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O crédito malparado e o sobreendividamento das famílias na região autónoma da Madeira

Gomes, Marília Sibila Abreu
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Mestrado em Contabilidade e Gestão das Instituições Financeiras; A concessão de crédito é uma das funções das instituições financeiras. Estas colocam à disposição dos agentes económicos os recursos financeiros de que estes necessitam para colmatar as suas necessidades financeiras. Nesta relação, os agentes económicos devem utilizar o crédito concedido para rentabilizar as suas actividades de modo a cumprir com as obrigações a ele inerentes; por seu lado, os bancos procuram rentabilizar as suas aplicações financeiras aumentando desse modo a sua capacidade de concessão de novos créditos. Quando a economia entra em depressão, os particulares em situação mais crítica começam a ter dificuldade em pagar os empréstimos contraídos. Esta situação poderá dar origem ao crédito malparado e ao sobreendividamento. Estes problemas actuais na sociedade portuguesa têm levado a preocupações cada vez maiores na determinação da probabilidade de incumprimento estimada pelos bancos e na procura de soluções junto a organizações de apoio ao consumidor. Em suma, este estudo pretende concretizar uma análise do crédito malparado e do sobreendividamento em Portugal, especificamente para a Região Autónoma da Madeira...

"Finding the Tipping Point -- When Sovereign Debt Turns Bad"

Caner, Mehmet; Grennes,Thomas; Koehler-Geib, Fritzi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Public debt has surged during the current global economic crisis and is expected to increase further. This development has raised concerns whether public debt is starting to hit levels where it might negatively affect economic growth. Does such a tipping point in public debt exist? How severe would the impact of public debt be on growth beyond this threshold? What happens if debt stays above this threshold for an extended period of time? The present study addresses these questions with the help of threshold estimations based on a yearly dataset of 101 developing and developed economies spanning a time period from 1980 to 2008. The estimations establish a threshold of 77 percent public debt-to-GDP ratio. If debt is above this threshold, each additional percentage point of debt costs 0.017 percentage points of annual real growth. The effect is even more pronounced in emerging markets where the threshold is 64 percent debt-to-GDP ratio. In these countries, the loss in annual real growth with each additional percentage point in public debt amounts to 0.02 percentage points. The cumulative effect on real GDP could be substantial. Importantly...

Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance?

Cordella, Tito; Ricci, Luca Antonio; Ruiz-Arranz, Marta
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Do highly indebted countries suffer from a debt overhang? Can debt relief foster their growth rates? To answer these important questions, this article looks at how the debt-growth relation varies with indebtedness levels, as well as with the quality of policies and institutions, in a panel of developing countries. The main findings are that, in countries with good policies and institutions, there is evidence of debt overhang when the net present value of debt rises above 20-25 percent of GDP; however, debt becomes irrelevant above 70-80 percent. In countries with bad policies and institutions, thresholds appear to be lower, but the evidence of debt overhang is weaker and we cannot rule out that debt is always irrelevant. Indeed, in such countries, as well as in countries with high indebtedness levels, investment does not depend on debt levels. The analysis suggests that not all countries are likely to profit from debt relief, and thus that a one-size-fits-all debt relief approach might not be the most appropriate one.

Credit Information Quality and Corporate Debt Maturity : Theory and Evidence

Sorge, Marco; Zhang, Chendi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
This paper provides new theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the quality of credit information may be a key element in explaining the maturity structure of corporate debt around the world. In markets with poor credit information and hence a high degree of uncertainty about borrower quality, the authors find suboptimal equilibria in which short-term contracts are preferred either as a hedge against uncertainty to limit losses in bad states (in the symmetric information case) or as a screening device to learn about borrower credit quality in the course of a repeated lending relationship (in the asymmetric information case). The results of the model are supported by the econometric analysis of panel data from both industrial and developing economies. The authors find that countries with better quality of credit information (for example, as a result of improvements in credit reporting systems or accounting standards) are characterized by a higher share of long-term debt as a proportion of total corporate debt ceteris paribus. The findings suggest that promoting institutions and policies to improve the quality of credit information is an important prerequisite for increasing access of firms to long-term finance.

The Use of Asset Management Companies in the Resolution of Banking Crises

Klingebiel, Daniela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Asset management companies have been used to address the overhang of bad debt in the financial system. There are two main types of asset management company: those set up to expedite corporate restructuring and those established for rapid disposal of assets. A review of seven asset management companies reveals a mixed record. In two of three cases, asset management companies for corporate restructuring did not achieve their narrow goal of expediting bank or corporate restructuring, suggesting that they are not good vehicles for expediting corporate restructuring. Only a Swedish asset management company successfully managed its portfolio, acting sometimes as lead agent in restructuring - and helped by the fact that the assets acquired had mostly to do with real estate, not manufacturing, which is harder to restructure, and represented a small fraction of the banking systems assets, which made it easier for the company to remain independent of political pressures and to sell assets back to the private sector. Asset management companies used to dispose of assets rapidly fared somewhat better. Two of four agencies (in Spain and the United States) achieved their objectives...

Protecting Your Assets: A Well-Defined Credit Policy Is The Key

Moll, Steven V.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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46.78%
In - Protecting Your Assets: A Well-Defined Credit Policy Is The Key – an essay by Steven V. Moll, Associate Professor, The School of Hospitality Management at Florida International University, Professor Moll observes at the outset: “Bad debts as a percentage of credit sales have climbed to record levels in the industry. The author offers suggestions on protecting assets and working with the law to better manage the business.” “Because of the nature of the hospitality industry and its traditional liberal credit policies, especially in hotels, bad debts as a percentage of credit sales have climbed to record levels,” our author says. “In 1977, hotels showing a net income maintained an average accounts receivable ratio to total sales of 3.4 percent. In 1983, the accounts receivable ratio to total sales increased to 4.1 percent in hotels showing a net income and 4.4 percent in hotels showing a net loss,” he further cites. As the professor implies, there are ways to mitigate the losses from bad credit or difficult to collect credit sales. In this article Professor Moll offers suggestions on how to do that. Moll would suggest that hotels and food & beverage operations initially tighten their credit extension policies, and on the following side...

Bad debt provisions of financial institutions: dilemma of China's corporate governance regime

Shan, Y.; Xu, L.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the level of bad debt provisions of financial institutions is affected by internal governance mechanisms (IGMs) from the perspective of the Type II principal-principal (PP) conflicts between the controlling shareholders and the minority shareholders. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors’ sample covers all listed financial institutions in China, comprising a panel data set of 139 firm-year observations covering 1999 to 2009.Within China’s two-tier corporate governance context, the three IGMs – ownership structure, board of directors and supervisory board – are measured to examine the level of bad debt provisions. FINDINGS: The findings suggest that state ownership and legal person ownership are negatively related to the level of bad debt provisions, but board size reveals a positive association. Other factors including foreign ownership, independent directors, board meeting, supervisory board size and supervisory board meeting were found to have no impact. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The spirit of corporate governance reform has not been transferred to financial institutions sufficiently. The board of directors and supervisory board actually act the roles of “window dressing” or “rubber stamp” within the current two-tier system. From the Type II PP perspective...

Slovak Republic : Insolvency and Creditor Rights Systems

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Insolvency Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The assessment team interviewed a cross section of country stakeholders regarding the effectiveness of the legal infrastructure, and its implementation supporting debtor-creditor relationships, corporate insolvency and credit risk management, and resolution practices, including among others, members of the Inter-Agency Commission for the preparation of a new insolvency law, and members of the drafting team for the new collateral law; and, various professionals serving as trustees, executors, lawyers and accountants also provided their input. The conclusions in this assessment are based largely on the above interviews, a review of applicable legislation, data and information, various reports prepared by the Bank between 1999-2001, and other reports or analyses pertaining to the areas assessed, including the project on the new collateral legislation, and registration system for pledges (charges). Some laws unavailable in English at the time were discussed in a number of meetings with institutions, and professionals in the public...

Living and Dying with Hard Pegs : The Rise and Fall of Argentina's Currency Board

De la Torre, Augusto; Levy Yeyati, Eduardo; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
The rise and fall of Argentina's currency board shows the extent to which the advantages of hard pegs have been overstated. The currency board did provide nominal stability and boosted financial intermediation, at the cost of endogenous financial dollarization, but did not foster monetary or fiscal discipline. The failure to adequately address the currency-growth-debt trap into which Argentina fell at the end of the 1990s precipitated a run on the currency and the banks, followed by the abandonment of the currency board and a sovereign debt default. The crisis can be best interpreted as a bad outcome of a high-stakes strategy to overcome a weak currency problem. To increase the credibility of the hard peg, the government raised its exit costs, which deepened the crisis once exit could no longer be avoided. But some alternative exit strategies would have been less destructive than the one adopted.

Banking Crises in Transition Economies : Fiscal Costs and Related Issues

Tang, Helena; Zoli, Edda; Klytchnikova, Irina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
The authors look at strategies for dealing with banking crises in 12 transition economies -- five from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, and Poland; the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; and four countries from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Ukraine. Three types of strategies were used to deal with the crises. The CEE countries generally pursued extensive restructuring and recapitalizing of banks; most CIS countries pursued large-scale liquidation; and the Baltic states generally pursued a combination of liquidation and restructuring. The strategy pursued reflected macroeconomic conditions and the level of development in a country's banking sector. There were more new banks in the former Soviet Union (FSU-the CIS and Baltic states), but they tended to be small, undercapitalized, and not deeply engaged in financial intermediation. The CEE countries generally incurred higher fiscal costs than the FSU countries but ended up with sounder...

Tajikistan - Towards Accelerated Economic Growth : A Country Economic Memorandum

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) looks at the potential for accelerated economic growth in Tajikistan, where as of the peace agreement of mid-1997, renewed reform efforts have brought stability, where inflation is under control, small scale privatization has been completed, and, efforts to reform agriculture have been intensified. However, the main challenge lies in reducing poverty through economic growth, helping the Government develop a set of policies to achieve this objective. The report focuses on productive economic sectors, such as industry, and agriculture, although the importance of the power sector is also briefly discussed. Finance and banking, telecommunications and transport, are outlined, basically due to their importance in the expansion of domestic economic activity, and regional/international trade. The report stipulates macroeconomic stability is still fragile, namely due to low tax revenues, and rising foreign debt, constraining fiscal sustainability, while implementation of structural reforms remains elusive...

A Taxonomy of Financial Crisis Resolution Mechanisms: Cross-Country Experience

Calomiris, Charles W; Klingebiel, Daniela; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
The goals of financial restructuring are to re-establish the creditor-debtor relationships upon which the economy depends for an efficient allocation of capital, and to accomplish that objective at minimal cost. Costs include direct costs to taxpayers of financial assistance and the indirect costs to the economy that result from misallocations of capital and incentive problems resulting from the restructuring. The authors review cases in which countries employed alternative mechanisms to restructure their financial and corporate sectors. Countries typically apply a combination of tools, including decentralized, market-based mechanisms and government-managed programs. Market-based strategies seek to strengthen the capital base of financial institutions and/or borrowers to enable them to renegotiate debt and resume new credit supply. Government-led restructuring strategies often include the establishment of an entity to which non-performing loans are transferred or the government's sale of financial institutions...

The Fiscal Framework and Urban Infrastructure Finance in China

Su, Ming; Zhao, Quanhou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
China has experienced more than 25 years of extraordinary economic growth. Underlying this growth has been a decentralized fiscal system, in which provinces and large cities are given the freedom to make infrastructure investments to stimulate local development, and are allowed to retain a large part of the fiscal revenues that are generated from economic activity. Although successful as a growth strategy, this policy created two problems for national fiscal management. First, it significantly reduced the central government's share of fiscal revenues, which fell from 34.8 percent in 1980 to 22 percent in 1992. Second, it widened economic and fiscal disparities between the rapidly growing urban coastal region and the rest of the country. Rapid growth in subnational debt (which rose 23-fold in a decade) and subnational nonperforming loans (estimated by the authors to range between US$100 billion and US$150 billion) has placed pressure on China's financial system. Traditionally, China has favored bank lending as a source of finance because the banking system has provided a vehicle for central political control over local debt. But as China's financial system matures, creditworthiness standards must become more important. The authors recommend greater use of the revenue streams from infrastructure assets as a financing source...

Taxing Issues with Privatization : A Checklist

Mintz, Jack M.; Chen, Duanjie; Zorotheos, Evangelia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Privatization has been a popular strategy for improving efficiency in both market and transition economies. The literature on privatization includes broad discussions of pricing techniques but overlooks tax issues. In reality, a state-owned company loses its privilege of paying no taxes once it is privatized. This change in tax status would certainly complicate the financial transaction of a newly privatized company, affect industry-wide economic efficiency, and change the revenue pattern of governments. Using Ontario Hydro and the Canadian tax regime as examples, the authors provide policymakers with a checklist on tax issues under privatization. Their main observations: 1) The tax status of the company to be privatized must be considered in analyzing the firm's financial transition. 2) The economic efficiency targeted by privatization may depend partly on the tax regime for a particular industry. 3) Privatization affects government revenue through the revenue-sharing structure determined by intergovernmental fiscal relationships and cross-border tax arrangements. Time is a factor in tax and transition issues. At the time of privatization...

Dysfunctional Finance : Positive Shocks and Negative Outcomes

Hoff, Karla
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.71%
This paper shows how badly a market economy may respond to a positive productivity shock in an environment with asymmetric information about project quality: some, all, or even more than all the benefits from the increase in productivity may be dissipated. In the model, based on Bernanke and Gertler (1990), entrepreneurs with a low default probability are charged the same interest rate as entrepreneurs with a high default probability. The implicit subsidy from good types to bad means that the marginal entrant will have a negative-value project. An example is presented in which, after a positive productivity shock, the presence of enough bad type's forces the interest rate so high that it drives all entrepreneurs out of the market. This happens in an industry in which there are good projects that are productive. The problem is that they are contaminated in the capital market by bad projects because of the banks inability to distinguish good projects from bad. One possible explanation for the lack of development in some countries is that screening institutions are sufficiently weak that impersonal financial markets cannot function. If industrialization entails learning spillovers concentrated within national boundaries...

Recapitalizing Banking Systems : Implications for Incentives and Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Honohan, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
In the aftermath of a banking crisis, most attention is rightly focused on allocating losses, rebuilding properly managed institutions, and achieving debt recovery. But the authorities' decision to use budgetary funds to help restructure a large failed bank or banking system also has consequences for the incentive structure for the new bank management, for the government's budget, and for monetary stability. These issues tend to be lumped together, but each should be dealt with in a distinctive manner. The author points out, among other things, how apparent conflicts between the goals in each of these areas can be resolved by suitably designing financial instruments and appropriately allocating responsibility between different arms of government. First the government must have a coherent medium-term fiscal strategy that determines broadly how the costs of the crisis will be absorbed. Then the failed bank must be securely reestablished with enough capital and franchise value to move forward as a normal bank. This will typically entail new financial institutions involving the government on both the asset and the liability sides of the bank's balance sheet. The bank should not be left with mismatches of maturity...

Do Banks Provision for Bad Loans in Good Times? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

Cavallo, Michele; Majnoni, Giovanni
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Recent debate about the pro-cyclical effects of bank capital requirements, has ignored the important role that bank loan loss provisions play in the overall framework of minimum capital regulation. It is frequently observed that under-provisioning, due to inadequate assessment of expected credit losses, aggravates the negative effect of minimum capital requirements during recessions, because capital must absorb both expected, and unexpected losses. Moreover, when expected losses are properly reflected in lending rates, but not in provisioning practices, fluctuations in bank earnings magnify true oscillations in bank profitability. The relative agency problems faced by different stakeholders, may help explain the prevailing, and often unsatisfactory institutional arrangements. The authors test their hypotheses with a sample of 1,176 large commercial banks - 372 of them in non-G10 countries - for the period 1988-99. After controlling for different country-specific macroeconomic, and institutional features...

Debt and default in a growth model

Guimarães, Bernardo de Vasconcellos
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
This paper presents a small open economy model with capital accumulation and without commitment to repay debt. The optimal debt contract specifies debt relief following bad shocks and debt increase following good shocks and brings first order benefits if the country's borrowing constraint is binding. Countries with less capital (with higher marginal productivity of capital) have a higher debt-GDP ratio, are more likely to default on uncontingent bonds, require higher debt relief after bad shocks and pay a higher spread over treasury. Debt relief prescribed by the optimal contract following the interest rate hikes of 1980-81 is more than half of the debt forgiveness obtained by the main Latin American countries through the Brady agreements.

The Italian Crisis and Producer Households Debt: a Source of Stability? A Reproducible Research

Olgiati, Stefano; Bronzini, Gilberto; Danovi, Alessandro
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The European Credit Research Institute Research Report 2013 identifies Households debt "rapid increase and abrupt retrenchment" among the causes of macroeconomic instability in the European Union after 2008. In our research: i) we accessed the Bank of Italy Online Statistical Database on Customers and Risk for Producer Households and Non-Financial Corporations with R Sweave open access statistical software, which makes our analysis freely reproducible by other researchers; ii) we subset the European System of Accounts sector Households into the Bank of Italy sub-sectors Households and Producer Households, which are market producing entities limited to informal partnerships, de facto companies and sole proprietorships with up to five employees and iii) we tested the hypothesis of "rapid increase and abrupt retrenchment" of debt for this subset in Italy for the period 1996-2013. We found that PH debt (bad debt) has been more stable with a lower Variation Coefficient of 10.3% (14.2%) versus 13.2% (20.1%) in NFC. We also found that the time series of the ratio of debt granted to NFC (numerator) versus PH (denominator) is best described (Multiple Squared 0.95) by the concavity of the 5th degree coefficient (slope -1.22; 95% CI -1.52 - -0.91) of a 5th order polynomial linear regression and by the convexity of the 2nd degree coefficient (slope 4.26; 95% CI 2.53 - 5.99) for bad debt (Multiple R Squared 0.47)...

Banks, firms, bad debts and bankruptcy in Hungary 1991-4

Bonin, J. P.; Schaffer, M. E.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The paper examines Hungary''s experience with banking and bankruptcy reform in the period 1992-94. The first part of the paper uses enterprise-level data to show that in 1992, the same year in which the amount of classified loans in the state-owned commercial banks grew enormously, the proportion of total bank credit held by highly-unprofitable firms hardly changed. The inference from this is that the rapid growth of bad debt in 1992 was not the result of a "flow problem" (new bad lending) but rather represented the emergence of an inherited "stock problem" (pre-existing loans to inherited troubled clients). The paper then considers Hungary''s 1992 bankruptcy reform, and in particular the novel "automatic trigger" which required firms to file for bankruptcy if they had a payable of any size, owed to anybody, overdue 90 days or more. The paper argues that the bankruptcy experiment was flawed on two counts. First, one of the key motivations for introducing the automatic trigger - a perceived problem with financial discipline and with interenterprise credit in particular - was largely unfounded. Second, the automatic trigger experiment was costly because the impact on firms which were forced to file for bankruptcy led to chains of disrupted trade relations which rippled through the economy. Evidence from a 1994 survey of 200 manufacturing firms shows that a majority of the surveyed firms had been involved in bankruptcies as creditors...