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Utilização da análise por envoltória de dados (DEA) na análise de demonstrações contábeis.; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) applied to balance sheet analysis.

Casa Nova, Silvia Pereira de Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2002 Português
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As demonstrações contábeis divulgadas pelas empresas têm sido objeto de diversos estudos. Tem-se tentado com as informações contábeis derivar modelos de orientação para investidores e credores, por meio da chamada análise de balanços. Muitos livros foram escritos sobre análise de balanços. O tema transformou-se em disciplinas em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação. E, para alguns, mais do que uma técnica, a análise de balanços, ou ainda, a análise de demonstrações contábeis, é uma arte. Construíram-se indicadores de previsão de insolvência, com base em instrumentos quantitativos sofisticados. ALTMAN (1968) foi precursor da aplicação de métodos quantitativos em informações contábeis com a finalidade de desenvolver modelos de previsão de falência. No Brasil, o estudo pioneiro é de Stephen Charles KANITZ (1974), que originou seu livro Como prever falências. Posteriormente, outros pesquisadores brasileiros desenvolveram modelos semelhantes, utilizando-se de técnicas estatísticas de regressões, análises fatoriais e discriminantes, redes neurais e outras (ELIZABETSKY, 1976; MATIAS, 1978; CORRAR, 1981; PEREIRA DA SILVA, 1982; ALMEIDA, 1993; MATIAS e SIQUEIRA, 1996). E esses mesmos balanços têm sido utilizados em estudos que buscam definir a excelência do desempenho das empresas. Foi também KANITZ que iniciou...

Operações off-balance sheet e instrumentos híbridos: utilização pelas empresas que compõe o IBrX-100 e sua relação com o rating e a internacionalização das empresas brasileiras

Santana, Bruno Rafael dos Santos
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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66.44%
Esta dissertação busca identificar a utilização de operações off-balance e instrumentos híbridos pelas empresas brasileiras. Seu objetivo é, além da utilização, verificar se o índice de transnacionalidade e o rating de crédito influenciam na decisão de utilizar ou não tais operações e instrumentos. Para isso, foram observadas as demonstrações financeiras e ratings das empresas participantes do índice IBrX-100 no período dos últimos três anos (2009, 2010 e 2011). Já para considerar o efeito da utilização das operações e instrumentos em razão do quão internacionalizadas são as empresas, este trabalho utiliza como critério a participação das empresas no ranking das transnacionais brasileiras no mesmo período acima citado. A análise revela que as empresas brasileiras mais internacionalizadas são mais sofisticadas que as menos internacionalizas e consequentemente se utilizam mais de instrumentos híbridos e operações off-balance. Ainda nesta linha, quando se divide as empresas por quartil, se chega ao resultado esperado que quanto mais internacionalizada a empresa, mais ela se utiliza destas operações e instrumentos. Além disso, também conclui que o rating influencia na utilização destes instrumentos e operações; quanto pior...

Balance sheet optimization tool : under the Basel III framework

Bento, João Freire Val
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 15/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
The most recent regulatory framework implemented by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) was introduced as an incentive to enhance market discipline and supervisory power of the regulatory authorities. However, these changes seem to challenge financial institutions in structural aspects that could negatively impact the profit efficiency. This paper tries to fill this risk management role need by presenting a customized tool that enables banks to effectively manage their balance sheet, while taking into account the constraints required by Basel III. Following that, this paper also investigates the impact of the Basel III requirements on several parameters and finishes with two types of impact studies. The first type addresses the banking regulatory requirements and the second performs stress tests. The study used real data of a Portuguese commercial bank named through the paper as ‘Bank I’. Our results suggest that the tool manages to significantly improve the profitability of ‘Bank I’ while making it compliant with the Basel III framework by finding its optimal balance sheet composition. It also shows that both capital and liquidity requirements have a negative impact on the retained profit. Concerning the results taken from the stress tests we conclude that higher restrictions influence negatively the retained profit and that under certain stress scenarios ‘Bank I’ would present worryingly high losses. The tool does not capture the cost of changing the composition of the balance sheet...

Subnational Credit Ratings : A Comparative Review

Liu, Lili; Tan, Kim Song
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.37%
This paper surveys methodological issues in subnational credit ratings and highlights key challenges for developing countries. Subnational borrowing from capital markets has been on the rise owing to fiscal decentralization and demand for infrastructure investments. A prerequisite for accessing capital markets, subnational credit ratings have also emerged as a part of broader reform for fiscal sustainability. They facilitate a more transparent budgetary and financial management system. The global financial crisis makes subnational credit ratings more relevant, as they contribute to fiscal risk evaluations and fiscal adjustment. In addition to subnationals own credit strength, the creditworthiness of the sovereign and the intergovernmental fiscal system are among the most critical rating criteria. Implicit and contingent liabilities are integral to the rating process. Indirect debt instruments including off-balance-sheet financing create fiscal risks. The ongoing financial crisis has reinforced the rating focus on the management of liquidity...

Regime-Switching in Exchange Rate Policy and Balance Sheet Effects

Fiess, Norbert; Shankar, Rashmi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
The authors apply regime-switching methods to a monetarist model of exchange rates and identify well-defined intervention policy cycles. The policy response indices include a standard exchange market pressure-based index and a model-based volatility ratio that is endogenized relative to Japan, assumed to be a "benchmark" floater. The authors find strong evidence that balance sheet effects, proxied by the stock ratio of external liabilities to assets, and economic performance, as measured by GDP and stock market indices, determine the cost of the regime shift. They use a panel of quarterly data from 1985 to 2004 for a sample of 15 countries, mostly in East Asia and Latin America.

Private Power Financing : From Project Finance to Corporate Finance

Jechoutek, Karl G.; Lamech, Ranjit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Project financing of independent power producers (IPPs) may seem the only solution to the intractable problem of getting private credit to the power sector. In the developing world, however, the public-private partnership in project-financed IPP ventures has been slow to produce results. To achieve substantive progress in IPP financing, limited recourse project financing will have to evolve toward structures with greater balance sheet support. First, balance sheet support by the main partners in an IPP financing offers greater security to lenders and provides easier access to long-term debt. Second, balance sheet support by IPP sponsors can open access to public equity markets, which are deeper and generally cheaper. Third, increased corporate balance sheet support is a corollary to the restructuring in the world s power sectors. Greater corporate finance support will make it possible to raise private capital for independent power financing from wider, deeper, and cheaper sources. This Note recommends the following strategies: 1) Encourage the formation of large...

Human Capital, Tangible Wealth, and the Intangible Capital Residual

Hamilton, Kirk; Liu, Gang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Since income is the return on wealth, the total wealth of any given country should be on the order of 20 times its gross domestic product. Instead the average observed ratio from the balance sheet accounts of the System of National Accounts is a factor of 2.6 to 6.6, depending on whether natural resource stocks are included in the balance sheet. The clear implication is that the System of National Accounts wealth accounts are incomplete, with the most obvious omission being human capital. Estimating the value of human capital using the lifetime income approach for a sample of 13 (mostly high-income) countries yields a mean share of human capital in total wealth of 62 percent -- four times the value of produced capital and 15 times the value of natural capital. But for selected high-income countries in the sample there is still an average of 25 percent of total wealth that is unaccounted -- it is neither produced, nor natural, nor human capital. This residual intangible wealth is arguably the "stock equivalent" of total factor productivity -- the value of assets such as institutional quality and social capital that augment the capacity of produced...

Trends in book-tax income and balance sheet differences

Mills, Lillian; Newberry, Kaye; Trautman, William B
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 91960 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
We use Compustat and tax return data to describe trends from 1991-1998 in differences between book and tax measures of income and balance sheet amounts. Our primary findings confirm that book-tax income differences are growing throughout the 1990s. Extending prior work, we partition the sample to describe the differences by industry, global character and profitability. Secondly, we compare Compustat financial statement assets and liabilities to the book balance sheet reported on the tax return and find that the tax return amounts exceed the financial statement amounts in the aggregate. We plan to investigate suggested explanations for this excess, including differences in book versus tax consolidation reporting and off-balance sheet activity.

Financial Crises and International Trade: The Long Way to Recovery

BERMAN, Nicolas
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Standard theoretical models would predict that a currency depreciation generates an increase in net exports. However, recent emerging market crises, accompanied by sharp exchange rate devaluations, have often been followed by a fall in or a stagnation of exports. This paper provides a simple theoretical framework which shows that a currency crisis affects trade through (i) a competitiveness effect, i.e. a variation in relative prices, that positively influences the intensive margin of trade (the amount of exports by firms); (ii) a balance-sheet effect, i.e. a modification of the fixed cost of exports, which negatively affects the extensive margin of trade (the number of exporters). We derive from our model a gravity-like equation of bilateral sectoral trade which we estimate using data on 27 industries and 32 countries over the period 1976-2002. First, we find that these events have a long-lasting negative impact on exports - which remain below their natural level for five years. We present evidence suggesting that this persistent effect is due to the combination of firms’ foreign currency borrowing and fixed costs of exports, which leads to important balance-sheet problems in the aftermath of the crisis. Second, the net effect of crises on exports largely depends on country specialization: the positive competitiveness effect is magnified by a specialization in high elasticity of substitution’s industries...

Financial Statement Math

Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Português
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46.46%
The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities,

Economía europea : ¿hacia el estancamiento secular?

Costas Comesaña, Antón; Arias Moreira, José Carlos
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Una versión previa y con algunas variantes de este trabajo fue presentada en las XII Jornadas Internacionales de Política Económica, Toledo, mayo, 2015; En este trabajo buscamos explicar el lento proceso de ajuste y recuperación de la economía europea tras el colapso provocado por el hundimiento de 2008 y la subsiguiente crisis de la deuda soberana. Para ello utilizamos tres conceptos relativamente novedosos y claves en el razonamiento macroeconómico más reciente: ciclo financiero, recesión de balance y estancamiento secular. El argumento central que aquí se defiende es que la recuperación de la economía europea no sólo es lenta y frágil, debido a los efectos inducidos por la presencia de un ciclo financiero y una recesión de balance, sino que apunta a una tendencia de estancamiento en el crecimiento económico, acompañada de fuertes tendencias deflacionistas. Se analiza la responsabilidad en todo ello de las políticas macroeconómicas, sobre todo las fiscales. Se concluye con algunas propuestas para la reorientación de las estrategias de intervención económica, para adaptarse de un modo positivo y equilibrado a ese contexto: el necesario empuje de los factores de demanda –en primer lugar, de la formación de capital- debe ser compatible con la reducción de los niveles de deuda...

Balance sheet versus earnings conservatism in Europe

García Lara, Juan Manuel; Mora, Araceli
Fonte: Taylor & Francis (Routledge) Publicador: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
In this study we extend prior research on the international analysis of accounting conservatism (Joos and Lang, 1994; Ball et al., 2000; Giner and Rees, 2001), by examining the level of accounting conservatism across eight European countries (United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and Belgium), and assessing the statistical significance of the differences among them. The definitions of conservatism that we use are, on the one hand, the Feltham and Ohlson (1995) definition, which implies a persistent understatement of book value of shareholders' equity (balance sheet conservatism). On the other hand, we use the one proposed by Basu (1997), that is, a timelier recognition of bad news in earnings relative to good news (earnings conservatism). We also address the possible scale problems of the models used to measure balance sheet conservatism. Finally, we check whether our comparative results could be influenced by a different sample composition in each country. Our results show that there are both balance sheet and earnings conservatism practices in all countries under study. In addition, while continental countries show larger balance sheet conservatism, differences in earnings conservative practices between countries are not that pronounced...

Financial Crises and International Trade: The Long Way to Recovery

BERMAN, Nicolas
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Standard theoretical models would predict that a currency depreciation generates an increase in net exports. However, recent emerging market crises, accompanied by sharp exchange rate devaluation, have often been followed by a fall in or a stagnation of exports. This paper provides a simple theoretical framework which shows that a currency crisis affects trade through (i) a competitiveness effect, i.e. a variation in relative prices, that positively influences the intensive margin of trade (the amount of exports by firms); (ii) a balance-sheet effect, i.e. a modification of the fixed cost of exports, which negatively affects the extensive margin of trade (the number of exporters). We derive from our model a gravity-like equation of bilateral sectoral trade which we estimate using data on 27 industries and 32 countries over the period 1976-2002. First, we find that these events have a long-lasting negative impact on exports - which remain below their natural level for five years. We present evidence suggesting that this persistent effect is due to the combination of firms' foreign currency borrowing and fixed costs of exports, which leads to important balance-sheet problems in the aftermath of the crisis. Second, the net effect of crises on exports largely depends on country specialization: the positive competitiveness effect is magnified by a specialization in high elasticity of substitution's industries...

The Heavenly Liquidity Twin : The Increasing Importance of Liquidity Risk

Montes-Negret, Fernando
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Liquidity and solvency have been called the "heavenly twins" of banking (Goodhart, Charles, 'Liquidity Risk Management', Financial Stability Review -- Special Issue on Liquidity, Banque de France, No. 11, February, 2008). Since these "twins" interact in complex ways, it is difficult -- particularly at times of crisis--to distinguish between them, especially in the presence of information asymmetries (Information asymmetry occurs when one party has more or better information than the other, creating an imbalance of power, giving rise to adverse selection and moral hazard ). An insolvent bank can be liquid or illiquid, and a solvent bank may be at times illiquid. In the latter case, insolvency is not far away, since banking is grounded in information and confidence, and it is confidence which in the end determines liquidity. In other words, liquidity is very much endogenous, determined by the general condition of a bank, as well as the perception of it by the public and market participants. Dealing with liquidity risk is more challenging than dealing with other risks...

Channels of Transmission of the 2007/09 Global Crisis to International Bank Lending in Developing Countries

Adams-Kane, Jonathon; Jia, Yueqing; Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
During a financial crisis, credit provision by international banks may be stymied by three distinct, but related, channels: changes in lending standards as a result of increased economic uncertainty, changes in funding availability from interbank liquidity markets, and changes in solvency due to effects on bank balance sheets. This paper illuminates the manner by which each of these channels independently operated to affect developed-country bank lending in developing countries during the global financial crisis of 2007/09. It quantifies how changes in banks' uncertainty about the value of their asset holdings, access to interbank liquidity, and internal balance sheet considerations altered their supply of credit in the run-up, during, and in the immediate aftermath of the financial crisis, both in terms of their relative magnitudes, as well as the sensitivity of these magnitudes to the crisis.

Insurance and Liquidity : Panel Evidence

Shankar, Rashmi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The author presents evidence that balance sheet effects are critical determinants of both the likelihood of a crisis and of income losses following a crisis. She tests the validity of "insurance" and "liquidity" models of currency crisis. Both models predict that the occurrence of a balance of payments crisis is conditional on the health of the nation's accounts in relation to the rest of the world. Problems in the balance sheet either cause a financial crisis that develops into a run on the central bank, or generate a run on the central bank once contingent liabilities exceed reserves and the yield differential moves against domestic assets. Estimations of crisis likelihoods based on several specifications of single and simultaneous equation probit models confirm that output losses following the crisis are persistent and conditional on the balance sheet indicator, that is, the ratio of the stock of gross external liabilities to assets. Measures of contingent liabilities, capital flight, and financial depth perform well as crisis predictors, and the marginal effects on the probability of a crisis are of the expected sign. The panel data set covers the time period 1973 through 2003 for 90 countries.

Pooling Water Projects to Move Beyond Project Finance

Haarmeyer, David; Mody, Ashoka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
To date most private sector water projects have been financed on a limited recourse basis, that is, with project cash flows and assets as the main security for lenders. The move from project to corporate (balance sheet) financing is occurring in stages. Financing project debt from the sponsor company's balance sheet exposes that company to significant risk and thus requires a strong and large balance sheet. Designed in part to shield a company's balance sheet, innovative financing structures and instruments are emerging. Ultimately, the goal is for water utilities to raise debt and equity from capital markets on the basis of their own balance sheets, strengthened by a diversified and stable rate-paying customer base. The authors review the new trends.

Central bank balance sheet concerns and credible optimal escape from the Liquidity trap

Mendes, Arthur Galego
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
I show that when a central bank is financially independent from the treasury and has balance sheet concerns, an increase in the size or a change in the composition of the central bank's balance sheet (quantitative easing) can serve as a commitment device in a liquidity trap scenario. In particular, when the short-term interest rate is up against the zero lower bound, an open market operation by the central bank that involves purchases of long-term bonds can help mitigate the deation and a large negative output gap under a discretionary equilibrium. This is because such an open market operation provides an incentive to the central bank to keep interest rates low in future in order to avoid losses in its balance sheet.

Estrutura patrimonial e padrão de rentabilidade dos bancos privados no Brsil (1979-2008) : teoria, evidencias e peculiaridades; Balance sheet structure and profitability pattern of private banks in Brazil (1970-2008) : theory, evidences and peculiarites

Giuliano Contento de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Esta tese discute a estrutura patrimonial e o padrão de rentabilidade dos bancos privados no Brasil no período 1970/2008, com ênfase no contexto de baixa inflação (1995-2008). Acreditava-se que estabilidade monetária mudaria substancialmente o padrão de atuação destas instituições, o qual passaria a ser pautado nas operações de crédito. Contudo, os indicadores de balanço de grandes bancos privados analisados neste trabalho revelam que isso não aconteceu. O comportamento dos bancos privados no Brasil em contexto de baixa inflação continuou sendo ditado pela opção por flexibilidade. Estas instituições continuaram sendo capazes de se adaptarem a diferentes conjunturas, mantendo seus elevados níveis de rentabilidade. Sustenta-se, pois, que esse padrão de atuação decorre fundamentalmente da combinação de dois fatores: 1) instabilidade macroeconômica e a consequente prática de juros básicos reais elevados; e 2) indexação dos títulos públicos à taxa de juros de curto prazo (Selic). Ou seja, de um lado a estabilidade monetária no Brasil não significou estabilidade macroeconômica; de outro, a lógica do plano de estabilização impediu a supressão do arcabouço institucional do regime de alta inflação...

A forma como o balanço patrimonial é apresentado altera a percepção do usuário externo quanto à interpretação do conteúdo informacional? Uma investigação no contexto brasileiro e cabo-verdiano; Does the way that the balance sheet is presented alter the perception of the external user in regard to understanding of informational content? An investigation in the Brazilian and Cape-Verdean contexts; ¿La forma en que se presenta el balance de situación altera la percepción del usuario externo en relación a la interpretación del contenido informacional? Una investigación realizada en Brasil y en Cabo Verde

Carvalho, Valdemir Galvão de; da Silva, José Jailson; Mendes, Carlos Jorge Fontainhas; Gomes da Silva, José Dionísio
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2013v10n21p71Esta pesquisa analisa se a forma como o Balanço Patrimonial apresentado altera a percepção dos acadêmicos brasileiros e cabo-verdianos quanto à interpretação do conteúdo informacional para tomada da decisão. Foi realizado um experimento com modelos distintos de balanço patrimonial, um adotado no padrão brasileiro e outro europeu. Foram aplicados 152 questionários em acadêmicos da UFRN e 64 da UNICV. Os resultados da estatística descritiva e análise da variância sugerem presença do efeito propriedade e que a subordinação à forma pode influenciar na compreensão do conteúdo informacional, e a forma de apresentação das demonstrações pode afetar a interpretação do usuário.; This study seeks to investigate whether the way the balance sheet is presented alters the perception of Brazilian and Cape-Verdean academicians when it comes to the understanding of informational content for decision making. An experiment was carried out with different balance sheet formats: one which was adapted according to the Brazilian format, and the other was European. 152 questionnaires were administered to academicians from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte and other 64 were administered to academicians from Universidade do Cabo Verde. Descriptives and analysis of variance suggest the occurrence of framing effect. In addition...