algumas tecnologias e técnicas computacionais podem apoiar a manipulação dos grandes repositórios de informações biomédicas, assim como a geração de conhecimento. O presente trabalho pesquisa a descoberta automática de artigos científicos que relacionem doenças crônicas e fatores de risco para as mesmas em registros clínicos de pacientes. Este trabalho também apresenta o desenvolvimento de um arcabouço de software para sistemas de vigilância que alertem profissionais de saúde sobre problemas no desenvolvimento humano. A efetiva transformação dos resultados de pesquisas biomédicas em conhecimento possível de ser utilizado para beneficiar a saúde pública tem sido considerada um domínio importante da informática. Este domínio é denominado Bioinformática Translacional (BUTTE...

Uma abordagem para obtenção e disponibilização em tempo real de informações geográficas voluntárias no contexto de gestão de risco de inundação; An approach for obtaining and providing real-time volunteered geographic information in the context of flood risk management

Degrossi, Livia Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
O número e a intensidade dos desastres naturais têm aumentado em todo o mundo devido às mudanças climáticas. Atualmente, as inundações representam a maior parte dos desastres naturais e causam mais danos, mortes e impactos econômicos do que qualquer outro tipo de fenômeno natural. No Brasil, as inundações se intensificam principalmente no período de chuvas, entre os meses de Dezembro e Março, ocasionando dezenas de mortes, além de impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais. Assim, prevenir esse tipo de desastre tem se tornado um fator importante para minimizar os impactos por ele provocados. Para isso, são necessárias informações atualizadas, completas e precisas sobre o atual estado das variáveis ambientais. Nesse contexto, as informações voluntárias estão sendo utilizadas como fonte de dados complementar para a gestão de risco de inundação, devido ao número elevado de voluntários que atuam como "sensores". Contudo, outras informações relacionadas a inundação estão dispersas em diferentes fontes de dados, dificultando as ações de resposta das agências de emergência. Neste trabalho e proposta uma abordagem que visa apoiar a gestão de risco de inundação, fornecendo mecanismos para a obtenção de informações voluntárias para esse contexto e permitindo a disponibilização dessas por meio de serviços geoespaciais em tempo real. Para tanto...

Price discrimination with private and imperfect information

Esteves, Rosa Branca
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
This paper investigates the competitive and welfare effects of information accuracy improvements in markets where firms can price discriminate after observing a private and noisy signal about a consumer’s brand preference. It shows that firms charge more to customers they believe have a brand preference for them, and that this price has an inverted-U shaped relationship with the signal’s accuracy. In contrast, the price charged after a disloyal signal has been observed falls as the signal’s accuracy rises. While industry profit and overall welfare fall monotonically as price discrimination is based on increasingly more accurate information, the reverse happens to consumer surplus.; COMPETE; QREN; FEDER; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Financial (Dis-)Information : Evidence from an Audit Study in Mexico

Gine, Xavier; Martinez Cuellar, Cristina; Mazer, Rafael Keenan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
An audit study was conducted in peri-urban Mexico to understand the quality of information and products offered to low-income potential customers. Trained auditors visited multiple financial institutions seeking credit and savings products. Consistent with Gabaix and Laibson (2006), staff voluntarily provides little information about avoidable fees, especially to auditors trained to reveal little knowledge about the market. In addition, clients are almost never offered the cheapest product, most likely because staff is incentivized to offer more expensive products that are thus more profitable to the institution. This suggests that disclosure and transparency policies may be ineffective if they undermine the commercial interest of financial institutions.

Learning the Structure of High-Dimensional Manifolds with Self-Organizing Maps for Accurate Information Extraction

Zhang, Lili
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
This work aims to improve the capability of accurate information extraction from high-dimensional data, with a specific neural learning paradigm, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The SOM is an unsupervised learning algorithm that can faithfully sense the manifold structure and support supervised learning of relevant information from the data. Yet open problems regarding SOM learning exist. We focus on the following two issues. 1. Evaluation of topology preservation. Topology preservation is essential for SOMs in faithful representation of manifold structure. However, in reality, topology violations are not unusual, especially when the data have complicated structure. Measures capable of accurately quantifying and informatively expressing topology violations are lacking. One contribution of this work is a new measure, the Weighted Differential Topographic Function (WDTF), which differentiates an existing measure, the Topographic Function (TF), and incorporates detailed data distribution as an importance weighting of violations to distinguish severe violations from insignificant ones. Another contribution is an interactive visual tool, TopoView, which facilitates the visual inspection of violations on the SOM lattice. We show the effectiveness of the combined use of the WDTF and TopoView through a simple two-dimensional data set and two hyperspectral images. 2. Learning multiple latent variables from high-dimensional data. We use an existing two-layer SOM-hybrid supervised architecture...

Learning the Structure of High-Dimensional Manifolds with Self-Organizing Maps for Accurate Information Extraction

Zhang, Lili
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
This work aims to improve the capability of accurate information extraction from high-dimensional data, with a specific neural learning paradigm, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The SOM is an unsupervised learning algorithm that can faithfully sense the manifold structure and support supervised learning of relevant information from the data. Yet open problems regarding SOM learning exist. We focus on the following two issues. (1) Evaluation of topology preservation. Topology preservation is essential for SOMs in faithful representation of manifold structure. However, in reality, topology violations are not unusual, especially when the data have complicated structure. Measures capable of accurately quantifying and informatively expressing topology violations are lacking. One contribution of this work is a new measure, the Weighted Differential Topographic Function ( WDTF ), which differentiates an existing measure, the Topographic Function ( TF ), and incorporates detailed data distribution as an importance weighting of violations to distinguish severe violations from insignificant ones. Another contribution is an interactive visual tool, TopoView, which facilitates the visual inspection of violations on the SOM lattice. We show the effectiveness of the combined use of the WDTF and TopoView through a simple two-dimensional data set and two hyperspectral images. (2) Learning multiple latent variables from high-dimensional data. We use an existing two-layer SOM-hybrid supervised architecture...

SEAN: multi-ontology semantic annotation for highly accurate closed domains

Gómez-Berbís, Juan Miguel; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; López-Cuadrado, José Luis; González-Carrasco, Israel; García-Crespo, Ángel
Fonte: Academic Journals Publicador: Academic Journals
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/03/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Semantic annotation has gained momentum with the emergence of the current user-generated content paradigm on the Web. The ever-growing quantity of collaborative data sources has resulted in the requirement for efficient approaches to create, integrate and retrieve information more efficiently in an environment where the users ask for accurate information. The main research challenge of the current work is using manual semantic annotation in a highly accurate closed domain, a conceptual domain with a minimal set of concepts where the benefits of adding semantics, search efficiency, optimization and the cost estimations are viable. This paper presents a semantic annotation approach for highly accurate closed domain based on multi-ontology annotation (domain and application ontologies).

A Handbook on Financial Management Information Systems for Government; A Practitioners Guide for Setting Reform Priorities, Systems Design, and Implementation

Hashim, Ali
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Automation of government financial management (GFM) systems is one of the core elements of the reform program since ready availability of timely and accurate information is critical to the management of government finances and public funds; and it may simply not be possible to obtain the information required for economic management in a timely manner without some degree of automation, in view of the large transaction volumes involved and their dispersal across multiple sites around the country. These systems are also referred to as integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS). As described in this handbook, IFMIS consists of a number of modules which support the different functional processes associated with GFM. These include modules for macroeconomic forecasting, budget preparation, budget execution (including cash management, accounting, and fiscal reporting), managing the size of the civil service establishment and its payroll and pensions, debt management, tax administration, and auditing. This handbook tries to fulfill the need and to provide information related to the entire systems life cycle...

Valued information at the right time (VIRT) and the Navy's cooperative engagement capability (CEC) - a win/win proposition

Acevedo, Rafael A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 107 p. : ill. (some col.);
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; In this thesis I examine the theory of Valued Information at the Right Time (VIRT) and the benefits its implementation can provide to the Navy's best example of accurate information-sharing, the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC). The primary premise of VIRT is that only information which has some value to the user and could impact mission accomplishment should be allowed to flow from a source to the user. If information has little or no value to the individual it is destined for, it must simply be regarded as overhead and should not be sent/received. Using a simple simulation I show in this thesis that VIRT has the potential to provide benefits of orders of magnitude versus a non-VIRT implementation. The Navy's CEC program represents a premier air track data sharing mechanism. It enables ships augmented with this capability and residing on the network to share fire control quality information on the individual parameters of air tracks such as location, course, speed, and altitude. There is a place for VIRT implementation within CEC. Such an implementation can prove beneficial both to CEC as an internal user of information and also as a supplier to external entities of its valuable track information. Finally...

An Enterprise Information System for the Naval Security Group

Stevenson, James V.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 103 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; U.S. Naval Security Group (NSG) community data resides in disassociated systems with no clear data hierarchy. The NSG's lack of a central information framework wastes money, consumes manpower, and underutilizes claimancy resources. To improve NSG data operations, an Enterprise Information System (EIS) was designed and implemented using Commercial Off The Shelf hardware and software. First, an Internet browser-based, client server architecture was selected that optimizes performance, interoperability, and cost. Next, a database schema was designed and instantiated using relational technology. Then, web server database access files were created that emphasize connectivity and utility. Finally, EIS integrity and privacy concerns were examined. The prototype NSG EIS optimizes personnel and resources, improves data accuracy and timeliness, and enhances the Naval Security Group's aggressive pursuit of information dominance. The proposed NSG EIS provides the NSG with an affordable and efficient method to bring timely and accurate information to bear in an increasingly information dependent military.; http://www.archive.org/details/enterpriseinform00stev; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Supervision and Support of Primary and Secondary Education : A Policy Note for the Government of Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
This policy note examines how five countries: England, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea organize the supervision and support of schools and teachers at the primary and secondary levels. Countries are compared and contrasted according to a framework consisting of seven aspects related to supervision. A workshop to discuss a draft version of this note as well as additional issues related to the overall organization of quality assurance systems in education and the Ministry's own current plans was held in Warsaw on May 10, 2010. The study found that there are a number of key issues in the provision of effective supervision and support. These include the issues of where to locate supervision and support institutionally, whether to keep these functions institutionally distinct or not, how to balance accountability and support, particularly given the need for accurate information, additional financial resources, and skilled human resources, and how to ensure the perceived legitimacy of the system.

Company in Distress?; Directors Needn't Be--Mitigating Risks at the Board

Rechden, Claudio N.; Miller, Kalina B.
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Brief
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Investors see value in nominating members to the boards of companies they have invested in. Through board members, they can help improve the company's operations, define corporate strategy, adjust inefficiencies, improve governance, and ultimately increase the expected return on their investment. The authors examine the shift in the relative position of stakeholders when a company enters the penumbra of insolvency. In good times, directors rightly think of the shareholders as the parties to whom their duties to the company (and legal responsibilities) most directly extend. But once the enterprise s very survival as a going concern comes into question, the profile and legal rights of creditors and other stakeholders take on greater importance. The board must be able to demonstrate that it is doing everything it can to maximize the enterprise value of the company, and hence the likelihood that the company will meet its obligations to parties with claims (on the cash flow and assets of the company) that come before the residual interest of shareholders. This paper lists other actions (including...

Price discrimination with private and imperfect information

Esteves, Rosa Branca
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
This paper investigates the competitive and welfare effects of information accuracy improvements in markets where firms can price discriminate after observing a private and noisy signal about a consumer's brand preference. I show that firms charge more to customers they believe have a brand preference for them, and that this price has an inverted-U shaped relationship with the signal's accuracy. In contrast, the price charged after a disloyal signal has been observed falls as the signal's accuracy rises. While industry profit and overall welfare fall monotonically as price discrimination is based on increasingly more accurate information, the reverse happens to consumer surplus. The model is also extended to a public information setting. For any level of the signal's accuracy, moving from public to private information boosts industry profit and welfare at the expense of consumer surplus.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - Programa Operacional Ciência e Inovação 2010 (POCI 2010); Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER)

Monitoring the driver's activity using 3D information

Peláez Coronado, Gustavo Adolfo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Driver supervision is crucial in safety systems for the driver. It is important to monitor the driver to understand his necessities, patterns of movements and behaviour under determined circumstances. The availability of an accurate tool to supervise the driver’s behaviour allows multiple objectives to be achieved such as the detection of drowsiness (analysing the head movements and blinking pattern) and distraction (estimating where the driver is looking by studying the head and eyes position). Once the misbehaviour is detected in both cases an alarm, of the correct type according to the situation, could be triggered to correct the driver’s behaviour. This application distinguishes itself form other driving assistance systems due to the fact that it is oriented to analyse the inside of the vehicle instead of the outside. It is important to notice that inside supervising applications are as important as the outside supervising applications because if the driver falls asleep, a pedestrian detection algorithm can do only limited actions to prevent the accident. All this under the best and predetermined circumstances. The application has the potential to be used to estimate if the driver is looking at certain area where another application detected that an obstacle is present (inert object...

Information-Theoretic Bounds for Performance of Resource-Constrained Communication Systems

Lam, Albert Y. S.; Geng, Yanhui; Li, Victor O. K.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Resource-constrained systems are prevalent in communications. Such a system is composed of many components but only some of them can be allocated with resources such as time slots. According to the amount of information about the system, algorithms are employed to allocate resources and the overall system performance depends on the result of resource allocation. We do not always have complete information, and thus, the system performance may not be satisfactory. In this work, we propose a general model for the resource-constrained communication systems. We draw the relationship between system information and performance and derive the performance bounds for the optimal algorithm for the system. This gives the expected performance corresponding to the available information, and we can determine if we should put more efforts to collect more accurate information before actually constructing an algorithm for the system. Several examples of applications in communications to the model are also given.; Comment: Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Communications

On the Effects of Low-Quality Training Data on Information Extraction from Clinical Reports

Marcheggiani, Diego; Sebastiani, Fabrizio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
In the last five years there has been a flurry of work on information extraction from clinical documents, i.e., on algorithms capable of extracting, from the informal and unstructured texts that are generated during everyday clinical practice, mentions of concepts relevant to such practice. Most of this literature is about methods based on supervised learning, i.e., methods for training an information extraction system from manually annotated examples. While a lot of work has been devoted to devising learning methods that generate more and more accurate information extractors, no work has been devoted to investigating the effect of the quality of training data on the learning process. Low quality in training data often derives from the fact that the person who has annotated the data is different from the one against whose judgment the automatically annotated data must be evaluated. In this paper we test the impact of such data quality issues on the accuracy of information extraction systems as applied to the clinical domain. We do this by comparing the accuracy deriving from training data annotated by the authoritative coder (i.e., the one who has also annotated the test data, and by whose judgment we must abide), with the accuracy deriving from training data annotated by a different coder. The results indicate that...

Towards the full information chain theory: question difficulty

Perevalov, Eugene; Grace, David
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
A general problem of optimal information acquisition for its use in decision making problems is considered. This motivates the need for developing quantitative measures of information sources' capabilities for supplying accurate information depending on the particular content of the latter. In this article, the notion of a real valued difficulty functional for questions identified with partitions of problem parameter space is introduced and the overall form of this functional is derived that satisfies a particular system of reasonable postulates. It is found that, in an isotropic case, the resulting difficulty functional depends on a single scalar function on the parameter space that can be interpreted -- using parallels with classical thermodynamics -- as a temperature-like quantity, with the question difficulty itself playing the role of thermal energy. Quantitative relationships between difficulty functionals of different questions are also explored.; Comment: 39 pages, 6 figures

Towards the full information chain theory: answer depth and source models

Perevalov, Eugene; Grace, David
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
A problem of optimal information acquisition for its use in general decision making problems is considered. This motivates the need for developing quantitative measures of information sources' capabilities for supplying accurate information depending on the particular content of the latter. A companion article developed the notion of a question difficulty functional for questions concerning input data for a decision making problem. Here, answers which an information source may provide in response to such questions are considered. In particular, a real valued answer depth functional measuring the degree of accuracy of such answers is introduced and its overall form is derived under the assumption of isotropic knowledge structure of the information source. Additionally, information source models that relate answer depth to question difficulty are discussed. It turns out to be possible to introduce a notion of an information source capacity as the highest value of the answer depth the source is capable of providing.; Comment: 45 pages, 10 figures

Research Information and Strategic Decision Making

Tomlin, Richard
Fonte: euroCRIS; Kassel University Press Publicador: euroCRIS; Kassel University Press
Tipo: Conference Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Presented at the CRIS2002 Conference in Kassel.-- 1 page.; Research management is popularly described as being like herding cats. Researchers themselves show no instinctive desire to be managed, rather the opposite, and the process of managing creativity is notoriously problematic. However, decisions that directly impact on research have to be made at many levels, from the multi-national all the way down to the personal. The process by which such decisions are made is, however loosely interpreted, management.; Some decisions are of a narrowly technical nature where the researchers’ own expertise is sufficient. Other decisions take place on a wider horizon and often involve people not directly concerned with the research itself. Among such decisions are those concerning the allocation of resources, the future direction and coordination of research efforts, and the evaluation of research outcomes. As the competition for research resources intensifies, the quality of such decisions takes on even greater importance. Rational decision making requires that the decision should be made in the light of timely, relevant, and accurate information, yet it is often difficult to find such information efficiently and use it effectively.; This paper will explore some of the key situations in which decisions affecting research are made and how research information systems could be deployed to support the making of those decisions. The examples to be considered include mapping research capabilities from a variety of perspectives as a basis for investment-type decisions; portfolio analysis as a basis for managing research collaborations and other relationships; and the need for less intensive methods of research evaluation.