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Classificação de risco dos certificados de recebíveis imobiliários - estruturação de um processo de rating da perda potencial da carteira securitizada.; Classification of risk of the mortgage-backed securities - estruturation of a process of rating of the potential loss of the portfolio of residencial home loans.

Mafra, Fábio Dieguez Barreiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2006 Português
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46.58%
O trabalho apresenta um processo de classificação de risco dos Certificados de Recebíveis Imobiliários (CRIs), quanto à expectativa de perda presente na carteira de créditos imobiliários, objeto de securitização. O texto, primeiramente, descreve o andamento das operações de securitização no Brasil e no mundo, além de aspectos particulares dessas operações. Em seguida, com maior ênfase, são descritas as principais etapas do processo de rating praticado pelas instituições classificadoras, assim como também, são identificados e analisados os riscos presentes nos CRIs. Riscos estes de origem mercadológica, macroeconômica, legal, e também, associados aos atributos dos créditos que compõem a carteira. Vale destacar, que o processo de classificação proposto tem como foco o investidor que compra o título, aplicando-se ainda, apenas aos CRIs lastreados em créditos imobiliários residenciais. Quanto ao processo de classificação em si, este envolve a simulação do fluxo de caixa da operação; a arbitragem de fronteiras de flutuação do comportamento das variáveis de risco manipuladas no cenário de referência; a geração randômica de uma amostra de laboratório, seguida da análise estatística do nível de perda presente na mesma e; enquadramento do resultado da análise estatística em uma matriz classificatória para obtenção da nota de risco dos CRIs. Portanto...

Systematic and liquidity risk in sub-prime mortgage-backed assets

Dungey, Mardi; Dwyer, Gerald P.; Flavin, Thomas
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2011 Português
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46.5%
The mis-evaluation of risk in securitized financial products is central to understanding the global financial crisis. This paper characterizes the evolution of risk factors affecting collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) based on subprime mortgages. A key feature of subprime mortgage-backed indices is that they are distinct in their vintage of issuance. Using a latent factor framework that incorporates this vintage effect, we show the increasing importance of common factors on more senior tranches during the crisis. An innovation of the paper is that we use the unbalanced panel structure of the data to identify the vintage, credit, common and idiosyncratic effects from a state-space specification.

The impact of large-scale mortgage backed security purchases

Abecasis, Maria Inês Rocha
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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56.7%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Finance from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; I analyze the impact that large-scale Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS) purchases carried by the Federal Reserve in response to the financial crisis had in the economy and find that they were able to enhance confidence in financial markets and influence MBS pricing. Default probabilities of financial companies fell 33 basis points, which can be explained by the lower quantity of MBS in their balance sheets and the increased value of the MBS remaining in their asset side. The default risk premium of MBS decreased 66 basis points, which represents 22% of the reduction in MBS yields in the period analyzed.

The low-rated CMBS market : mortgage REIT, financial innovation and policy lessons from the Asian and Russian financial crisis; Low-rated Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities market

Su, Yi, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 54 leaves; 2375440 bytes; 2379912 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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As one of the most important financial innovations in 1990s, Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (CMBS) have provided significant amounts of financing for commercial real estate. However, when the Asian and Russian financial crisis hit in 1998, the low rated CMBS market almost dried up and one of the dominant investors Criimi Mae went to Chapter 11 for protection. This study investigates the events systematically from the perspectives of market structure and product development in the context of financial crisis. We found that the private and illiquid market structure and the short term marked-to-market repo financing together resulted in the disequilibrium of the low rated CMBS market during the financial crisis. Information efficiency and more resilient financing mechanism are needed to mitigate the conflicting interest between issuers/underwriters and investors of low rated CMBS.; by Yi Su.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 54).

An empirical study of subordination levels in commercial mortgage backed securities; Subordination levels in CMBS

Padhi, Romina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 55 leaves; 263129 bytes; 262940 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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The CMBS market has been in existence since the mid 1980s; however, it was during the mid 1990s that the market began to grow. A combination of favorable interest rate environment, entry of new players in the market and the amount of demand for commercial real estate assets, led to a record US CMBS issuance in 2004, with the 2005 outlook being even better. However, the subordination or credit enhancement level of these securities has been on a downward trend since 1995. The thesis attempts to analyze the risk factors such as loan to value ratio, debt service coverage ratio, floating versus fixed rate, large and conduit deal types, as well as diversification factors (property type and geographic location), and their impact on subordination levels. Finally, market forces such as spreads on CMBS are also analyzed for their influence on subordination levels. For the analysis, data were collected on 430 commercial mortgage backed securities issued from 1995 through mid 2005. The information was obtained from Trepp, which tracks all the commercial mortgage backed securities issued in the market. The trend in subordination levels of each of the tranches or bond classes was analyzed over the period of study and a quantitative regression analysis was performed to analyze the influence of the above mentioned factors on the subordination levels.; (cont.) The results indicate that the loan to value ratio...

We know what the CMBS did last summer and why; We know what the Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities Market did last summer and why

Cavallo, Malik, 1971-; Kinyua, Josphat K
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 leaves; 3681172 bytes; 3680968 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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46.75%
Much has been written about the financial crisis that engulfed the financial markets in the summer and fall of 1998. Little has been written about the effect of this crisis on the fledgling Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities Market (CMBS). By comparing and contrasting the CMBS market with other comparative fixed-income securities, this thesis establishes that there were specific characteristics of the CMBS market that made it more vulnerable to the market turmoil than other fixed-income securities. First, the thesis seeks to clarify the series of events that culminated in the meltdown of CMBS. We also address CRIIMI MAE, at the time the largest buyer of subordinate CMBS and an emerging player in CMBS issuance, in a case study to assess structural vulnerability in the CMBS market. Finally, we explore the hedging potential of CMBS by regressing a range of domestic and international financial asset prices and various rated CMBS prices during three carefully chosen time periods within the summer and fall crisis period.; by Malik Cavallo and Josphat K. Kinyua.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1999.; Written by two authors. Cavallo received his degree, Sept. 1999. As of June 2004...

Structured Finance in Latin America : Channeling Pension Funds to Housing, Infrastructure, and Small Businesses

Cheikhrouhou, Hela; Gwinner, W. Britt; Pollner, John; Salinas, Emanuel; Sirtaine, Sophie; Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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The report covers several types of structured finance with such capital market instruments as mortgage-backed securities, structured bond issues for infrastructure financing, securitization of small and medium enterprises (SME)-related assets, and securitization of loans to SMEs. The report also covers factoring and leasing, which can be important sources of finance for SMEs and can be pooled and packaged into marketable securities and sold to pension funds. The report does not cover other types of structured finance, such as exchange trade funds, structured notes with capital protection, or structured financing outside capital markets, such as bank syndications. Chapter 1 focuses on private pension fund investment management and the role of structured bonds. Chapter 2 focuses on the increasing use of structured finance for housing in Latin American countries. Chapter 3 deals with the less developed yet promising area of structured bonds for infrastructure financing. Chapter 4 focuses on the use of structured bonds for SME finance...

What Determines U.S. Swap Spreads?

Kobor, Adam; Shi, Lishan; Zelenko, Ivan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This paper examines the evolution of the U.S. interest swap market. The authors review the theory and past empirical studies on U.S. swap spreads, and estimate an error-correction model for maturities of 2, 5, and 10 years from 1994 to 2004. Financial theory depicts swaps as contracts indexed on London Inter-Bank Offered (LIBOR) rates, rendered almost free of counterparty default risk by mark-to-market and collateralization. Swap spreads reflect the LIBOR credit quality (credit component) and a liquidity convenience premium present in Treasury rates (liquidity component). Multifactor models that were estimated on observed swap rates highlighted the central role played by the liquidity component in explaining swap-spread dynamics over the past 15 years. The multifactor models also found some puzzling empirical results. Statistical models, on the other hand, based mainly on market analysis, faced technical difficulties arising from the presence of regime changes, from the non-stationary in swap spreads, and from the coexistence of long-term and shorter-term determinants. Against this background...

Middle East and North Africa Economic Developments and Prospects, 2008 : Regional Integration for Global Competitiveness

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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During 2007 the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) experienced average growth of 5.7 percent. This was the fifth year in a row in which the region grew at a rate higher than 5 percent, exceeding levels reached in the 1990s and early 2000s. This performance occurred in the context of an external environment marked by three major developments: a continued rise in the price of hydrocarbons, turbulence in international financial markets following the sharp drop in market valuations of U.S. mortgage- backed securities, and a sharp rise in the price of non- oil commodities, especially foodstuffs. These developments have affected the various MENA economies in different ways. On average, however, the region has done well, with respectable growth and comfortable external and fiscal balances. Similar performance, that is, average growth of about 5.6 percent, is expected over the next three years. Oil prices are expected to remain buoyant, leading to high levels of investment and remittance flows within the region. Food prices are also expected to remain high. Because most countries in the region subsidize food and energy, high food prices will lead to fiscal pressures for many governments. But such pressures are not expected to choke off economic growth. Global financial turbulence and a likely slowdown of growth in the Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) countries are expected to be offset by continued robust spending among oilexporting countries and vibrant expansion in China and India.

Regulation of Fixed Income Securities Markets in the United States

Friedman, Felice B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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46.94%
The author looks at the development and regulation of the fixed income securities market in the United States. The U.S. fixed income market is one of the oldest and most developed debt markets in the world. It is also one of the most heterogeneous, with the four key market segments-government securities, the securities of government-sponsored enterprises, municipal securities, and corporate debt securities-all being relatively large and deep. The author describes the evolution of fixed income market regulation in the United States, discussing both primary and secondary market regulation. She also looks at market integrity issues and the enforcement authority of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, which is broad and has played an important role in the effectiveness of regulation. The author concludes that the fact that the U.S. fixed income market flourished for many years in the absence of regulation must be seen in a broader legal and regulatory context. While the debt market itself may have been unregulated...

Mortgage Securities in Emerging Markets

Chiquier, Loïc; Hassler, Olivier; Lea, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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46.64%
Despite its recognized economic and social importance, housing finance often remains underdeveloped in emerging economies. Residential lending remains small, poorly accessible, and depository-based. Lenders remain vulnerable to significant credit, liquidity, and interest rate risks. As a result, housing finance is relatively expensive and often rationed. The importance of developing robust systems of housing finance is paramount as emerging economy governments struggle to cope with population growth, rapid urbanization, and rising expectations from a growing middle class. The capital markets in many economies can provide an attractive and potentially large source of long-term funding for housing, and solutions to better allocate part of the risks. The advent of institutional investors is creating large and rapidly growing pools of funds that may facilitate the development of mortgage-related securities. Despite such a strong appeal, there are significant barriers to the development of mortgage securities in emerging markets. Their success is dependent on many factors...

Russian Federation Capital Markets : Analysis and Diagnosis of the Financial Regulatory and Institutional Policies Required for Becoming an International Financial Center

Pollner, John D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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There should be two principal goals in developing Russia as a financial center: a) attracting more of the financial business of large enterprises and of the wealthy, which now largely goes abroad to other international financial centers; and b) serving the needs of small and medium enterprises and small investors in Russia, needs that are now largely unmet. Advancing the second goal would help to advance the first goal by broadening the diversity in securities market funding as well as firm issuance possibilities. Financial centers exhibit benefits of scale. Better serving the need of Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs) and small investors would increase both the supply of securities and the demand for securities in Moscow. An increased volume and liquidity of transactions will make Moscow a more competitive financial center, thereby attracting more of the business of large enterprises and the wealthy that currently goes elsewhere. Finally, the above actions will constitute the necessary conditions to have the key elements for developing a significant financial center. They may not be all sufficient measures however. Non-financial market factors such as a suitable macroeconomic environment...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Brazil - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.7%
The Comissao de Valores Mobiliarios - Brazil Securities Commission (CVM) has made substantial progress since the 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). In 2002 the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) assessment rated 8 principles fully implemented and 22 principles partly implemented. The 2012 assessment rates 26 principles fully implemented, 5 broadly implemented, and 6 partly implemented. Principle 38 is not rated, as a separate Report on Observance and Codes (ROSC) on systemically important payment systems was conducted as part of this FSAP update. The detailed assessment highlights significant improvements in the risk-based inspection program, adoption of an innovative issuer disclosure system, a stronger enforcement program and the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Long-standing issues on corporate governance and the protection of minority shareholders continue to be challenges. Finally, recommendations to improve prudential regulation of Collective Investment Schemes (CIS) are discussed.

India : International Organization of Securities Commission Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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An assessment of the level of implementation of the IOSCO principles in the Indian securities market was conducted from June 15 to July 1, 2011 as part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) by Ana Carvajal, Monetary and capital markets department. An initial IOSCO assessment was conducted in 2000. Since then significant changes have taken place in the Indian market, in terms of market development, upgrading of market infrastructure and of the regulatory framework. The IOSCO methodology requires that assessors not only look at the legal and regulatory framework in place, but at how it has been implemented in practice. The assessor relied on: (i) a self-assessment developed by Securities Board Exchange of India (SEBI); (ii) the review of relevant laws, and other relevant documents provided by the authorities including annual reports; (iii) meetings with the Chairman of SEBI and other members of the Board, staff of SEBI as well as the RBI, and other public authorities, in particular representatives of the Ministry of Finance (MoF) and the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA); as well as (iv) meetings with market participants...

The Role of Occupational Pension Funds in Mauritius

Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.88%
Mauritius belongs to a select group of developing countries where contractual savings-savings with insurance companies and pension funds-exceed 40 percent of GDP and represent a major potential force in the local financial system. Pension funds account for 75 percent of contractual savings. Contractual savings institutions invest in government securities, housing loans, corporate securities, real estate and bank deposits. They currently hold 35 percent of government securities and also account for 36 percent of total outstanding housing loans.Given their strong demand for long-duration assets, they can stimulate the issue of long-term government bonds (both inflation-linked and zero-coupon) and the development of corporate debentures, mortgage bonds, and mortgage-backed securities.Mauritius has a balanced and well-managed multipillar pension system. In addition to several public components, such as the Basic Retirement Pension, the National Pensions Fund (NPF), the National Savings Fund, and the Civil Service Pension Scheme...

Hybrid Issuance Regimes for Corporate Bonds in Emerging Market Countries

Loladze, Tamar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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37.05%
Securities regulators in many developing countries are looking for ways to help grow their nongovernment bond markets to finance development. A common challenge is onerous regulations for issuance of bonds, which tend to discourage companies from coming to market. This paper explains and analyzes an issuance framework—a hybrid offer regime (HBOR)—that is particularly suitable for bonds and could help encourage greater issuance and market growth. The HBOR reduces issuance requirements and approval times for bond issuers but maintains certain protections to ensure investor comfort. While certain aspects of this type of issuance have been covered in literature on private placements, the review of hybrid offer regimes, as discussed in this paper, is new and has been evaluated by the WBG. Drawing on the experience of eight countries, the paper identifies key features of HBORs and highlights important issues for policymakers to consider in their implementation. The findings conclude that the most salient features of HBORs are: i) investment limited to qualified investors...

China Capital Markets Development Report : China Securities Regulation Commission

Qi, Bin
Fonte: China Financial Publishing House Publicador: China Financial Publishing House
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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37.1%
The 'China capital markets development report' provides a good overview of the development of China's capital markets and explores future strategies. The report starts by reviewing historical events in the evolution of China's capital markets which have grown from small and unorganized regional markets into a national market today. By summarizing lessons learned during the market evolution and analyzing major gaps between China's capital markets and more mature markets, the report tries to propose a strategic design and vision for China's capital markets development for the next decade and beyond. Since the commencement of economic reform and opening up, China has gone through significant economic and social changes, and the socialist market economic regime has been established and steadily improved. Between 1979 and 2007, China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been growing above 9 percent annually on average and China has become the fourth largest economy in the World. China's capital markets emerged and developed during the same period. With joint efforts by all relevant parties...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
The Securities Commission Malaysia (SC), as the supervisor of the capital markets, has developed a robust supervisory framework that exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation (IOSCO Principles) in most areas. The SC's independence will be buttressed by some changes to the legal provisions on removal of commission members and to protections given to the members of the commission and to its staff. The disclosure deadlines for issuers and their substantial shareholders should be adjusted to reflect international best practices. The new frameworks for oversight of credit rating agencies (CRAs) and the Federation of Investment Managers Malaysia (FIMM) should be implemented in full by carrying out on-site inspections as presently planned. At this stage in the jurisdiction's development, consideration should also be given to putting in place the pre-conditions that will enable the SC to ease up gradually on the intensity of its direct involvement in the day-to-day operations of the capital market and its participants.

Financing Development Through Future-Flow Securitization

Ratha, Dilip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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46.87%
Securitization of future hard currency receivables, that is, converting them into tradable securities, can allow developing country borrowers with good credit to overcome sovereign credit ceilings, and raise financing in international capital markets. The note examines the case of PEMEX, Mexico's state-owned oil and gas company, which in 1998 issued oil export-backed securities that received higher ratings from international credit rating agencies than Mexico's sovereign debt. Relative to unsecured debt, securitization lowered interest rates on PEMEX borrowing by 50-338 basis points (0.50-3.38 percentage points). Another example offered is the case of Banco de Credito in Peru, whose overseas Master Trust in the Bahamas (an offshore account) makes principal, and interest payments, forwarding excess collections to its headquarters in Peru. To increase investor confidence, the amount of future-flow receivables transferred to the trust was set at 2.5 times debt service requirements. In 1998 this transaction setup received an AAA credit rating from Standard & Poor's - higher than Peru's sovereign credit rating.

Default study of commercial mortgages in CMBS pools : an empirical analysis of defaults and loss severity; Default study of commercial mortgages in commercial mortgage backed securities pools

Srivastava, Rohit, 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58, [11] leaves; 3416228 bytes; 3416031 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The commercial mortgage backed securities ("CMBS") market has become a major source of real estate financing over the last 10-12 years. The growth of this market has been accompanied by strong real estate fundamentals. Consequently the collateral in the CMBS pools has not seen a major real estate recession till now. The loss assumptions used by market participants is based on the experience of banks and insurance companies ("Portfolio Lenders"). As the underwriting criteria and the collateral quality in the CMBS market is markedly different than that of the Portfolio Lenders', it can be assumed that the loss experience is going to be different as well. The loss experience for a portfolio is determined by two main factors, the frequency of defaults (or delinquencies) in the pool and the actual severity of loss on the defaulted loans. Each defaulted loan in a pool represents loss severity and eventual yield degradation. As Real Estate is a lagging indicator, historically, every economic downturn has been followed by a surge in default rates. The recession of 2001-03, which appears to be no different from its predecessors, is also indicative of possible rising commercial mortgage default rates. With further alleviating political risks and no signs of economic recovery in sight...