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Barbados - Financial Sector Assessment : Based on the Joint International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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35.97%
The principal objective of the mission was to update the FSAP conducted in 2002 focusing on financial system stability and specific institutional development issues. The mission also provided an assessment of the observance of international standards and codes in financial regulation and supervision for the banking and securities sectors as well as of the development needs of the financial system and its potential contribution to economic development. Preliminary results of the mission were discussed with the authorities during the subsequent IMF Article IV mission. The 2008 FSAP update for Barbados took place in the context of considerable turmoil in global financial markets. Encouragingly, the financial system in Barbados has been little affected by this turmoil and the macroeconomic situation remains robust with economic growth continuing to benefit from healthy tourism numbers and ongoing construction activity. As a result, the unemployment rate continues near historic lows. Nonetheless, economic prospects are tied to continuing tourism and...

Containing Systemic Risk : Paradigm-Based Perspectives on Regulatory Reform

de la Torre, Augusto; Ize, Alain
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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26.22%
Financial crises can happen for a variety of reasons: (a) nobody really understands what is going on (the collective cognition paradigm); (b) some understand better than others and take advantage of their knowledge (the asymmetric information paradigm); (c) everybody understands, but crises are a natural part of the financial landscape (the costly enforcement paradigm); or (d) everybody understands, yet no one acts because private and social interests do not coincide (the collective action paradigm). The four paradigms have different and often conflicting prudential policy implications. This paper proposes and discusses three sets of reforms that would give due weight to the insights from the collective action and collective cognition paradigms by redrawing the regulatory perimeter to internalize systemic risk without promoting dynamic regulatory arbitrage; introducing a truly systemic liquidity regulation that moves away from a purely idiosyncratic focus on maturity mismatches; and building up the supervisory function while avoiding the pitfalls of expanded official oversight.

Financial Sector Assessment : A Handbook

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.02%
The experience of many countries around the world clearly shows that while financial sector development can spur economic growth, financial fragility and instability can seriously harm growth. Following the financial crises of the late 1990s, there has been increasing interest in the systematic assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of financial systems, with the ultimate goal of formulating appropriate policies to foster financial stability, and stimulate financial sector development. Consequently, there has been an increased demand from financial sector authorities in many countries, as well as from the Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) staff for information on key issues, and sound practices in the assessment of financial systems, and in the design of policy responses. This Handbook of Financial Sector Assessment is a response to this demand. The Handbook presents an overall analytical framework for assessing financial system stability and developmental needs, providing broad guidance on approaches...

How Firms Use Domestic and International Corporate Bond Markets

Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.13%
This paper provides the first comprehensive documentation of how firms use domestic and international corporate bond markets. Debt issues in domestic and international markets have different characteristics, not explained by differences across firms or countries. International issues tend to be larger, of shorter maturity, denominated in foreign currency, include more fixed rate contracts, and entail lower yields. These patterns remain when analyzing issues by firms from countries with more developed domestic markets and higher financial integration, and even when comparing issues conducted by the same firm in different markets. These findings are consistent with the views that (1) frictions limit the ability of investors and firms to enter into certain contracts in certain markets, (2) domestic and international markets provide distinct financial services and firms use them as complements, and (3) firms with access to domestic and international markets enjoy advantages relative to those that rely solely on domestic markets.

Financial Sector Assessment : Eastern Caribbean Currency Union

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.13%
The joint World Bank- International Monetary Fund (IMF) Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) to the countries of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) was carried out in September and October of 2003. The assessment covered the following: (i) stability issues, including banking system soundness; supervision and regulation of banking; and the adequacy of financial sector crisis management arrangements; and (ii) structural and development issues, specifically competitiveness, efficiency and reach of the financial system including development of non-bank financial institutions and markets. This FSA report summarizes the overall assessment, providing additional detail on the structural and development issues, and highlights the main recommendations that have been provided to the authorities.

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.13%
Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) employs a very well developed risk-focused regulatory and supervisory regime, consisting of a hands-on and comprehensive program of onsite supervision and extensive off-site macro, and micro, surveillance that is well integrated with its on-site supervision. This assessment of the current state of compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) in Malaysia has been undertaken as part of a joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) mission. The assessment was conducted from 4 April till 20 April 2012. It reflects the banking supervision practices of the BNM as of the end of March 2012 for the supervision of commercial banks. The assessment is based on several sources: (i) a detailed and comprehensive self-assessment prepared by the BNM ; (ii) detailed interviews with the BNM staff; (iii) review of laws, regulations, and other documentation on the supervisory framework and on the structure and development of the Malaysia financial sector; and (iv) meetings with individual banks...

Republic of Korea Financial Sector Assessment Program : Detailed Assessment of Observance - Basel Core Principles folr Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.07%
This assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel core principles for effective banking supervision (BCP) in the Republic of Korea has been completed as part of a financial sector assessment program (FSAP) update undertaken by the international monetary fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) during 2013. It reflects the regulatory and supervisory framework in place as of the date of the completion of the assessment. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, and detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institution(s) responsible for banking regulation and supervision. In line with the BCP methodology, the assessment focused on the financial services commission - financial supervisory authority (FSC-FSS). This FSAP provides introduction; information and methodology used for assessment; institutional and macroeconomic setting and market structure - overview; preconditions for effective banking supervision; summary compliance with the Basel core principles; and detailed assessment.

Financial Sector Assessment : Republic of Korea

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.07%
The initial assessment under the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) was undertaken in 2003. The first Update mission (April 2013) assessed the observance of selected international standards and codes, and initiated discussions on a broad range of financial sector stability issues. In the case of each of the sector assessments new methodologies adopted since the global financial crisis were employed. The second mission (July 2013) completed its review, documented its assessment in a draft Aide-Memoire, and reviewed with the authorities the Aide-Memoire as well as draft technical notes covering a range of topics. The objectives of the FSAP were to review developments in the financial sector since the initial 2003 FSAP and in light of the lessons from the global financial crisis, assess and formulate recommendations related to financial stability and the financial sector oversight framework. This report presents main findings and recommendations.

Derecho aplicable al fondo de la controversia en el arbitraje comercial internacional

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: AEPDIRI Publicador: AEPDIRI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.58%
El Derecho applicable al fondo de la controversia en el arbitraje commercial internacional cumple una doble funci??n integrativa e interpretativa en relaci??n con el tratamiento legal de los contratos y obligaciones entre las partes. Sin embargo, en este art??culo se defiende la exclusi??n de la tradicional funci??n restrictiva en virtud de la cual las normas imperativas de la lex causae solo deben ser aplicadas como leyes de polic??a en los mismos supuestos que las de los terceros Estados. Las razones para la aplicaci??n de las normas internacionalmente imperativas en el arbitraje comercial internacional atienden a tres cincunstancias: conexi??n estrecha de la situaci??n, previsibilidad y reconocimiento internacional del inter??s p??blico. Este estudio contiene asimismo una aproximaci??n cr??tica a la lex mercatoria en sentido amplio, m??s all?? de las pr??cticas comerciales. Se analiza la inconveniente identificaci??n de los Principios UNIDROIT con la lex mercatoria y la necesidad de aceptar su aplicaci??n ??nicamente en la medida en que se consideren un reflejo de normas y principios generalmente aceptados. Recientemente, la cuesti??n de la determinaci??n de la ley aplicable al fondo en el arbitraje comercial internacional se ha emancipado de las tradicionales soluciones del Derecho internacional privado aplicadas por las jurisdicciones nacionales. Sin embargo...

Brazil's Bank Spread in International Context : From Macro to Micro Drivers

Jorgensen, Ole Hagen; Apostolou, Apostolos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.11%
In an international context, this paper analyzes the main drivers of Brazil's bank spreads measured by the net interest margin, by estimating internationally comparable measures for (i) institutional and regulatory (micro-) factors; (ii) macro-economic factors; and (iii) banking competition factors. The paper produces and applies a novel data set covering 197 areas and countries; ranging from 1995 to 2009, including 106 banks for Brazil and 16,434 banks worldwide. The analysis finds that micro-factors are the main drivers of spreads across the world. In the case of Brazil, the spread is found to be strongly accounted for by micro-factors -- also in international comparison. For example, micro-factors contributed 7.2 percentage points (79 percent) of the 11.5 percent total spread in Brazil in 2009, while macro-factors and banking competition factors jointly accounted for only 1.9 percentage points (21 percent). Conversely, Brazil does not rank high in international comparison in terms of macro-economic risk: Brazil and other countries from Latin America and the Caribbean are found to feature the highest micro-factors in the world while having the second-highest spreads and the second-lowest contribution of macro-factors. These unique findings suggest that countries striving toward reducing bank spreads should consider policies aimed at reducing microeconomic frictions in their banking sectors...

Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes : Benchmarking Arbitration and Mediation Regimes for Commercial Disputes Related to Foreign Direct Investment

Pouget, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
An effective commercial arbitration regime matters for foreign investors. It gives parties the autonomy to create a dispute resolution system tailored to increasingly complex disputes. Foreign investors view arbitration as a way to mitigate risks by providing legal certainty on enforcement rights, due process, and access to justice. The Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes indicators assess the legal and institutional framework for commercial arbitration, mediation, and conciliation regimes in 100 economies. All surveyed economies recognize arbitration as a tool for resolving commercial disputes and only nine economies have not acceded to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. In the Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes indicators, High Income OECD and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are the regions that reformed their laws on alternative dispute resolution the most between 2011 and 2012. The data also show that, globally, arbitration proceedings take 326 days on average...

Information Diffusion in International Markets

Izquierdo, Alejandro; Morisset, Jacques; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Globalization has been a persistent phenomenon of the post-war period. The gross volume of cross-border capital flows has grown at an average of 25 percent a year, and trade in goods and services has also increased, albeit not as dramatically, but at least twice as fast as world GDP over the past 20 years. Yet, consumers and investors continue to spend and hold a disproportionate share of their assets in local markets-the so-called home-bias has been emphasized by many recent empirical studies. For many researchers, this home bias reflects information asymmetries and the fact that acquiring information across international borders is relatively costly. The main objective of the authors is to identify channels through which information gets disseminated across international markets. They consider three potential channels through which information can affect import and foreign equity purchase decisions in 14 OECD countries. The first channel consists of information spillovers from the commercial to the financial markets and vice-versa. Financial investors and importers share common information...

A Firm's-Eye View of Commercial Policy and Fiscal Reforms in Cameroon

Gauthier, Bernard; Soloaga, Isidro; Tybout, James
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
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36.15%
After decades of high trade restrictions, fiscal distortions, and currency overvaluation, Cameroon implemented important commercial and fiscal policy reforms in 1994. Almost simultaneously, a major devaluation cut the international price of Cameroon's currency in half. This article examines the effects of those reforms on the incentive structure faced by manufacturing firms. Did the reforms create a coherent new set of signals? Did they reduce dispersion in tax burdens? Was the net effect to stimulate the production of tradable goods? The results of applying a cost function decomposition to detailed firm-level panel data suggest that the reforms created clear new signals for manufacturers, as effective protection rates fell by 80 to 120 percentage points. In contrast, neither the tax reforms nor the devaluation had a major systematic effect on profit margins. The devaluation did shift relative prices dramatically in favor of exportable goods, causing exporters to grow relatively rapidly.

Nigeria : Insurance Core Principles

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36%
This assessment provides an update on the significant regulatory and supervisory development in the Nigerian insurance sector since 2001. Nigeria undertook an initial Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) in December 2001, which included a review of the structure of Nigeria's insurance market and the supervisory framework and approach. Nigeria has also undertaken reviews of its observance of international accounting and auditing standards (2004 and 2011), and corporate governance (2008). The Nigerian authorities have taken steps to address a number of weaknesses identified in the 2001 FSAP. The assessment was benchmarked against the Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) issued by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) in October 2011. As the compulsory insurance is enforced, the cost of intermediation of compulsory insurance and the purchase of retirement annuities need to be addressed to improve efficiency of the market. This note is structured as follows: chapter one gives key findings and recommendations; and chapter two gives detailed assessment.

China : Financial Sector Assessment

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) exercise for China undertaken in 2010 by a joint International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank team. The first mission (June) assessed the observance of selected international standards and codes, and initiated discussions on a broad range of financial sector issues. The second mission (December) completed its review and presented a draft Aide-Memoire along with draft technical and background notes covering a range of topics relevant to China's financial sector. This report points out near-term risks, reform challenges and development opportunities China confronts as it continues to modernize its financial sector. China faces potential vulnerabilities, near-term risks and policy-induced distortions common to an evolving financial system. The challenges and opportunities are not unique, and can be addressed. The author proposes that the authorities could consider carefully sequencing the following reforms and development options: (i) further deepening the commercial orientation of the financial system; (ii) moving to more market-based means of controlling monetary and financial conditions; (iii) further strengthening regulation and supervision; (iv) upgrading the framework for financial stability and crisis management; (v) revising the strategy for financial inclusion to achieve improved access to financial services ; (vi) continuing steps to support a broad based capital market; and (vii) continue to strengthen and deepen the insurance and pension sectors; and (viii)continue enhancement of the financial market infrastructure.

Korea : Financial Sector Assessment

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Since the financial crisis in 1997-98, Korea has made major progress in financial, and corporate sector reform - the supervisory and regulatory regime for the financial sector has been substantially strengthened, and recent reforms helped achieve a high degree of observance of international standards, and codes. Moreover, significant consolidation in the banking system took place, with banks becoming more profit oriented, and their operations streamlined. The impressive macroeconomic performance led to strong real growth, low inflation, and growing official foreign reserves, facilitating the improvement of measured financial sector soundness. However, important reform measures were delayed, e.g., addressing issues in the areas of insurance and securities, adopting the insolvency framework, and in the completion of corporate restructuring, reforms crucial to prevent an economic downturn. Despite progress in prudential supervision, concerns remain on the regulator's ability to supervise risks, and, information and monitoring of connected lending and cross ownership in the financial crisis...

Le hardship : vers une reconnaissance du principe par les tribunaux arbitraux du commerce international

Ringuette, Josée
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 7769128 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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L'arbitre du commerce international peut-il, en l'absence de clause contractuelle expresse, procéder à l'adaptation du contrat lorsque survient un changement de circonstances qui modifie de façon substantielle l'équilibre contractuel initial? La complexification des schémas contractuels et l'émergence correspondante de nouvelles valeurs contractuelles favorisent la réception du principe rebus sic stantibus dans le droit commercial international. Les deux phénomènes permettent également d'envisager dans une nouvelle perspective les objections traditionnelles à la révision pour imprévision. Les arbitres du commerce international sont appelés à jouer un rôle, bien que modeste, dans le mouvement d'harmonisation privé du droit commercial international. Le contexte international de l'arbitrage et de la relation contractuelle, la volonté d'apaisement inhérente à ce mode de résolution des différends et le rapport particulier qu'entretient l'arbitre du commerce international avec le droit national permettront à ce dernier de privilégier, dans certaines circonstances, une option comme l'adaptation du contrat pour cause de hardship. Plusieurs facteurs devront cependant être examinés attentivement par le tribunal arbitral avant que ne soit prise la décision de procéder à l'adaptation du contrat. D'autres remèdes pourront être envisagés si une telle solution ne convient pas.; Is the arbitrator of international commerce entitled to adapt the contract when the parties did not provide so expressly and a supervening event provokes a substantiel change in the initial contractual equilibrum? The complexification of contractual schemes and the corresponding emergence of new values in contract theory made the reception of the rebus sic stantibus principle highly probable in international commercial law. These two phenomenas supplied keys for a revised perspective of the traditional objections to the application of the rebus sic stantibus principle. Arbitrators have a role to play in the movement of private harmonization of international commercial law. The international context in which they proceed...

L'arbitrage commercial international et les garanties procédurales

Joseph, Jacceus
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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76.43%
Cette recherche aborde un sujet complexe, qui est en plein débat doctrinal en droit de l'arbitrage international: L'arbitrage commercial international et les garanties procédurales. Au fait, l'arbitrage commercial international revêt le mode traditionnel des règlements de litiges du commerce international et des relations économiques internationales. À cause de l'hybridité de sa nature (contractuelle et juridictionnelle), il est le plus souvent préféré par les parties aux tribunaux étatiques. Cette faveur vis-à-vis de ce mode de règlements de litiges internationaux s'explique par le développement de l'économie internationale, par la globalisation du marché, par la conclusion de nombreuses conventions internationales en la matière, par la création des centres d'arbitrage, enfin par la modernisation des lois et règlements nationaux. En revanche, il est constaté que l'arbitrage souffre d'un déficit de prévisibilité et de certitudes pour les acteurs du commerce international. Que l'on songe seulement à la multiplication des rattachements législatifs et des contrôles judiciaires: conflits de lois, conflits entre les règles de conflits, etc. Nous avons démontré que la solution aux difficultés de la méthode conflictualiste serait l'harmonisation de la procédure arbitrale internationale et que ce mode de règlement de différends débouche de plus en plus sur le rapprochement entre traditions juridiques différentes (Common Law et droit civil).Toutefois...

L'intervention du juge canadien avant et durant un arbitrage commercial international

Bachand, Frédéric
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 26079122 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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96.62%
Cette thèse précise les conditions dans lesquelles les tribunaux judiciaires canadiens peuvent intervenir avant ou durant un arbitrage commercial international, soit afin d'y prêter assistance, soit afin d'en contrôler la légalité. Elle soumet également ces conditions à l'analyse critique, dans le but d'esquisser une théorie générale de l'intervention avant et durant un arbitrage commercial international des juges oeuvrant dans les États qui ont choisi d'accorder leur concours à la justice arbitrale internationale. Principalement, cette théorie repose sur l'idée selon laquelle l'intervention judiciaire survenant avant le prononcé de la sentence ne doit - à quelques exceptions près - servir que les intérêts des opérateurs du commerce international, les intérêts publics prépondérants ne devant être pris en compte que dans l'élaboration des conditions de l'intervention judiciaire survenant après le prononcé de la sentence. De cette idée directrice découlent deux conséquences majeures. D'abord, les ordres juridiques des États qui accordent leur concours à la justice arbitrale internationale doivent être perméables à des faits normatifs transnationaux qui s'intéressent à l'intervention judiciaire avant et durant un arbitrage commercial international...

Le consentement à la convention d'arbitrage commercial international : évolution et développement récents en droit québécois et en droit international

Kost de Sèvres, Nicolette
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 5912529 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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L'arbitrage évolue parallèlement et en accord au développement du commerce et des relations internationales s'accompagnant d'un accroissement des différends commerciaux de plus en plus complexes et spécialisés. En choisissant l'arbitrage, les parties excluent, de manière consensuelle, la compétence juridictionnelle des tribunaux étatiques. Ce droit à l'accès aux tribunaux étatiques se retrouve notamment à la Charte québécoise des droits et libertés de la personne. La validité d'une convention d'arbitrage dépend donc avant tout de la preuve de son existence et la preuve du consentement des parties s'y rattachant. La nécessité de l'écrit est donc un moyen de s'assurer du consentement des parties. La Convention de New York de 1958 énumère plusieurs de ces principes de forme. Son article 11(2), qui prévoit que la convention d'arbitrage doit être par écrit, n'est plus adapté aux réalités juridiques et commerciales d'aujourd'hui ni au développement du commerce électronique. Que peut être considéré comme un écrit afin de répondre aux exigences de l'article 1I(2)? Abordée par la CNUDCI, cette problématique quant au formalisme requis dans l'expression de la volonté des parties à se soumettre à l'arbitrage est d'une importance capitale dans la mesure des différentes interprétations qui existent à ce sujet tant au niveau du droit québécois et canadien qu'au niveau du droit international. Une réforme des dispositions législatives quant au formalisme écrit du consentement à l'arbitrage doit être mise en place et ce...