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Postural balance in elderly evaluated in a force platform: the vestibular system and its importance in the aging process

Novo, André; Mendes, Eugénia; Preto, Leonel; Monteiro, A.M.; Azevedo, Ana; Correia, João; Paz Fernández, José António de
Fonte: Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Publicador: Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Balance dysfunction remains a significant factor for disability in the elderly [1]. Several mechanisms have been proposed do explain the changes in balance during aging. Balance disorders represent a growing public health problem due to the association with falls and fall related injuries [2]. The complexity of the balance system, however, often requires a thorough, multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation and successful treatment of balance impairment [3]. The vestibular system detects head movement in space and in turn generates reflexes that are crucial for daily activities, such as stabilizing the visual axis and maintaining head and body posture [4]. To measure postural balance an accurate and reliable instrument is needed that can numerically reflect the importance of the different variables involved in human balance [5]. With this study it’s our aim to directly determine the balance of older people and to establish the importance of the vestibular system in aging. University of León, León, Spain The data of postural balance in three test conditions was collated with a Metitur® force platform (normal standing with eyes open, normal standing with eyes closed, foam standing with eyes open and foam standing with eyes closed...

Postural balance in elderly evaluated in a force platform: the vestibular system and its importance in the aging process

Novo, André; Mendes, Eugénia; Preto, Leonel; Monteiro, A.M.; Azevedo, Ana; Correia, João; Paz Fernández, José António de
Fonte: Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Publicador: Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Balance dysfunction remains a significant factor for disability in the elderly [1]. Several mechanisms have been proposed do explain the changes in balance during aging. Balance disorders represent a growing public health problem due to the association with falls and fall related injuries [2]. The complexity of the balance system, however, often requires a thorough, multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation and successful treatment of balance impairment [3]. The vestibular system detects head movement in space and in turn generates reflexes that are crucial for daily activities, such as stabilizing the visual axis and maintaining head and body posture [4]. To measure postural balance an accurate and reliable instrument is needed that can numerically reflect the importance of the different variables involved in human balance [5]. With this study it’s our aim to directly determine the balance of older people and to establish the importance of the vestibular system in aging. University of León, León, Spain The data of postural balance in three test conditions was collated with a Metitur® force platform (normal standing with eyes open, normal standing with eyes closed, foam standing with eyes open and foam standing with eyes closed...

Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

SOUZA, Simone Pereira de; PACCA, Sergio; AVILA, Marcio Turra de; BORGES, Jose Luiz B.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S. Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S. Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee la. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96]...

ANALYSIS OF THE BALANCE CONTROL IN SURFERS DURING THE ERECT POSTURE

Alves Alcantara, Cristina Porto; Prado, Janina Manzieri; Duarte, Marcos
Fonte: SOC BRASILEIRA MED ESPORTE; SAO PAULO SP Publicador: SOC BRASILEIRA MED ESPORTE; SAO PAULO SP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
Background: Surfing is a sport that has become considerably popular, which increased interest in research about the aspects that can influence on the performance of these athletes, such as injuries, aerobic fitness and reaction time. Due to the ever-changing environment and high instability required for surfing, the surfers must develop some neuromuscular skills (agility, balance, muscle strength and flexibility) to acquire better performance in this modality. Nevertheless, there are still few scientific studies concerned about the investigation of these motor skills in surfing. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance control in surfers compared to practitioners of other physical activities. Methods: Participants remained on a force platform while performing tasks involving visual deprivation (eyes open or closed) and somatosensory disturbance (steady surface or use of foam), with covariation of experimental conditions. The following variables were analyzed: speed and root mean square (RMS) displacement of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions. Results: The results showed no difference between groups during the experimental conditions, that is to say, both surfers and the control group varied over the conditions of eyes closed and on foam. Conclusion: Although surfing requires the surfer to have great balance control...

Modelagem do balanço de energia do dossel da cultura do pimentão em casa de vegetação.; Canopy energy balance modeling of sweet pepper cultivated in greenhouse.

Atarassi, Roberto Terumi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/01/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Dentre os elementos em um sistema de produção em casa de vegetação, o dossel da cultura é o que mais afeta o microclima interno, sendo de grande importância o entendimento dos seus processos de troca de energia. Dada à complexidade da interação entre os vários elementos, a modelagem mostra-se como uma importante ferramenta para a pesquisa em ambientes protegidos, porém muito pouco utilizado no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de um modelo de simulação para estimativa dos componentes do balanço de energia do dossel da cultura do pimentão em casa de vegetação e sua calibração e teste com dados de um experimento de campo. Foi desenvolvido um modelo em equilíbrio dinâmico composto de quatro submodelos: fluxo de calor latente (λE), fluxo de calor sensível (H), balanço de ondas curtas (BOC) e balanço de ondas longas (BOL). Os submodelos para λE e H foram baseados em teorias de transferência de massa e calor por convecção mista associada a uma equação de estimativa da resistência estomática a partir de medidas climáticas. Os submodelos de BOC e BOL levaram em consideração a disposição em linhas da cultura, a cobertura parcial do dossel e o Índice de Área Foliar (IAF). O modelo foi implementado em planilha eletrônica MICROSOFT EXCEL 2000 e resolvido numericamente através de uma rotina escrita em linguagem VBA (Visual Basic para Aplicativos). O modelo foi calibrado e testado com experimento em casa de vegetação em arco com 17...

Balanço de energia e evapotranspiração de cafezal adensado em crescimento sob irrigação localizada.; Energy balance and evapotranspiration in a high density young coffee under located irrigation.

Righi, Evandro Zanini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
Foram determinadas as taxas de evapotranspiração global (ETc) e sua partição em evapotranspiração dos renques e das entrelinhas, bem como a partição da energia disponível em calores sensível e latente de um cafezal adensado (3,50m x 0,90m), irrigado por gotejamento, durante o período de 1 a 2 anos após sua implantação, em Piracicaba, SP. Foram utilizados os métodos do balanço de energia–razão de Bowen (MRB) e aerodinâmico (MA) para a determinação de ETc, o método lisimétrico para a evapotranspiração dos renques e o método do balanço de calor no caule para a transpiração a partir do fluxo de seiva. No uso do MA, foram verificados vários problemas. Um deles, é o aumento inicial pequeno do “deslocamento do plano zero” (d) normalizado pela altura da cultura, ter sido seguido por um decréscimo teoricamente inconsistente com o aumento da altura dos cafeeiros, além de uma grande variação do comprimento de rugosidade (zo), dependente das condições de cobertura das entrelinhas, da direção e da velocidade do vento, sendo evidenciado efeito dessas últimas duas variáveis também sobre d. Provavelmente, a maior fonte de erro para o MA foi terem os coeficientes de transporte turbulento, determinados com as funções empíricas do número de Richardson de estabilidade atmosférica...

Quantificação da alteração no balanço hídrico devido à cavas de mineração utilizando lisímetros e tanques de evaporação; Quantifying the alteration in water balance due to the mining caves using lysimeters and evaporation tanks

Cabrera, Manoel Camilo Moleiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
A quantificação da alteração no balanço hídrico, provocado pelo surgimento de espelhos dágua devido a atividades mineradoras, é fundamental para se avaliar o impacto das atividades antrópicas no ciclo hidrológico. O presente trabalho aborda a análise da perda de água em superfície vegetada sobre diferentes solos comparando com a perda de água em superfície liquida livre. Para isso foi usado um experimento composto por um lisímetro contendo solo argiloso, outro arenoso, um tanque de evaporação enterrado no solo e o conceito de balanço hídrico. E assim realizou-se um estudo sobre as alterações nos fluxos de água entre o solo, planta e atmosfera, quando ocorre à transformação de uma área coberta por vegetação rasteira, para uma superfície líquida exposta diretamente as mesmas condições climáticas. Com a expansão das cavas de mineração do tipo fechada, muitas paisagens naturais que antes eram cobertas por vegetação rasteira foram se transformando em cavas inundadas à céu aberto e depois com a desativação das atividades mineradoras na área, essas cavas inundadas se tornam lagoas, muitas vezes sem função alguma, o resultado deste trabalho demonstra que essa transformação altera o balanço hídrico. Os dois lisímetros empregados foram do tipo Drenagem com um nível fixo de água em seu interior...

Greenhouse gas balance due to the conversion of sugarcane areas from burned to green harvest in Brazil

De Figueiredo, Eduardo Barretto; La Scala, Newton
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 77-85
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Strategies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in agriculture have been debated for some time, especially in Brazil, where the agricultural sector is an important contributor to the national emission balance. The present study focuses on the change in greenhouse gas balance from the conversion of sugarcane areas from burned to green harvest, considering both agricultural and mobile sources. The results are presented in terms of CO(2) equivalent, using the gases CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O, and indicate that N synthetic fertilizer and burning of residues are responsible for the higher emissions observed in green and burned areas, with 1167.6 and 941.0 kg CO(2)equiv.ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. The sugarcane burning plot presented the highest emissions in our scope, with 3103.9 kg CO(2)equiv.ha(-1) y(-1). Our estimates indicate that conversion from burned to green plot could save from 310.7 (not considering soil carbon sequestration) to 1484.0 kg CO(2)equiv.ha(-1) y(-1) (considering soil carbon sequestration). The development of ethanol and sugar production in Brazil should certainly move towards the reduction of burning practice and diesel use...

Greenhouse gas balance due to the conversion of sugarcane areas from burned to green harvest, considering other conservationist management practices

Bordonal, Ricardo de Oliveira; de Figueiredo, Eduardo Barretto; La Scala, Newton
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 846-858
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); There is a growing need for all productive sectors to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation techniques to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect. However, the challenge to the agricultural sector is reducing net emissions while increasing production to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and biofuel. This study focuses on the changes in the GHG balance when sugarcane areas are converted from burned harvest (BH) to green harvest (GH, mechanized harvest), including the changes caused by the adoption of conservationist practices such as reduced tillage and a 4-month crop rotation with Crotalaria juncea L. during sugarcane replanting. Based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) methodologies, the annual emission balance includes both agricultural and mobile sources of GHG, according to the mean annual consumption of supplies per hectare. The potential soil carbon accumulation was also considered in the GH plot. The total amounts of GHG were 2651.9 and 2316.4 kg CO2eq ha-1 yr-1 for BH and GH, respectively. Factoring in a mean annual soil carbon accumulation rate of 888.1 kg CO2 ha-1 yr-1 due to the input from long-term crop residues associated with the conversion from BH to GH...

Equilíbrio unipodal e bipodal em atletas de futebol com paralisia cerebral; The unipodal and bipedal balance in soccer athletes with cerebral palsy

Lopes, Guilherme Henrique Ramos
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Educação Física, 2013.; O movimento paralímpico vem crescendo no Brasil, com grande melhora do desempenho de nossos atletas. O futebol de sete é uma modalidade de atletas com paralisia cerebral (PC) e, para alcançar o alto nível de desempenho, esses atletas enfrentam dificuldades com relação ao equilíbrio, devido às repercussões da sua própria condição. Objetivos: descrever o equilíbrio postural em atletas com PC e comparar com jovens não-atletas, sem PC. Métodos: foi avaliado o equilíbrio postural de 28 sujeitos (14 atletas com PC e 14 não-atletas sem PC). Os atletas com PC foram classificados no nível I, de acordo com o GMFCS. Para mensuração do equilíbrio foi utilizada uma plataforma de força AccuSway (AMTI) a uma frequência de 100Hz. Os sujeitos realizaram três tentativas (10 s) em apoio bipodal e unipodal com a perna dominante. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros do Centro de Pressão (COP): amplitude médio-lateral (COPml), amplitude anteroposterior (COPap), deslocamento total (COPcomp), velocidade média do deslocamento (COPvel) e 95% da área da elipse (AREA95). O teste da MANOVA foi utilizado para verificar as diferenças intergrupos nas condições avaliadas. Resultados: os atletas com PC apresentaram um pior controle do equilíbrio em ambas as situações. No apoio bipodal houve diferença intergrupos no COPml e AREA95...

Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from SST (NOAA-Satellite) and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

Ikeda,Yoshimine; Stevenson,Merritt Raymond
Fonte: Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1985 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation) developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy). The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long.) square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas) Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1) were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS...

Mapeamento das estimativas do saldo de radiação e índices de vegetação em área do estado de Alagoas com base em sensores remotos.; Mapping of the estimates of the balance of radiation and indices of vegetation in an area of the state of Alagoas based on remote sensing.

Novas, Maria Fátima Bettini
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Processos de superfície terrestre; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meteorologia; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Processos de superfície terrestre; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meteorologia; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
The balance of radiation at the surface is of great importance in studies related to the flow of heat in the atmosphere, particularly in agricultural crops in areas and basins. This work mapped the components of the radiation balance of the land surface and vegetation indices of the area with the river basin Pratagy in Alagoas, by means of remote sensing data in days of clear sky. In the estimation of the components of the balance of radiation were used data from TM-Landsat 5 and algorithm SEBAL - Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land is proposed by Bastiaanssen Land (1995). We analyzed the images of the day 06/11/1990, 09/21/1998 and 09/03/2003. The average value of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in 0.633 was 06/11/1990, 0.607 and 0.502 on 09/21/1998 to 09/03/2003, evidencing reduction of vegetation in the area in 1990 to study 1998 and also from 1998 to 2003. The gradual reduction of NDVI that occurred between the years studied, where the low values of 0 - 0.20 are found in more urbanized area, may have resulted from the urbanization process which intensified in these years. The classified image of the subtraction of NDVI between 1990 and 1998, however, demonstrated that in 59.5% of the area in study was little variation in the index. Once in the image of the subtraction of NDVI between 1998 the 2003 evidenced more that in almost 50% of the area in study was loss of vegetation and more spatially distributed in the central part of it. The instantaneous average value of the balance of radiation to the surface (Rn) increased from 1990 to 1998 and decreased between 1998 and 2003...

Estimativa do balanço de energia utilizando imagens do sensor TM-Landsat 5 no baixo São Francisco; Estimation of energy balance using images form Landsat-5 TM sensor in the lower São Francisco

Santos, Fabiano Barbosa dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Processos de superfície terrestre; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meteorologia; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Processos de superfície terrestre; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meteorologia; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Remote sensing is a very effective way for obtaining earth surface information due to its wide area coverage and low cost. This paper aims to map and estimate the components of the Radiation Balance (Albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Surface Temperature) and Energy Balance (Net Radiation, Soil Heat Flux, Sensible Heat Flux and Latent Heat Flux) through the sensor Thematic Mapper coupled to the Landsat-5, collected through the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, combined with a digital elevation model with altitude information. The components were obtained from the Radiation and Energy Balance performed by the SEBAL/METRIC algorithm, with information obtained from two data collection platforms (Xingó-AL and Poço Redondo-SE). The covered region has an area of approximately 1342 square kilometers and includes the municipalities of Monteirópolis, Palestina, Pão de Açúcar, Piranhas and São José da Tapera, Alagoas, and the cities of Canindé do São Francisco, Poço Redondo and Porto da Folha in the state of Sergipe. The images collected corresponded to the passage of TM/Landsat-5 on said area at 9 h 30 min (Solar time) of October 17, 1999 (day 290 in the Julian calendar), October 06, 2001 (day 279 in Julian calendar) and December 7...

The effect of a segmental, localized lower limb cooling protocol on muscular strength and balance

Montgomery, Roger Edward
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
The human neuromuscular system is susceptible to changes within the thermal environment. Cold extrinsic temperatures can significantly reduce muscle and nervous system function and communication, which can have consequences for motor performance. A repeated measures design protocol exposed participants to a 12°C cold water immersion (CWI) up to the ankle, knee, and hip to determine the effect that reduced skin and muscle temperature had on balance and strength task execution. Although a linear reduction in the ability to perform balance tasks was seen from the control condition through to the hip CWI, results from the study indicated a significant reduction in dynamic balance (Star Excursion Balance Test reach distance) performance from only the hip CWI (P<0.05). This reduced performance could have been due to an increase in joint stiffness, increased agonist-antagonist co-contraction, and/or reduced isokinetic muscular strength. Reduced physical performance due to cold temperature could negatively impact outdoor recreational athletics.

Contribución, desde la perspectiva de la termodinámica ambiental, a la discusión sobre revocabilidad de los biocombustibles en las reacciones de balance de generación y absorción de dióxido de carbono, en los procesos de fotosíntesis y combustión

Fernández Rincón, Víctor Campo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: masterThesis; Tesis de Grado Maestría Formato: Pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
La idea de tener procesos productivos con balance de carbono cero es un deseo y una necesidad actual debido a la acumulación creciente de dióxido de carbono en la atmosfera. La producción y uso de los biocombustibles es un ejemplo que se ha venido promoviendo con la idea de carbono cero y por lo tanto como un proceso que favorece al bienestar humano, porque reduce la generación de CO2. Sin embargo, se requiere de la confluencia de varias situaciones simultáneamente: ? Baja Contaminación. Que la producción agrícola de insumos sea hecha de manera que no deteriore el suelo y no produzca contaminantes. ? Balance de Energía. Que el proceso consuma menos energía que la generada, ? Balance de Masa. Que la cantidad de CO2 absorbida por la naturaleza sea igual a la cantidad generada por la producción y el uso de los biocombustibles. ? Cinética Química o Velocidad de Reacción. Que la velocidad de absorción del CO2, sea igual a la velocidad de generación. Mediante análisis estequiométricos, balances de materiales y análisis de eficiencia y utilizando la información pública disponible sobre producción y consumo mundial, este proyecto intenta determinar, si el uso intensivo de los biocombustibles es capaz de alterar el balance de carbono de la tierra...

Kazakhstan - On the Crest of the Oil Wave

Sarsenov, Ilyas; Madani, Dorsati
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
Economic growth slowed in 2012 due to capacity constraints in the oil sector, weaker global demand for metals, and unfavorable weather conditions affecting crop production. Overall, industrial output expanded by 0.5 percent in 2012, with negligible contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth for the year. Against the decline of agriculture, and little change in industry overall, real GDP growth was supported by a 10 percent year/year growth of the services sector in 2012. Higher export revenues supported strong domestic demand for trade and transportation, as well as for other non-tradable services. High oil prices continued spurring domestic consumption while fixed capital investments remained depressed. Private consumption remains the main contributor to GDP growth as it has been growing by 9-10 percent a year since 2010, supported by favorable commodity prices and high oil export revenue. Exports of oil largely influence the composition of Kazakhstans trading partners, while membership in the customs union appears to be affecting composition of imports. The European Union (EU) maintains the first place among trading partners of Kazakhstan...

Comparing of the difference and balance methods to calculate percent recovery of fertilizer phosphorus applied to soils: a critical discussion

Chien, S.H.; Sikora, F.J.; Gilkes, R.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
This article presents a critical discussion comparing the traditional method and a newly proposed balance method to calculate percent recovery of fertilizer P applied to soils. The traditional difference method is defined as P uptake from the soil treated with fertilizer P minus P uptake from a control with no P added divided by the amount of fertilizer P applied. The balance method simply considers the ratio of P uptake from the P fertilized soil to the amount of fertilizer P applied and does not use a control to discount P taken up from soil without fertilizer application. The percentage recovery of fertilizer P calculated by the difference method normally ranges from 10 to 25% for a given crop in a given season and is always lower than that by the balance method which ranges from 50 to 90% and is sometimes over 100%. The balance method is inappropriate to calculate percentage recovery of current fertilizer P applied due to its overestimation and the invalidity of the mathematical equation used. The difference method is superior to the balance method to estimate percentage recovery of fertilizer P applied. The balance method is suitable for determining a percent soil P balance to evaluate if fertilizer P applications are building up...

Mongolia Economic Retrospective 2008-2010

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Mongolia was one of the East Asian economies hardest hit by the global downturn, as copper prices collapsed and external demand fell. With the recovery in economic activity currently well underway, but the policy challenges highlighted by the crisis yet to be fully addressed, this economic retrospective examines the key economic, financial, and policy developments from mid 2008 to April 2010. Collapsing mineral prices and a steep drop in external demand due to the global downturn of 2008 and 2009 were the external shocks which were transmitted to Mongolia's economy. This shock exposed underlying weaknesses in the economic structure and policy environment. More generally, now is the time to put in place a strong policy framework to manage the upcoming mining boom and avoid the mistakes of the past. The looming mining boom brings the risks of "Dutch disease" effects and a return to the profligate populism of the past. Measures to address these risks include the recently adopted fiscal stability law that will help the country move away from the fiscal boom and bust cycles of the past; improvements to the budget process and the planning and management of public investments in order to more efficiently absorb the large projected increases in revenues; and appropriate policy frameworks to support future infrastructure investment. Implementing a targeted poverty benefit should also ensure the poor are protected from mining boom and busts in a fiscally sustainable manner. Finally...

Annual mean analysis of the tropical heat balance and associations with the Walker circulation

Veiga,José Augusto Paixão; Rao,Vadlamudi Brahamananda; Franchito,Sérgio Henrique
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
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35.96%
The present study presents an analysis of the annual mean tropical heat balance and its association with the Walker circulation (WC) using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. This study shows the relative importance of diabatic data to produce vertical motion in the tropics and for the WC region. It is shown that ascending motion in the WC's upward branch is determined by the joint effect of latent heating and radiative cooling processes while infrared radiation loss is associated to sink motions on the WC's descending branch. In ascending branches of the WC vertical velocity from reanalysis is overestimated when latent heat is taken into account to drive motions. Radiative cooling is indentified as the main physical process yielding sinking motion in the WC's downward branches. In upward branches of the WC, resulting diabatic processes (latent heat release) are balanced by adiabatic expansion (due rising motions). In descending branches of the WC, there is a near balance between radiative cooling (due to longwave emission) and heating (due to sinking motions).

Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite) and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

Ikeda, Yoshimine; Stevenson, Merritt Raymond
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto Oceanográfico Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto Oceanográfico
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1985 Português
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The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation) developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy). The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long.) square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas) Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1) were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS...