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A restrição externa e a perda de dinamismo da economia brasileira: investigando as relações entre estrutura produtiva e crescimento econômico ; The external restriction and the loss of dynamism of the brazilian economy: investigating the relations between productive structure and economic growth

Carvalho, Veridiana Ramos da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
O objetivo central desta dissertação é analisar a perda de dinamismo do crescimento econômico brasileiro a partir da década de 80, utilizando a abordagem keynesiana de crescimento com restrição externa. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, pode-se dizer que o crescimento econômico brasileiro de 1930-2004 foi aquele compatível com o equilíbrio do balanço de pagamentos e que o câmbio real e fluxo de capitais têm um papel reduzido na obtenção do equilíbrio externo de longo prazo. Complementarmente, a perda de dinamismo do crescimento do PIB, a partir da década de 80, pode ser explicada por uma maior perversidade desse equilíbrio. Na década de 80, o equilíbrio externo tornou-se mais perverso devido aos componentes fluxo de capitais e câmbio real. Já nos anos 90, o Novo Modelo Econômico provocou uma quebra estrutural na elasticidade da renda das importações, fazendo com que o equilíbrio externo, agora, ocorra a uma taxa de crescimento da renda interna mais baixa. A correlação entre crescimento, restrição externa e padrão de especialização da estrutura produtiva é uma discussão subjacente a todo o desenvolvimento do trabalho.; The main aim of this work is to analise the less dynamic economic growth of Brazil since the eighties...

Crises financeira nos anos 1990 e poupança externa

Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
Ao contrário do que afirma a análise econômica convencional, a causa das crises financeiras dos anos 1990 no México, Ásia, Brasil e Argentina não foi principalmente fiscal, mas sim a decisão dos governos de crescerem com poupança externa, isto é, com déficits em conta corrente. Essas foram crises de balanço de pagamento geradas pela sobreapreciação da moeda local e pelo alto nível de dívida externa e/ou rápido crescimento de déficit de conta corrente. Assim, repentinamente os credores externos se convenceram de que o país não enfrenta apenas um problema de liquidez, mas de solvência, e para de rolar a dívida. Um teste econométrico demonstra essas afirmações; Differently of what says conventional economic analysis, the cause of the 1990s financial crises in Mexico, Asia, Brazil and Argentina was not primarily fiscal, but the decision of governments to grow with foreign savings, i.e., with current account deficits. These were balance of payment crises triggered by a overvalued local currency and the high level of the foreign debt and/or the fast growth of the current account deficit. Given that, foreign creditors suddenly become persuaded that the country does not face just a liquidity but a solvency problem, and stop rolling over the debt. An econometric test substantiates these claims

Fragilidade financeira e restrição no balanço de pagamentos : ‰b uma abordagem pos-keynesiana

Andre Luis Mota dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
Esta dissertação tem como principal objetivo desenvolver uma família de modelos formais em que sejam consideradas restrição no balanço de pagamentos e fragilidade financeira, sendo esta tomada no sentido minskyano. O trabalho está organizado em cinco capítulos, levando em conta a apresentação e as últimas observações. O segundo capítulo tem por objetivo analisar os dois principais modelos de crescimento com inspiração minskyana, além de revisar aspectos principais da teoria de Minsky e tecer considerações sobre as hipóteses da instabilidade e da fragilidade em uma economia aberta. O terceiro capítulo trata dos principais modelos de crescimento com restrição no balanço de pagamentos, cuja expressão mais conhecida é a Lei de Thirlwall. No capítulo posterior, faz-se uma tentativa de empreender o tratamento de restrição no balanço de pagamentos e de fragilidade financeira num único modelo. Especificações diferentes para a variação do prêmio de risco permitem a construção de uma família de modelos, sendo que dois destes exigem resolução numérica e um é passível de interpretação geométrica (qualitativa). Este, no curto prazo, é capaz de descrever o mecanismo de stop-and-go, que economias com restrição ao crescimento dada pelo balanço de pagamentos enfrentam...

The Germany-Serbia Remittance Corridor : Challenges of Establishing a Formal Money Transfer System

De Luna Martinez, José; Endo, Isaku; Barberis, Corrado
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
This report provides an overview of remittance flows from Germany to Serbia and analyzes why a large part of remittance transfers take place outside financial institutions. The study presents a series of recommendations on needed policy changes to facilitate the transfer of remittance flows from the informal channels to licensed or registered financial institutions, thereby maximizing the developmental impact of remittances, reducing remittances fees, improving data collection practices, and strengthening the regulation and supervision of the money transfer industry.

Kingdom of Thailand : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
Thailand has made great efforts over the past ten years to improve the quality of corporate financial reporting. Considerable progress has been made on various fronts to strengthen the institutional framework of accounting and auditing, and to move towards converging Thai national accounting and auditing standards with international benchmarks. This report focuses on areas where stakeholders in the accounting profession in Thailand could consider making changes to strengthen the profession and increase consistency with global benchmarks. The Federation of Accounting Professions (FAP) is the self-regulatory professional body, which is a member of the International Federation of Accountants. The FAP is also the standard-setter, perhaps overly stretched with many responsibilities covered by the volunteer efforts of its members. The FAP develops and reviews accounting standards, as well as audit and ethics standards in line with international good practices. Thailand has in place legislation governing the creation and responsibilities of entities engaged in commercial activities: the accounting act...

Hegelian Macroeconomics : The Dialectics of Global Imbalances

Monga, Celestin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
Traditional narratives of external imbalances have focused on the analysis of national accounts, trade flows, and financial flows. They have generated two opposing views of the current situation of the world economy: on one side, a prudent, if not pessimistic view considers large imbalances as evidence of problems with the international monetary and financial system, and symptoms of domestic distortions (mainly in the United States and China). On the other side, a relaxed, if not optimistic view suggests that global imbalances are not anomalies but simply the predictable outcome of a world with increasingly globalized financial flows in search of the right mix of risks and returns. The former view prescribes that the two largest countries in the world rebalance their economies to avoid the potentially painful cost of disruption and adjustment. The latter contends that global imbalances will be corrected through time by the normal functioning of market forces. This paper offers a critical analysis of these competing explanations of the United States-China imbalances and suggests a way of reconciling them. Starting with an exploration of the accounting frameworks that underpin any discussion of current account deficits and surpluses...

The long-term impact of Medicare payment reductions on patient outcomes

Wu, Vivian Y.; Shen, Yu-Chu
Fonte: National Bureau of Economic Research Publicador: National Bureau of Economic Research
Tipo: Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
This study examines the long-term impact of Medicare payment reductions on patient outcomes using a natural experiment - the Balance Budget Act (BBA) of 1997. We use predicted Medicare revenue changes due to BBA, with simulated BBA payment cuts as an instrument, to categorize hospitals by degrees of payment cuts (small, moderate or large) and follow Medicare patients outcomes in these hospitals over a 11 year panel: 1995-1997 pre-BBA, 1998-2000 initial years of BBA, and 2001-2005 post-BBA years. We find that Medicare AMI mortality trends stay similar across hospitals when comparing between pre-BBA and inital-BBA periods. However, the trends began to diverge in 2001-2005; hospitals facing large payment cuts saw increased mortality rates relative to that of hospitals facing small cuts in the post-BBA period (2001-2005) after controlling for their pre-BBA trends. We find support that part of the higher AMI mortalities among large-cut hospitals are explained by reductions in staffing level and operating costs following the payment cuts.

Assessment of Systems for Paying Health Care Providers in Mongolia; Implications for Equity, Efficiency and Universal Health Coverage

Joint Learning Network; Mongolia Ministry of Health; World Bank; World Health Organization
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Achieving access to basic health services for the entire population without risk of financial hardship or impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures (‘universal health coverage’ or UHC) is a challenge that continues to confront most low- and middle-income countries. As coverage expands in these countries, issues of financial sustainability, efficiency, and quality of care quickly rise to the surface. Strategic health purchasing is an important lever to efficiently manage funds for UHC through the definition of what is purchased (which services and benefits the covered population is entitled to receive), from whom services are purchase (which providers are contracted to deliver the covered services), and how and how much the providers are paid. The assessment was conducted to help inform the design and implementation of Mongolia’s provider payment systems going forward. Health care provider payment systems, the way providers are paid to deliver the covered package of services, are an important part of strategic purchasing to balance system revenues and costs in a way that creates incentives for providers to improve quality and deliver services more efficiently. This ultimately makes it possible to expand coverage within limited funds (Langenbrunner...

Russia Monthly Economic Developments, August 2015

Hansl, Birgit; Baffes, John; Emelyanova, Olga; Matytsin, Mikhail; Ulatov, Sergei; Vashakmadze, Ekaterine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Brief
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Russia’s economy contracted 4.6 percent in the second quarter, year-on-year, after a 2.2 percent contraction in the first quarter, but in June the pace of contraction slowed. Russia’s second quarter balance of payment remained stable despite a weaker trade balance as the current account improved and capital outflows moderated. Receding oil prices and a further cut in the key policy rates in July brought the ruble exchange rate down to its lowest level since February. Preliminary poverty statistics for the first quarter of 2015 show a significant increase in the number of poor people.

National income and balance of payments of Fiji 1950-53

O'Loughlin, Carleen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
In this thesis are presented the results of an investigation of the national income and balance of payments for the colony of Fiji during the period 1950-53. The two introductory chapters (I and II) include a background description of the Colony and discussion of national income methods and techniques employed. There follows an analysis of the National Income material (chapter III-VI) set out in output, income and expenditure form and sub-classified by industrial origin of output, distribution of incomes and directions of expenditure on consumption and investment. An account of the government sector and the incidence of taxation is included (chapter VII). The balance of payment analysed and presented (chapter VIII) with a discussion of the direction and composition of external trade. Two chapters of a subsidiary nature (IX and X) describe economic aspects of the life of Indians and Fijians respectively and are based on supplementary information collected during field surveys. A chapter of conclusions (XI) discusses economic aspects of some of the main statistical conclusions which emerge from the investigation modities.; This thesis has been made available through exception 200AB to the Copyright Act; Yes

Promoting Intellectual Property Monetization in Developing Countries : A Review of Issues and Strategies to Support Knowledge-driven Growth

Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
This paper outlines and evaluates several intellectual property monetization strategies available to patent holders in developing countries that help generate domestic innovation and knowledge-driven growth by promoting more active technology markets. Based on a review of World Intellectual Property Report indicators, the patent ownership gap between a sample of developed and developing countries has narrowed gradually for more technologically-sophisticated developing countries. However, based on complementary International Monetary Fund Balance of Payments data, the patent commercialization divide (as indicated by licensing income) has been widening. The paper argues that patents, and all forms of intellectual property, are an enabling mechanism rather than a defensive right: an intangible asset class that can be proactively nurtured and managed for greater value extraction to stimulate knowledge-based entrepreneurship and growth in developing countries. The paper presents multiple case studies of alternative monetization strategies to address the commercialization divide. These strategies range from private...

The Impact of Remittances on Growth Evidence from North African Countries

Adams, Richard; van den Bosch, Marie Alienor; Keller, Jennifer; Mottaghi, Lili
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
Remittances constitute financial flows that affect the receiving country's economy and its development through diverse channels, including income, consumption, investment, government policies, potential parental absence, and removal of potential entrepreneurial individuals from the community. In view of the economic significance of remittance flows to North African economies, this paper utilizes an econometric model aimed at empirically evaluating the growth impact of remittances on four receiving economies during the period from 1980 to 2007. The model focuses on assessing the role of financial development in determining the growth impact of remittance flows to the region. The paper is organized in four main sections. Section two looks at the scope of migration movements in the four North African countries and the importance of remittance flows to the region. It shows the historical, current and future importance of remittance flows to North African economies. The third section elaborates upon what is known about the economic impacts of remittances at large. It details the major potential macroeconomic impacts of remittances through a literature review on growth and remittances. It also looks at the various channels through which remittances can impact growth. Section four presents an econometric model evaluating the growth impact of remittances with and without the financial sector variable and the results. The fifth section summarizes the main results and concludes.

Tajikistan Policy Note : Enhancing the Development Impact of Remittances

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.72%
Remittances have played an important role as one of the drivers of Tajikistan's robust economic growth during the past several years. The volume of official remittances has significantly increased since 2001 and now represent close to 12 percent of GDP (2004). Remittances have become the most important source of external financing for the balance of payments, have increased incomes, and as a result helped reduce poverty. Recognizing their importance, the Tajikistan authorities have sought to sustain remittance flows. However, anecdotal evidence indicates that migrants are not sufficiently integrated into the Tajikistan financial system, much less that of the destination countries (e.g. Russia). This Policy Note has two main objectives: (1) to expand knowledge of the size of remittances, their sending mechanisms (especially through formal channels), and their use; and (2) to propose policy recommendations to enhance the development impact of remittances. The report is organized into six sections, including an Introduction. The sections provide background on migration and remittances related to Tajikistan; discuss the estimation of remittance size and data issues; examine the transfer channels of remittances (their cost...

Pakistan Development Update, October 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
For 2013 progress in Pakistan was significant and supported by a solid economic reform program of the Government of Pakistan. An IMF Extended Fund Facility (EFF) and two World Bank Development Policy Credits with a focus to restructure the energy sector, foster private and financial sector developments and improve social protection and revenue mobilization reinforced the reform program. The risk of a balance of payment crisis was minimized with a significant strengthening of the international reserves position. This mainly resulted from strong remittances and significant foreign capital inflows, which also brought stability in the foreign exchange market. A strong fiscal consolidation was achieved; the fiscal deficit was contained at around 5.5 percent of GDP - due to improved tax collection, high non-tax revenues, and restricted (current and development) expenditures. Price stabilization followed with average inflation remaining in single digits. This environment favored growth recovery, with the GDP growth rate above 4 percent for the first time in seven years - driven by dynamic manufacturing and service sectors supported by better energy availability and improved investors' expectations. As a result...

What is the Impact of International Remittances on Poverty and Inequality in Latin America?

Acosta, Pablo; Calderón, Cesar; Fajnzylber, Pablo; Lopez, Humberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
Workers' remittances have become a major source of income for developing countries. However, little is still known about their impact on poverty and inequality. Using a large cross-country panel dataset, the authors find that remittances in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have increased growth and reduced inequality and poverty. These results are robust to the use of different instruments that attempt to correct for the potential endogeneity of remittances. Household survey-based estimates for 10 LAC countries confirm that remittances have negative albeit relatively small inequality and poverty-reducing effects, even after imputations for the potential home earnings of migrants.

Labor Supply, School Attendance, and Remittances from International Migration : The Case of El Salvador

Acosta, Pablo
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
The objective of this paper is to present microeconomic evidence on the economic effects of international remittances on households' spending decisions. Remittances can increase the household budget and reduce liquidity constraint problems, allowing more consumption and investment. In particular, remittances can afford investing in children's human capital, a key outcome for the discussion of the perspective of growth in a high recipient developing country. Robust estimates that take into account both selection and endogeneity problems in estimating an average impact of remittances are substantially different from least squares (OLS) estimates presented in previous studies, indicating the importance of dealing with these methodological concerns. After controlling for household wealth and using selection correction techniques such as propensity score matching as well as village and household networks as instruments for remittances receipts, average estimates suggest that girls and young boys (less than 14 years old) from recipient households seem to be more likely to be enrolled at school than those from nonrecipient households. Remittances are also negatively related to child labor and adult female labor supply, while adult male labor force participation remains unaffected on average. The results signaling that the additional income derived from migration increases girls' education and reduces women's labor supply...

Republic of Kenya : Medium Term Debt Management Strategy, 2010/11-2012/13

Ministry of Finance
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
The objective of debt management in Kenya is to finance the Government financing requirements at the least cost with a prudent degree of risk. The 2010 Medium Term Debt Strategy (MTDS) is a versatile public debt management tool linked to the medium term fiscal framework that contains prudent revenue projections and planned expenditures consistent with Kenya's economic recovery effort. The strategy seeks to address the terms of new borrowing, including the appropriate mix between domestic and external debt. This report explores the objectives of debt management in Kenya, an overview of the previous medium term debt strategy, key developments, characteristics of the existing debt portfolio, outcomes of analysis of strategies, debt sustainability and implementing the 2010 MTDS.

A Growth and Adjustment Strategy for Pakistan

Burki, Shahid Javed; Hasan, Parvez
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
This paper is divided into four sections. The first provides a quick overview of the current political and economic situation, focusing in particular on the stagnation of growth and deepening macroeconomic imbalances, and a fast approaching balance of payments crisis. The second section focuses on ways to improve macro-economic balances especially public finances not only by increasing revenues but restructuring expenditures including reductions in subsidies to the non-poor and increasing the effectiveness of public spending. The third section focuses on critical elements in reviving growth. The paper argues for a comprehensive growth strategy which focuses on governance as a central issue. Reversing the decline of public institutions and improving the quality of governance will provide confidence in the country's economic future and will result in increasing domestic investment. Other elements of the strategy must involve improving the energy situation; correcting the long neglect of exports and using international trade as a driver of growth (including opportunities that may become available by the intended normalization of trade with India); reversing the decline on growth rate of agriculture both by supporting diversification in the cropping pattern; processing of agricultural products...

Republic of Kenya : Medium Term Debt Management Strategy, 2011/12-2013/14

Ministry of Finance
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.67%
The objective of debt management in Kenya is to finance the Government financing requirements at the least cost with a prudent degree of risk. The 2011 Medium Term Debt Strategy (MTDS) outlines the government's preferred strategy to guide debt management operations in FY2011-12. It seeks to balance the cost and risk of both the existing public debt portfolio and alternative borrowing mix. This report explores the objectives of debt management in Kenya, an overview of the previous medium term debt strategy, key developments, characteristics of the existing debt portfolio, outcomes of analysis of strategies, debt sustainability and implementing the 2011 MTDS.

Improving Payment Mechanisms in Cash-Based Safety Net Programs

del Ninno, Carlo; Subbarao, Kalanidhi; Kjellgren, Annika; Quintana, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Cash transfers have proliferated in the past decade as key policy instruments to tackle vulnerability and inequality. Payment mechanisms (PMs), the backbone of cash transfers, are the channels through which cash travels from the funding source to the hands of beneficiaries. In theory, the harmonization of payment flows in PMs with other program processes is critical to delivering the right benefit to the right people at the right time while minimizing costs. In reality, however, PMs tend to remain disconnected, rendering payments inefficient and plagued by error, fraud and corruption. In recent years, program operators, financial institutions, and technology innovators have developed strategies for streamlining payment flows. These innovations, if properly integrated into program management through a Management Information System (MIS) and supported by rigorous outreach, can not only promote efficiency and transparency but also ensure effectiveness. This paper provides a framework for integrating PMs within program management. It walks the reader through seven basic steps to process payments. It does so by articulating the flow of beneficiary information and funds from the point of beneficiary enrollment to payment reconciliation and grievance redress. It also looks at the framework through the lenses of different cash transfer interventions and the cases of Kenya...