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Capturing the Year 2009: writings from the ANU College of Asia & the Pacific

Nelson, Barbara; MacIntyre, Andrew
Fonte: ANU College of Asia & the Pacific; http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/ Publicador: ANU College of Asia & the Pacific; http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/
Tipo: Book; Published Version Formato: viii, 282 p.
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Capturing the Year 2009 represents the fourth time the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific has published an annual selection of the best journalism of its scholars. Their expertise ranges from archaeology, linguistics and history to economics, political science and security policy. Selected from more than 160 pieces of writing, the articles in Capturing analyse big issues of the past year - the Global Financial Crisis; elections in India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia and Afghanistan; political developments in Thailand, Burma and Fiji; climate change negotiations; release of a new Defence White Paper and the election of a new US president. They also reflect on topics as diverse as democracy, ethics and human rights, Asian language study and teaching, and natural resources. Eclectic and penetrating, Capturing shows that fine scholars can - and do - write for wide audiences.

Financial markets, institutions and integration in East Asia

de Brouwer, Gordon
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 927484 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This paper explores East Asian finance in two parts. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the state of regional financial markets in East Asia. It looks at recent trends in capital flows and cross-border banking, the state of financial market infrastructure, and at developments in financial markets – stocks, foreign exchange, bonds, and derivatives – in East Asia. The picture is not pretty. East Asian financial markets are tiered: the developed markets of the region (Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong SAR and Australia) perform well by international standards, most of the others (like Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan PoC and Thailand) are average, and a couple (like Indonesia and the Philippines) look dismal. Infrastructure and risk management in the region are, in general, at relatively low levels by international standards. Many countries face serious challenges. Institutions are generally weak. Developing ASEAN has to compete more and more with China for funds. Continued weakness in its financial institutions, market structure, and economy are diminishing the importance of Japan and impeding regional development. The second part of the paper explores in more detail four of the many issues that arise in looking at finance in East Asia. The first is refocussing on harmonising markets in East Asia...

Local, national and international conceptions of justice: the case of swidden farmers in the contexts of national and regional developments in southeast Asia

Hayes, Adrian C
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 109162 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This paper contrasts the social and ecological situations of swidden farmers in Southeast Asia with those of sedentary farmers who have participated in the so-called Green Revolution. This serves to highlight contrasting views (and their respective moral underpinnings) on the development prospects of indigenous farmers. Proposed agricultural transformations are assessed in terms of their likely cultural, institutional and ecological consequences. The paper looks at the complex ideological and institutional relations existing between national development agencies on the one hand and swidden farming communities on the other, drawing especially on fieldwork conducted in Indonesia, and asks what a critical understanding of these relations has to contribute to the theory of environmental justice.; no

US and EU trade policies and East Asia

Drysdale, Peter; Findlay, Christopher
Fonte: Asia Pacific School of Economics & Government, ANU Publicador: Asia Pacific School of Economics & Government, ANU
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 212860 bytes; application/pdf
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This article identifies a number of examples of apparent lack of coherence in United States and European Union trade policies. They include the effect of preferential policies that lock in trade shares and inhibit growth promoting structural adjustment, biases in tariff structures, policies that affect incentives of developing countries to make commitments in the World Trade Organisation, the use of anti-dumping actions and the nature of tariff peaks and escalation. The origins of the lack of policy coherence lie within the domestic policy-making processes of the developed economies. An important question, then, is whether opportunity exists for East Asian economies to mobilise to induce an external shock sufficient to shift policy consensus in the United States and the European Union – The key elements of such a grand bargain on trade in manufactured goods would include an explicit East Asian commitment to bind more tariff lines, initiatives to resolve the problem of accelerating anti-dumping actions and a replacement for the program of tariff preferences. A package of trade policy reforms of this type in East Asia would constitute a substantial offer and benefit to the United States and the European Union. It has the potential to trigger a response of equal benefit to East Asian economies.; no

Capturing the Year 2007: Writings from the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific

Nelson, Barbara (ed.); Jeffrey, Robin (ed.)
Fonte: ANU College of Asia and the Pacific Publicador: ANU College of Asia and the Pacific
Tipo: Livro
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This is our second endeavour to ‘capture the year’—to compile a selection of popular writing by members of the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific. Capturing the Year 2006 got a heartening welcome from diplomats, public servants, journalists, academics and people who work in the Asia–Pacific region. They found the short, authoritative pieces useful and digestible, and they particularly liked the focus on important issues for Australia and its neighbours.; no

Policy challenges for agricultural biotechnology in the Asia Pacific: developing framework for analysis

Parthasarathy, D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 421367 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Introduction: The paper then seeks to go beyond rhetoric and emotive debates and develop a framework for facilitating effective technology development and transfer in different countries in the Asia-Pacific region. By focusing on issues related to agrarian structure, agricultural systems, and the nature of global and regional integration, a heterodox and heterogeneous approach to the analysis of technology uptake and impact assessment will be developed. It is argued that such an approach is essential for formulating effective policies for agricultural biotechnology.; no

Global change and integrated coastal management: the Asia-Pacific region

Fonte: Springer; Dordrecht Publicador: Springer; Dordrecht
Tipo: Book (edited)
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Pt. 1. The Asia-Pacfic coastal zone: 1. Importance of Global Change for Coastal Management in the Asia-Pacific Region / Nick Harvey and Nobuo Mimura -- 2. State of the Environment in the Asia and Pacific Coastal Zones and Effects of Global Change / Nobuo Mimura -- Pt. 2. New directions in research: 3. Coastal Management In The Asia-Pacific Region / Nick Harvey and Mike Hilton -- 4. Catchment-Coast Interaction in the Asia-Pacific Region Shu Gao -- 5. Coastal Evolution in the Asia-Pacific Region / Patrick D. Nunn and Roselyn Kumar -- 6. Human responses to coastal change in the Asia-Pacific Region / Patrick D. Nunn ... [et al.] -- 7. Hotspots of Urbanization and Population Growth in the Asia-Pacific Region / Poh Poh Wong, Lee Boon-Thong and Maggi W H Leung -- 8. Pressures on Rural Coasts in the Asia-Pacific Region / Liana Talaue-McManus -- 9. Impacts of Pollutants the Asia-Pacific Region / Koshy Kayanathu and Zafar Adeel -- 10. Landscape Variability and the Response of Asian Megadeltas to Environmental Change / Colin D. Woodroffe ... [et al.] -- 11. New Directions for Global Change Coastal Research Related to Integrated Coastal Management in the Asia-Pacific Region / Nick Harvey and Nobuo Mimura.; Nick Harvey

Immigration responses to global change in Asia: a review

Hugo, G.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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There has been a parametric increase in the scale and complexity of global international migration in the last fifteen years. Asia has been prominent in this change with countries in the region being important sources and destinations of migrants. This paper summarises the main developments which are occurring in south-north migration, student migration, forced migration, north-north migration and international labour migration. In the transformation of international population movement in the region a most striking feature is the strong pattern of circularity in movement and the networks which are established between origin and destination. It is argued that several global changes have been instrumental in these changes. These include the three ‘Ds’: demography, development and democracy. It is shown that increasing gradients of difference between nations in the pattern of growth (or lack of it), in the workforce, in income and poverty levels and in patterns of governance, have been important drivers of the migration. Moreover they are likely to increase in their impact over the next two decades. In addition, the impact of global environmental change on migration is considered, as are the effects of proliferating social networks and the global migration industry.

A comparative analysis of risk factors and stroke risk for Asian and non-Asian men: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration

Hyun, Karice K.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Arima, Hisatomi; Woo, Jean; Lam, Tai Hing; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Peters, Sanne A.; Jee, Sun Ha; Giles, Graham G.; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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BACKGROUND The risk of stroke is high in men among both Asian and non-Asian populations, despite differences in risk factor profiles; whether risk factors act similarly in these populations is unknown. AIM To study the associations between five major risk factors and stroke risk, comparing Asian with non-Asian men. METHODS We obtained data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 44 studies involving 386 411 men with 9•4 years follow-up. Using cohorts from Asia and Australia/New Zealand Cox models were fitted to estimate risk factor associations for ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS We identified significant, positive associations between all five risk factors and risk of ischemic stroke. The associations between body mass index, smoking, and diabetes with ischemic stroke were comparable for men from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. The association between systolic blood pressure and ischemic stroke was stronger for Asian than Australia/New Zealand cohorts, whereas the reverse was true for total cholesterol. For haemorrhagic stroke, only systolic blood pressure and smoking were associated with increased risk, although the relationship with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger for men from Asia than Australia/New Zealand (P interaction = 0•03)...

Os estados de porcelana : a desconstrução da fragilidade estatal na Ásia Central

Mello, Guilherme Moreira Leite de
Fonte: FEUC Publicador: FEUC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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O propósito da presente dissertação é o de analisar o conceito de estados de porcelana no contexto da Ásia Central inserida em um sistema multipolar, tendo como principal normativa, a desconstrução da aplicabilidade da fragilidade estatal. Ao longo deste trabalho, procurar-se-á perceber quais indicadores da fragilidade estatal determinam sua ineficácia, e o porquê que, paradoxalmente, os estados de porcelana mostram-se à luz do neoliberalismo, mais eficazes em determinar a evolução da Ásia Central enquanto região. Numa perspectiva da evolução da multipolaridade no contexto euroasiático, a emergência do crescimento da Ásia Central e da desconstrução da fragilidade estatal num cenário onde o eixo econômico é propenso à cooperação, coloca-a no epicentro de um estratagema político entre potências hegemônicas e uma multiplicidade de atores que anseiam a concretizar as mais diferenciadas parcerias e operacionalizar o desenvolvimento. Com esse estudo, abordam-se questões relativas às transformações da integração regional após a quebra da União Soviética e associa esta integração à cooperação internacional; apresenta argumentos para justificar que as fragilidades são horizontais e verticais, abrangendo os eixos do aparelhamento estatal; os motivos das participações de organizações e atores no prisma multipolar da Ásia Central; e identifica a capacidade dos estados de porcelana em consonância com políticas de cooperação econômica e energética a justificar que a fragilidade estatal na Ásia Central possui caráter reversível. Ao fundamentar-se no enquadramento teórico neoliberal...

Competição, instituições e o declínio do Império Português na Ásia

Leite, João Gabriel Ayello
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade, Departamento de Economia, 2015.; Os portugueses foram os primeiros europeus a estabelecer uma presença colonial na Ásia, no começo da Idade Moderna, e os últimos a se retirarem do continente. Apesar de sua presença longeva, o auge do poder português na Ásia ocorreu no século XVI. A rapidez e a assertividade com que os portugueses estabeleceram o monopólio sobre a rota marítima pelo Cabo da Boa Esperança e o domínio sobre as rotas comerciais asiáticas mais lucrativas de seu tempo talvez só seja rivalizada pela forma com que foram deslocados pelos seus competidores europeus. As teses tradicionais que procuram explicar o declínio da presença portuguesa na Ásia enfatizam fatores diversos como recursos econômicos, população, cultura e o contexto asiático. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a hipótese de que um dos fatores que contribuiu de forma decisiva para o resultado da competição entre os europeus na Ásia foi a diferença entre as instituições nesses países. No começo da Idade Moderna, Holanda e Inglaterra contavam com as instituições mais adequadas para incentivar empreendedorismo, investimentos e inovações técnicas e gerenciais...

Sino-Soviet detente: new challenge to American interests in Asia

Winterford, David
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 40 p.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This report was prepared in conjunction with research conducted under the Naval Postgraduate School Research Council.; This report analyzes the intensifying challenges that Sino-Soviet detente poses for American interests and policies in the Asia-Pacific. It addresses and evaluates Soviet President Gorbachev's successful efforts at making China the centerpiece of his Asian strategy. Although both Beijing and Moscow disingenuously argue that Sino-Soviet detente will not affect their relations with the U.S. this report indicates that substantial harm has already occurred to U.S. interests in Asia as a result of Soviet and Chinese rapprochement. The report examines the widening and deepening range of Sino- Soviet political and economic ties, and states that prospective cooperative military exchanges between the two Asian communist states must now be considered likely. This assessment of Sino-Soviet detente given in this report indicates that the balance of power may be shifting in Asia in ways unfavorable to the U. S. Finally, the report calls for a recognition by U.S. decision-makers that the apparent anti-Soviet coalition forged by the U.S. in Asia, consisting of the U. S....

An Asia Pacific community: feasible or fanciful? An Australian policy perspective

Buttenshaw, Skye
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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On 4 June 2008 Prime Minister Kevin Rudd proposed the establistunent of an Asia Pacific Community in an address to the Asia Society Australasia Centre in Sydney. He deemed the 21st century the Asia Pacific Century and proposed the establistunent of an Asia Pacific Community as an ideal way for Australia to approach the changing times. The community Rudd described was to be inclusive of all states in the Asia Pacific region and to tackle all economic, political, and security matters the region faced. He described the community as a means by which Australia could maximise its opportunities and minimise its threats, given its unique geographical position. The announcement of such a significant organisation required examination. Before being able to judge whether or not the idea was feasible, reasons for the proposal had to be examined. As the proposal was such a recent revelation and the details of the community unknown even to Rudd himself, research had to be carried out in a number of ways, including interviewing people with varied expertise. Each interviewed person stressed the uncertain nature of the 21st centt1ry; the Asia Pacific Century, according to Rudd, or the Asian Century, according to most others. Since the end of the Cold War global interaction has been dominated by the Western liberal order as the United States has enjoyed supreme economic...

Constitutions & human rights in a global age: an Asia-Pacific perspective. Conference papers.

Morris-Suzuki (Ed.), Tessa
Fonte: Division of Pacific and Asia History, RSPAS, The Australian National University Publicador: Division of Pacific and Asia History, RSPAS, The Australian National University
Tipo: Conference paper
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In the modern world, the constitutions of nation states have come to be seen as the key guarantors of human rights. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the national constitution became the basis of the political order in most countries around the world. The extent to which the constitution provides effective protection for the rights of citizens has thus become a major determinant of the political life of nations, including the nations of the Asia-Pacific region. (First paragraph of introduction).; This conference was supported by the generosity of the Japan Foundation Asia Centre, AusAID, the Daiwa Foundation for Asia and Oceania, the Myer Foundation and The Australian National University's National Institute for Asia and the Pacific and the Humanities Research Centre.

Etyma for 'chicken', 'duck', and 'goose' among language phyla in China and Southeast Asia

Alves, Mark J
Fonte: Asia-Pacific Linguistics Publicador: Asia-Pacific Linguistics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper considers the history of words for domesticated poultry, including ‘chicken’, ‘goose’, and ‘duck’, in China and mainland Southeast Asia to try to relate associated domestication events with specific language groups. Linguistic, archaeological and historical evidence supports Sinitic as one linguistic source, but in other cases, Tai and Austroasiatic form additional centers of lexical forms which were borrowed by neighboring phyla. It is hypothesized that these geographic regions of etyma for domesticated birds may represent instances of bird domestication, or possibly advances in bird husbandry, by speech communities in the region in the Neolithic Era, followed by spread of both words and cultural practices.

Russia's strategic interests in Asia: the implications for Australia

Peterson, Johanna
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Russia has re-emerged as an influential player on the world stage and is looking to a "dynamic Asia as a strategic region in which to project its influence. While Russia's foreign policy focus has largely been directed towards the West, it is evident that Asia is a sphere of increasing strategic interest. As both the dynamic powerhouse of the global economy and the arena in which great power relations of the 21 st century will be played out, Asia is an important region for Russia's reassertion of influence. Russia's has a number of strategic interests in Asia. Firstly, Asia consists of largely developing nations with a growing demand for energy and Russia holds a vast proportion of the world's oil and gas reserves. This presents immense economic opportunities. Secondly, Russia's Far East is a vulnerable territory. The declining Russian population is in stark contrast to the hundreds of millions of Chinese across the 3400 km border. The infrastructure in the Far East is insufficient, corruption is extensive and illegal cross-border movement is common. A strengthened Russian presence in Asia would help to overcome these security concerns · and bolster domestic development. Thirdly, Asia provides an arena in which Russia can counter balance the U.S....

Estudio de la política comercial peruana al Asía Pacífico entre 1990-2005, y lecciones para las relaciones comerciales entre Colombia y Asía Pacífico

Preciado Díaz, María del Mar
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2010 Português
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En la condición actual global, en la cual Asia Pacífico emerge como una región interesante para los negocios y las intenciones estatales, es necesario reconocer su importancia y la necesidad de Colombia de involucrarse de manera más certera en el imaginario asiático. A partir del reconocimiento de las oportunidades que las relaciones con Asia Pacífico traducen, algunos países de la región han encaminado su política comercial en afianzar los lazos intrarregionales. Desde la década de los 90, la ofensiva latinoamericana al Pacífico se agudizó, teniendo como principales protagonistas a Chile, México y Perú. Sus experiencias, tan significativas en términos comerciales han despertado el interés de vecinos que ven en ellos un buen modelo ha seguir. Perú, un país considerado por años dentro de las listas de los no desarrollados de la región, aceleró sus acercamientos con Asia Pacífico en la década de los 90, hecho que se ha extendido por años y que le ha representado grandes beneficios en la escena internacional. Su nuevo posicionamiento como hub suramericano para el Asia ha permitido el fortalecimiento de su imagen dentro de la región, realidad que contrasta con los pocos avances que ha tenido Colombia frente a la misma. Por tanto...

Ásia Central e Cáucaso : as relações com o Brasil sob a égide do novo grande jogo do século XXI

Duarte, Raoni Mauricio da Fonseca Lemos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
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O tema central do presente trabalho é o de analisar as dinâmicas das relações na Ásia Central e no Cáucaso e as possibilidades que se apresentam para o Brasil fortalecer a sua presença em ambas as região. O argumento principal da pesquisa é o de que o Brasil teve interesses em estreitar as relações com essas regiões, embora a Ásia Central e o Cáucaso ocupem uma posição secundária nos interesses externos brasileiros. A relevância de tal estudo advém no fato de que estas são regiões pouco conhecidas do grande público brasileiro, as quais contam com pouca produção acadêmica no Brasil. Desde os anos 90 – e com mais intensidade a partir de 2003, com o início do governo Lula – o Brasil procurou diversificar os seus parceiros internacionais, investindo na Cooperação Sul-Sul com os países em desenvolvimento, os quais ocuparam espaço central nos últimos anos no contexto da política externa brasileira. Por sua vez, duas regiões eurasiáticas adquiriram maior importância geoestratégia nas Relações Internacionais – a Ásia Central e o Cáucaso. Desde a queda da URSS, essas zonas do globo atraíram a atenção externa em função de sua localização especial como ponto de conexão entre a Europa e a Ásia. A Ásia Central e o Cáucaso gradualmente se firmaram no cenário internacional como zonas de grande relevância econômica...

Centro de Desarrollo de Negocios para América Latina - Asia en la Región de Arica y Parinacota

Camara de Comercio Asia-pacifico Limitada; Exe Ingeniería & Software Ltda.; David Alfredo Quiroga Zavala
Fonte: Corporação de Fomento da Produção Publicador: Corporação de Fomento da Produção
Tipo: proyecto
Publicado em 29/07/2013 Português
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El Proyecto Consiste en la Creación en Arica de un Centro de Desarrollo de Negocios para América Latina y Asia que Permita Potenciar a la Ciudad como Prestadora de Servicios de Inteligencia de Negocios para la Macro Región Andina desde y hacia el Asia Pacífico a Través del Acceso a los Servicios de Inteligencia de Mercado Promoción Comercial y Capacitación que Brinda la Cámara de Comercio Asia Pacífico ( cámara ). Para ello se Instalará una Oficina en Arica se Contratará a un Gerente que Será Capacitado y Supervisado por la Sede de Santiago de la Cámara y se Diseñará un Sistema de Información y Herramientas Informáticas que Soporten Servicios de Inteligencia Comercial. Además se Realizará un Levantamiento de la Oferta Relevante de Productos y Servicios de la Región de Arica y Parinacota y la Macro Región Andina y se Realizarán Talleres para Difundir la Existencia y Servicios del Centro. Los Beneficiarios Finales de este Proyecto Serán las Empresas y Emprendedores con Intereses en Comercio Exterior Especialmente las Pymes de las Principales Ciudades de Macro Región Andina cuyo Número se Estima en Aproximadamente 2. 800 Empresas. Con ello se Intenta Cerrar las Brechas de Capacitación e Información sobre Operaciones en Comercio Exterior de las Pymes Fomentar el Comercio con Asia Pacífico y Difundir la Creación de un Cluster Acuícola en la Macro Región Andina.; Crear un Centro de Desarrollo de Negocios en la Región de Arica y Parinacota que Facilite la Activación de Redes Empresariales Difunda la Creación de un Cluster en la Macro Región Andina y Permita Aumentar el Comercio Exterior con Asia Pacífico.; Corporación de Fomento de la Producción

The rise of methamphetamine in Southeast and East Asia

McKetin, Rebecca; Kozel, Nicholas; Douglas, Jeremy; Ali, Robert; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Lund, Johannes; Li, Jih-Heng
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Introduction and Aims. Southeast and East Asia has become a global hub for methamphetamine production and trafficking over the past decade. This paper describes the rise of methamphetamine supply and to what extent use of the drug is occurring in the region. Method and Design. The current review uses data collected through the Drug Abuse Information Network for Asia and the Pacific (DAINAP) and other available sources to analyse retrospectively methamphetamine trends within Southeast and East Asia. Results. Southeast and East Asia has experienced a methamphetamine epidemic in the past decade which began around 1997 and peaked in 2000-2001. While the situation has since stabilised in many countries, methamphetamine trafficking and use are still increasing in parts of the Mekong region and there is evidence of large-scale manufacture in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Methamphetamine is typically smoked or ingested, but injection of the drug is apparent. Conclusion. While the peak of the methamphetamine epidemic has passed in parts of Southeast and East Asia, attention is needed to minimise the potential consequences of spreading methamphetamine production, trafficking and use in the Mekong region and in the peninsular and archipelago of Southeast Asia. [McKetin R...