Página 1 dos resultados de 88 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

Courts as healthcare policy-makers: the problem, the responses to the problem and problems in the responses

Wang, Daniel Wei Liang
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
This article starts by analysing healthcare litigation in Brazil by means of a literature review of articles that contribute with empirical findings on this phenomenon. Based on this review, I argue that health care litigation in Brazil makes the public health system less fair and rational. In the second part of this article, I discuss the three most overarching responses to control the level of litigation and its impact on the public health system: (i) the public hearing held by the Supreme Federal Court and the criteria the court established thereafter; (ii) the recommendations by the National Council of Justice aimed at building courts’ institutional capacity; and (iii) the enactment of the Federal Law 12.401/11, which created a new health technology assessment system. I argue that latter is the best response because it keeps the substantive decisions on the allocation of healthcare resources in the institution that is in the best position to make them. Moreover, this legislation will make the decisions about provision of health treatments more explicit, making easier for courts to control the procedure and the reasons for these decisions.

Competition and Cooperation between International Courts: A Critical Approach to the New Paradigms of Cross-Border Dispute Resolution Model

Giannattasio, Arthur Roberto Capella; Trevisan, Marília Lopes
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
This article examines the arising cross-border dispute resolution models (Cooperation and Competition among national Courts) from a critical perspective. Although they have been conceived to surpass the ordinary solution of a Modern paradigm (exclusive jurisdiction, choice of court, lis pendens, forum non conveniens, among others), they are insufficient to deal with problems raised with present globalization, as they do not abandon aspects of that paradigm, namely, (i) statebased Law; and (ii) standardization of cultural issues.

Some fallacies in the computation of paternity probabilities.

Aickin, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1984 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.68%
Legal identification of fathers by means of a "paternity probability" has been used in European courts for decades, and has recently been introduced into American courts and accepted by some of them. The voluminous literature on this topic contains virtually no fundamental criticism of the logical basis for the probabilistic computations. Here I suggest that the "paternity probability" suffers from three basic fallacies: (1) contrary to claims, the figure is not, in fact, the probability that the alleged father is the true father, (2) the denominator of the likelihood ratio used in the computation is driven by (sometimes self-contradictory) assumptions and is not based on facts, and (3) post-inclusionary computations are based on speculation about genotypes that does not constitute scientific evidence. It is recommended that pending the resolution of these difficulties "paternity probabilities" should not be computed or introduced as positive evidence of paternity.

Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

Jasanoff, Sheila
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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25.78%
Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words...

The Karen Quinlan case: problems and proposals.

Kennedy, I. M.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1976 Português
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35.54%
Karen Quinlan, a young American girl, has lain in hospital since 15 April 1975 without any prospect of recovering consciousness. Her breathing is assisted by means of a respirator and she is fed through a tube inserted in her stomach. Her adoptive parents applied to the courts for permission for the respirator to be switched off. The judge refused permission. Using the Quinlan case as an exemplar, Mr. Kennedy analyses the medical points one by one against the legal background. He would like to see established a code of practice to assist doctors in such cases who at present have no legal guidance. A set of rules arising as a consequence of a series of court decisions would be undesirable; rather a code should be drawn up as the result of discussion between the many people concerned and the consensus so arrived at.

Beyond Best Interests

Cohen, I. Glenn
Fonte: The Minnesota Law Review Foundation Publicador: The Minnesota Law Review Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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25.68%
As Justice Douglas wrote in Skinner v. Oklahoma, procreation is one of the “basic civil rights of man.” Along with marriage it is “fundamental to the very existence and survival of the race” and the state’s interference with it “threatens to have subtle, far-reaching and devastating effects.” And yet the U.S. and other countries regulate a wide range of reproductive activities such as forbidding anonymous sperm donation, funding abstinence education, criminalizing brother-sister incest, preventing the sale of sperm or eggs or surrogacy services, and forbidding single individuals from accessing reproductive technologies. In justifying these and other regulations of reproduction legislatures, courts, and commentators have relied (at least in part) on an idiom that I call Best Interests of the Resulting Child (BIRC) as a justification, which focuses on the best interests of the child who will (absent state intervention) result from these forms of reproduction. My goal in this Article and its companion paper Regulating Reproduction: the Problem with Best Interests, 96 Minn. L. Rev. 423 (2011), http://ssrn.com/abstract=1955292 is to reveal and delve into the secret ambition of best interests (sometimes called child welfare or child-protective) discourse in the regulation of reproduction. By discussing best interests in this context...

The Law and Sociology of Boilerplate

Rakoff, Todd Daniel
Fonte: Michigan Law Review Publicador: Michigan Law Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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25.68%
In my view, the scholarship presented at this symposium demonstrates that, in order to analyze form contracts and boilerplate successfully, one must carry out a set of operations that embodies an approach I will call law and sociology. But I presume I was invited to be a commentator at this conference on boilerplate not because the article I wrote on one branch of the subject awhile back exemplified this methodological approach, but because it took a rather strong substantive position. And so I think I ought first to say a brief word about that. The article in question concerned contracts of adhesion in, roughly speaking, the consumer context, and the position I took was that what I called the “invisible” terms of those contracts—the large number of terms not disciplined by the actual bargaining or shopping behavior of consumers even in price-competitive markets—ought to be treated by the law as presumptively unenforceable. The burden should be put on drafting firms to show their form terms were worth judicial enforcement rather than on adherents to the forms to show the terms were unconscionable; and if this burden were not met, the courts should apply the general, legally implied default terms instead of the drafter’s terms. This was not then...

No More Ping-Pong: The Need for Article III Status in Bankruptcy After Stern v. Marshall

Brown, Latoya C.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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66.06%
“Unfortunately, Stern v. Marshall has become the mantra of every litigant who, for strategic or tactical reasons, would rather litigate somewhere other than the bankruptcy court.” I. INTRODUCTION Quite aptly, the United States Supreme Court borrowed the words of Charles Dickens to describe the life of the case that ultimately resulted in Stern v. Marshall : “This suit has, in the curse of time, become so complicated, that . . . no two . . . lawyers can talk about it for five minutes, without coming to a total disagreement as to all the premises.’” Ironically, even after the Court’s decision, the “curse” has continued and many, especially those of the bankruptcy bar, are in disagreement as to the ultimate outcome and unforeseen consequences of Stern. The “big fuss” arose out of the Court’s holding that bankruptcy courts do not have constitutional authority to enter final judgment on a state law counterclaim “that is not resolved in the process of ruling on a creditor’s proof of claim.” The Court stated that common law claims, as well as suits in equity and admiralty, fall within the province of Article III courts, and Congress cannot “chip away at the authority of the judicial branch” by enacting statutes delegating such power to non-Article III judges. The Constitution grants judicial power to courts whose judges enjoy tenure during good behavior and salary protections. Article III provisions are safeguards against intrusion by other branches of government and they ensure that judicial decisions are being made with “[c]lear heads . . . and honest hearts.” A different outcome would have been likely if the case involved a ‘public right’ because the Court has recognized that Congress has the authority to adjudicate in suits involving that exception. The public rights exception applies in cases where a “right is integrally related to particular federal government action.” Other than the obvious limiting effect that Stern will have on bankruptcy courts with regards to adjudicating common law claims...

Judging Judges: Do Judges Meet their Constitutional Obligation to Settle Disputes in Conformity with ‘Principles of Justice and International Law’?

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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25.88%
This contribution argues that the universal recognition of human rights requires judges to take human rights more seriously in their judicial settlement of disputes “in conformity with the principles of justice and international law”, as prescribed in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Preamble VCLT) as well as in the UN Charter (Article 1). Section I explains the constitutional duty of judges to interpret law and settle disputes in conformity with principles of justice as increasingly defined by human rights. Section II argues that the “multilevel judicial governance” in Europe – notably between the European Community (EC) Court of Justice and its Court of First Instance, the EC courts and national courts, the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) Court and national courts, and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and national courts - was successful due to the fact that this judicial cooperation was justified as multilevel protection of constitutional citizen rights and, mainly for this reason, was supported as “just” by judges, citizens and parliaments. Section III concludes that the European “solange-method” of judicial cooperation “as long as” other courts respect constitutional principles of justice should be supported by citizens...

El derecho aplicable al contrato en ausencia de elección por las partes: el asunto Intercontainer Interfrigo y su repercusión en el reglamento Roma I.

Hernández Rodríguez, Aurora
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
Português
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35.66%
RESUMEN. A través de la sentencia de 6 de octubre de 2009, as. C-133/08, Intercontainer Interfrigo, el Tribunal de Justicia se pronuncia sobre una de las disposiciones que mayor divergencia doctrinal y jurisprudencial ha suscitado la aplicación del Convenio de Roma sobre ley aplicable a las obligaciones contractuales: el articulo 4, -destinado a fijar el Derecho aplicable al contrato en ausencia de elección por las pastes-. El presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar cada una de las cuestiones planteadas en torno a la mencionada disposición con el fin de determinar la posible repercusión que la solución mantenida por el Tribunal de Justicia respecto a cada una de ellas, pueda llegar a alcanzar en el Reglamento Roma I.; ABSTRACT. The ECJ Judgment, Intercontainer Interfrigo (C-133/08) of October 6, 2009 rule on one of the most controversial provision of the Rome Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations: article 4, -designed to set the law governing the contract in the absence of choice by the parties-. Both the scholarship and the courts of different Members States hold contradictory points of views around the interpretation of article 4. This paper tries to explain each of the questions raised about this provision in order to determine the real impact...

Dating Cinderella: On subsidiarity as a political safeguard of federalism in the European Union

MARTINICO, Giuseppe
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.67%
The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the debate on the subsidiarity principle. Subsidiarity is one of the most ambiguous and debated notions in law, and it definitively belongs to all the legal disciplines, from EU law to constitutional and administrative laws, passing through human rights law. The debate on this principle has been enriched recently by a number of articles and books focused on the new provisions concerning national parliaments included in the Lisbon Treaty. When dealing with subsidiarity, the impression, at the first glance, is that of a Cinderella principle because of its evanescent nature (rule or principle?) and of its difficult justiciability. This article suggests that just a strong change in the European Court of Justice's (ECJ's) case law might transform our Cinderella into a real constitutional principle. Despite the vast existing literature, I have decided to focus on a few, in my view, fundamental readings on this point by attempting to describe the noble design behind the introduction of the subsidiarity principle in EU law and the re-evaluation of the weight of this concept in the practice of courts. In doing so, I started from the recent contribution of Robert Schütze, in Chapter 5 of his book...

Giving effect to EEA law : examining and rethinking the role and relationship between the EFTA Court and the Icelandic National Courts in the EEA legal order

HANNESSON, Ólafur Ísberg
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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25.89%
Defence date: 21 January 2013; Examining Board: Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, European University Institute (Supervisor); Professor M. Elvira Mendez-Pinedo, University of Iceland (external co-supervisor); Professor Miguel Poiares Maduro, European University Institute; Judge Páll Hreinsson, EFTA Court.; Doctrines developed by the EFTA Court have placed considerable demands on the various national courts in the EFTA States. The Court now considers the EEA Agreement to form an "international treaty sui generis which contains a distinct legal order of its own." This thesis will study the interaction between the EFTA Court and Icelandic courts. The basis of this research rests on two levels. At the EEA level, it is the ECJ and the EFTA Court that form the basis of the study. At the national level, the thesis studies Icelandic Supreme Court and district court decisions. I will approach the question of the impact of EEA law on Icelandic domestic law from two dimensions: substantive and procedural. In substantive terms, the study examines fundamental European judgemade principles, as well as the impact these doctrines have had on Icelandic law. This will indicate how Icelandic courts deal with potential conflicts of law between EEA and Icelandic law...

European competition law annual 2011 : integrating public and private enforcement of competition law : implications for courts and agencies

Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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25.89%
This volume contains papers presented at the 16th Annual EU Competition Law and Policy Workshop, held at the European University Institute on 17-18 June 2011. This edition of the Workshop examined the emerging and increasingly important use of private rights of action before national courts, and the prospects for legislation and soft law initiatives at the level of the EU. The book has been updated and reflects the European Commission's private enforcement package of June 2013. Furthermore, the experiences of various national jurisdictions are discussed, both within Europe and in the US and Canada. As a whole, the volume explores how public and private enforcement might function harmoniously, as an 'integrated' system, to promote the public interest while ensuring that individual rights created in this field by the EU competition rules are vindicated. The contributors have, however, devoted significant analysis to the tensions between those two modes of enforcement.; -- INTRODUCTION -- Mel Marquis, Perchance to Dream: Well Integrated Public and Private Enforcement in the European Union -- PART 1: Designing a Balanced System: Damages, Deterrence, Leniency and Litigants' Rights -- I - Andrew Gavil, Designing Private Rights of Action for Competition Policy System -- II - Tom Ottervanger...

Tribunais de contas : parceiros ou obstantes no processo brasileiro de desenvolvimento científico, tecnológico e de inovação?; Courts of audit : partners or despite of the brazilian process of scientific technology development and innovation?

Maristella Barros Ferreira de Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
Desde a construção do Sistema Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia entre as décadas de 1960 a 80, o Estado brasileiro tem buscado o seu fortalecimento a partir da Política Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação - PNCT&I. Integrando o Sistema Nacional de Inovação - SNI, o Poder Público busca cumprir o seu papel enfatizado na Constituição de 1988 (artigo 218), formulando leis e regulamentos, articulando os atores envolvidos ao financiar a pesquisa e o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico, e mantendo a infraestrutura de ensino, pesquisa e prestação de serviços tecnológicos. Nesse cenário, um novo ator ficou em evidência nas manifestações externalizadas no meio acadêmico e organizacional: os Tribunais de Contas, cujas atuações tem provocado preocupações das mais diversas naturezas no ambiente de CT&I brasileiro. Essa perspectiva leva a concluir que essas Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores - EFS, como parte do Poder Público, também integram o SNI, na medida em que o controle externo por elas exercido afeta o ambiente da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação - CT&I no Brasil. Em decorrência, surgiu a necessidade de investigar o assunto, tendo como objetivo principal conhecer de que maneira ocorre a influência dessa atuação na área de CT&I...

Contributo para a avaliação da eficiência dos tribunais

Cunha, Raquel Prata Pinheiro da
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
Mestrado em Gestão. / JEL Classification System: K4, C14; A eficiência dos tribunais é questão incipientemente debatida em termos científicos. Os KPIs relevantes apenas ao nível quantitativo se mostram estabelecidos na literatura. Os indicadores de qualidade ainda não são uniformemente aceites. Mas defendemos um controlo qualitativo mínimo, consubstanciado no número de revogações com fundamento processual. Percorremos as principais soluções avançadas neste âmbito em Portugal, incluindo a mais recente plasmada em letra de lei, que apresenta os Valores de Referência Processual como medida do desempenho quantitativo. Tais valores correspondem à adoção do critério do percentil 66,67% do KPI processos findos por ano. Mas já se vai formando consenso internacional na utilização doutros instrumentos para avaliar a eficiência dos tribunais. Designadamente da DEA, data envelopment analysis ou análise envoltória de dados, que indica o nível de eficiência máxima de uma organização, os desvios verificados e suas origens. Fazendo uso das estatísticas oficiais portuguesas dos anos de 2010 a 2012 e da DEA, demostramos uma hipótese de sistema operacional de avaliação dos tribunais. Compreende três análises: i) a da eficácia...

The Constitution and the Rights Not to Procreate

Cohen, I. Glenn
Fonte: Stanford Law School Publicador: Stanford Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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35.65%
Does the Federal Constitution protect a right not to procreate, and what does that mean? Modern reproductive technology has made this question both more salient and more problematic. For example, a number of courts and commentators have assumed the existence of a federal constitutional right not to procreate and relied on it to resolve disputes over stored frozen preembryos that couples have fertilized in the course of in vitro fertilization (IVF).In this Article, I challenge that assumption. I argue that these authorities err by relying on a monolithic conception of the right not to procreate. I instead contend that the right is best conceived as a bundle of rights containing three possible sticks: the right not to be a genetic parent, the right not to be a legal parent, and the right not to be a gestational parent. Using this framework, I show that while the Supreme Court's jurisprudence unquestionably protects a right not to be a gestational parent as a fundamental right, it does not compel recognizing a right not to be a genetic parent, when genetic parenthood is unbundled from the obligations of legal and gestational parenthood. I also examine three other challenges to the Court's and commentators' constitutional claim. First...

The Right Not to Be a Genetic Parent?

Cohen, I. Glenn
Fonte: University of South California Law Center Publicador: University of South California Law Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
Should the law recognize an individual's right not to be a genetic parent when genetic parenthood does not carry with it legal or gestational parenthood? If so, should we allow individuals to waive that right in advance, either by contract or a less formal means? How should the law's treatment of gestational and legal parenthood inform these questions? Developments in reproductive technology have brought these questions to the fore, most prominently in the preembryo disposition cases a number of courts have confronted—disputes over the use of stored frozen preembryos that couples have fertilized in the course of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)— but other examples abound. In this Article, I argue that, in analyzing these cases, it is essential to unbundle the possible rights not to be a genetic, gestational, and legal parent, and to recognize that the three rights do not stand and fall together. I show that we cannot move from the discourse surrounding the rights not to be a gestational and legal parent to a justification for a right not to be a genetic parent. Instead, I argue that the normative mooring of the right not to be a genetic parent is best understood as a way of protecting individuals from what I call "attributional parenthood...

Non-intervention principle and its possible lege ferenda enhancement in the chilean international commercial arbitration law

Domínguez Sales, Rodrigo Andrés
Fonte: Universidad de Chile; Universitat Heidelberg (Alemania) Publicador: Universidad de Chile; Universitat Heidelberg (Alemania)
Tipo: Tesis
Português
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25.81%
Memoria (magister en derecho internacional); On the first chapter of this work, I am going to analyze the interventions of national Courts authorized by the Chilean arbitration law and see if the regulations are self operative or if they need further regulation in order to work properly. In those cases were the provisions are not self operative or the current writing difficult their interpretation and application I will propose modifications and the incorporation of amendments. For this task I will compare, when possible, the Chilean provisions with the corresponding provisions of the Peruvian and Irish arbitration laws and make a parallel with the Chilean international arbitration regulations. The reason why the Peruvian and Irish arbitration laws were chosen to develop this work is because these laws have been recently enacted and adjusted to the amendments of the UNCITRAL model law of 2006, so they can reflect the last tendencies in the subject. These laws may include interesting or relevant provisions that may be included in the Chilean law. On the second chapter, I will refer to the decision of the Constitutional Court referred to article 5 of the Chilean law and check if the interventions consecrated on the conservation, disciplinary and economical competences of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Republic of Chile are applicable to the processes under the international commercial arbitration law. Particularly...

How an Authoritarian Regime in Burma Used Special Courts to Defeat Judicial Independence

Cheesman, Nicholas
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.68%
Why do authoritarian rulers establish special courts? One view is that they do so to insulate the judiciary from politically oriented cases and allow it continued, albeit limited, independence. In this article I present a contrary case study of an authori

Perfil, prevención y tratamiento del menor delincuente. Sugerencias de Folch i Torres en el marco jurídico del primer cuarto del siglo XX

Sáiz Roca, Milagros; Sáiz Roca, Dolores
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.65%
El trabajo de Lluís Folch i Torres en el marco de la primera psicología jurídica en España fue de indiscutible valor en relación a la protección a la infancia y al asesoramiento a los Tribunales de Menores de principios del siglo XX. Con él se inician los primeros informes y peritajes que manejaron la evaluación y observación psicológica de los niños que eran juzgados. También, Folch i Torres reKexionó sobre las causas que provocaban la delincuencia juvenil e intentó mostrar cuáles eran las características de los perfiles psicológicos de estos niños, su tratamiento y educación, marcando las posibles maneras de prevenir la aparición del fenómeno del «niño de la calle» o golfillo. A través de veintiséis documentos no estudiados en su conjunto hasta el momento y que se hallan ubicados en el «Arxiu i Seminari d’Història de la Psicologia» ofrecemos en este artículo el pensamiento de este autor en relación al tema; In the framework of the first forensic psychology in Spain, the Lluís Folch i Torres work’s had a unquestionable value relative to child protection and counselling to the juvenile courts of the early twentieth century. Folch introduces, in our country, the Qrst reports and surveys that handled the psychological assessment of children who were judged. Also...