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Turmoil at Twenty : Recession, Recovery, and Reform in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Mitra, Pradeep; Selowsky, Marcelo; Zalduendo, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
This book, written on the eve of the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, addresses three questions that relate to recession, recovery, and reform, respectively, in Europe and Central Asia (ECA) transition countries. Did the transition from a command to a market economy and the period when it took place, plant the seeds of vulnerability that made transition countries (the region excluding Turkey) more prone to crisis than developing countries generally? Did choices made on the road from plan to market shape the ability of affected countries to recover from the crisis? What structural reforms do transition countries need to undertake to address the most binding constraints to growth in a world where financial markets have become more discriminating and where capital flows to transition and developing countries are likely to be considerably lower than before the crisis? This report is structured as follows: chapter one of the book analyses how countries fell into recession and crisis...

Systemic Oversight Frameworks in LAC : Current Practices and Reform Agenda

Gutierrez, Eva; Caraballo, Patricia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
The world financial crisis that started in the US housing market in 2008 brought into evidence deep failures of prudential oversight, linked for the most part to a failure to comprehend and handle systemic risk in a way that could prevent systemic crises. This paper summarizes the responses to the joint World Bank -ASBA survey o the state of systemic oversight in the Latin American and Caribbean financial sectors and reflects on some of the challenges identified by respondents. We found that there is broad consensus among regional financial authorities on the need to enhance the current systemic oversight framework. Improving consolidated supervision to mitigate risk-shifting in conglomerates, adjusting prudential regulations to account for the accumulation of systemic risks, redefining the role of the supervisor to make it more proactive, and improving coordination among local supervisors as well as with foreign supervisors figure preeminently in the regional reform agenda.

Payment Systems, Inside Money and Financial Intermediation

Merrouche, Ouarda; Nier, Erlend
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This paper assesses the impact of introducing an efficient payment system on the amount of credit provided by the banking system. Two channels are investigated. First, innovations in wholesale payments technology enhance the security and speed of deposits as a payment medium for customers and therefore affect the split between holdings of cash and the holdings of deposits that can be intermediated by the banking system. Second, innovations in wholesale payments technology help establish well-functioning interbank markets for end-of-day funds, which reduces the need for banks to hold excess reserves. The authors examine these links empirically using payment system reforms in Eastern European countries as a laboratory. The analysis finds evidence that reforms led to a shift away from cash in favor of demand deposits and that this in turn enabled a prolonged credit expansion in the sample countries. By contrast, while payment system innovations also led to a reduction in excess reserves in some countries...

Services Policy Reform and Economic Growth in Transition Economies, 1990-2004

Eschenbach, Felix; Hoekman, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Major changes have occurred in the structure of former centrally planned economies, including a sharp rise in the share of services in GDP, employment, and international transactions. However, large differences exist across transition economies with respect to services intensity and services policy reforms. The authors find that reforms in policies toward financial and infrastructure services, including telecommunications, power, and transport, are highly correlated with inward foreign direct investment. Controlling for regressors commonly used in the growth literature, they find that measures of services policy reform are statistically significant explanatory variables for the post-1990 economic performance of transition economies. These findings suggest services policies should be considered more generally in empirical analyses of economic growth

The Reform Agenda

Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The financial crisis has prompted a shift toward a tighter and more macro-prudential approach to financial regulation. But the reform agenda still needs to address the role of supervisory (rather than regulatory) failures, while the institutional arrangements needed to implement the new framework remain to be worked out. For most emerging economies, the existing reform agenda, developing institutional and legal underpinnings for the financial system and promoting financial access, remains valid. But for those characterized by weak financial oversight structures and more volatile economic cycles, adopting capital buffers as part of a macro-prudential regime may be a useful complement.

Expanding the Outreach of Financial Services : The Experience of Financial Institutions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
In 2007-08 Da Afghanistan Bank (DAB), the central bank of Afghanistan, was in the process of reforming the financial sector. While some considerable advances have been made with respect to basic legislation, some central banking reform, the introduction of new currency, and the beginnings of a microfinance sector, much work still remains to be done. These case studies examine the experience of the following five different groups of financial market participants operating in Afghanistan: reputable private investors; small and medium entrepreneurs; BRAC, a microfinance institution; Kabul Bank, a fast growing commercial bank; and Bank Millie, a state-owned bank. The examination of each institution will address the factors that have facilitated expansion and the constraints it has faced in further expanding financial services. This report also analyses the constraints and opportunities that are common to one, several or all of these financial market participants, and concludes with recommendations from the perspectives of these institutions.

Mongolia - Government Financial Sector Reform Program (2000-2010) : Mid-term Review Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
In spring 2000 the Government of Mongolia adopted a Long-Term Vision and Medium Term Strategy for Financial Sector Reform and Development in 2000-2010, and implemented the Medium Term Strategy in 2001-2004 under the framework of the Bank s FSAC and ADB s FSPL II. In 2004-2005, a Bank team carried out a series of reviews to take stock of the progress made, and identify the remaining as well as emerging challenges. The reviews enjoyed support and coordination from the Ministry of Finance, the Bank of Mongolia and various financial institutions in Mongolia. The data used for the reviews were mainly those at the end of 2004, some were as recent as June 2005 and beyond. The main findings and recommendations of the reviews are summarized in this report, which serves as an Issues Paper for Bank management and staff working on or interested in Mongolia.

Paraguay : Financial Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
The report examines the highly vulnerable situation of the financial system in Paraguay, which suffered from a banking crisis in 1995-98, in addition to recent competitive devaluations of the Brazilian currency, the fall in cotton prices, as well as the regional economic slowdown. A major factor obscuring the reality of banking system solvency, is the practice of substituting needed loan provisions, with collaterals which underlie the loans. The main issue here is the relative liquidity absence, and delays inherent in unwinding such collateral, as well as its potential over-valuation, making it an ineffective substitute for cash provisions. The report further examines banking reforms, and restructuring of the state-owned banks, institutional and regulatory framework, and the safety net mechanisms and deposit insurance governing the system. It is suggested the reform of the pension system is crucial at this juncture, given that the current pay-as-you-go social security public pension system, is not fiscally sustainable from an actuarial...

The Banking and Financial Sector of Lao PDR : Financial Sector Note

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
During the second half of the 1980s, Lao PDR embarked on an ambitious program of economic reforms, called the New Economic Mechanism, whose main purpose was to gradually transform its centrally-planned economy into a market-oriented economy. The initial reform momentum lasted about one decade. The far-reaching reform program encompassed many critical components including: (a) promotion of private production through improved incentives; (b) institutional infrastructure to improve market economy operations; (c) the strengthening of Lao comparative advantages through trade liberalization and further specialization; and (d) the establishment of price stability through macroeconomic policy measures. The systemic changes introduced in Lao PDR have contributed to a significant transformation of the country s economic system, away from a rigorously centrally-planned economy and towards a form of market economy based on private ownership. The percentage of poor declined based on the national poverty line from 45 to 39 percent between 1992-93 and 1997-982. But the percentage of very poor did not decline and remained at slightly above 30 percent evidencing the need for even broader and faster growth. Moreover...

Chinese banking reform strategies and its effects on the modernization efforts of the People's Liberation Army

Yu, Young-Kun S.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 89 p. : ill. ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
The purpose of this thesis is to explore the People's Liberation Army's (PLA) modernization efforts and how banking reforms are instrumental to that effort. China must modernize its weaponry in order for the PLA to be a credible military force and enable China to continue its rise as a regional and global power. Bank reforms are one methodology for continued PLA modernization because the PLA desperately needs significant and sustained defense budget expenditures in order to bring the PLA into the 21st century. PLA modernization expenditures will have to compete with other societal reform programs for the windfall from an expanding economy. As China becomes older, wealthier, and more urbanized, Chinese Communist Party leaders will come under increasing pressure to provide more social services to its citizens. Defense expenditures and PLA modernization efforts will have to compete with additional government spending on pensions, health care, public infrastructure and the environment. Continued banking reform is an essential component to grow the Chinese economy and secure the significant and sustained defense spending that is critical to the PLA modernization effort.; US Air Force (USAF) author.

Thailand - Social and Structural Review : Beyond the Crisis - Structural Reform for Stable Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Following the East Asian financial crisis, the Bank's involvement in Thailand intensified, enabling a multifaceted stabilization, and structural reform dialogue, which deepened the economic, financial, and sector knowledge of the country. The study benefits from this analytical work, and provides an overview on the ongoing policy dialogue, regarding short- and medium-term reform, through a number of instruments. To promote longer-term growth, the country embarked on a twin strategy of macroeconomic stabilization, and structural reform. Although its flexible labor market, and support mechanisms diminished the crisis' impact on unemployment, and poverty, compared to other countries in the region, this ability to moderate the impact of the economic crisis, could adversely impact a prolonged crisis. The study examines steps to strengthen public sector social programs, and institutional capacity, envisaging coherent poverty support programs in a timely manner, while speeding fiscal stimulus effects, and, monitoring poverty through reliable information...

Mexico - Country Economic Memorandum : Challenges and Prospects for Tax Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Over the last ten years, the need for sustainable tax revenues has become clear, in order to provide more public expenditures in areas such as, poverty alleviation, health, education, and infrastructure, as well as for payment of the recent social security reform, and banking sector support. The report examines the key problems in Mexico's tax, and revenue system, identifying administration as the weakest factor in its tax system, where such weakness has contributed to political resistance in broadening the tax base. In addition, the system relies heavily on oil revenues, only about thirty percent of the total, and dependent on world prices, thus, the rest of the economy will have to bear a larger tax burden as a share of GDP. Meanwhile, various exemptions, and special regimes erode the base of the most important taxes - Value Added Tax (VAT), corporate, and personal income taxes, and, most tax decisions, and the derived political consequences, continue at the national level, while the delivery of services is increasingly devolved to sub-national levels. Within the reform options...

Banking Sector Stability, Efficiency, and Outreach in Kenya

Beck, Thorsten; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael; Getenga, Jared; Gatere, Peter; Randa, John; Trandafir, Mircea
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Although Kenya's financial system is by far the largest and most developed in East Africa and its stability has improved significantly over the past years, many challenges remain. This paper assesses the stability, efficiency, and outreach of Kenya's banking system, using aggregate, bank-level, and survey data. Banks' asset quality and liquidity positions have improved, making the system more resistant to shocks, and interest rate spreads have declined, in part due to reduction in the overhead costs of foreign banks. Outreach remains limited, but has improved in recent years, driven by mobile payments services in the domestic remittance market. Fostering a level regulatory playing field for all deposit-taking institutions is a key remaining challenge. Specifically, an effective but not overly burdensome framework for regulation and supervision of microfinance institutions and cooperatives is a priority. Maintaining an openness to new, and non-bank, providers of financial services, which has enabled the success of mobile payments...

Building Trust : Developing the Russian Financial Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
This book examines progress within Russia's financial sector and provides a road map for promoting dialogue on and implementing improvements. The book is intended to complement and support the joint strategic plan of Russia's government and Central Bank for banking reform, a plan that includes many already-implemented legislative and regulatory efforts aimed at strengthening the Russian financial sector as a whole. The authors contend that any comprehensive strategy designed to enhance trust in Russian banking will need to focus on four major themes: 1) encouraging financial intermediation by improving the legal and accounting infrastructure for financial sector development; 2) improving the current structure and performance of the banking system; 3) improving the effectiveness of bank regulation, bank restructuring, and liquidation; and 4) enhancing enterprise access to finance.

Republic of Uzbekistan : Country Economic Memorandum

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Uzbekistan adopted upon independence in 1991, an import substitution development strategy, intended to transform the economy from heavy dependence on agriculture and natural resources, to a modern industrial economy, helping achieve some objectives, notably energy and food self-sufficiency, having sustained growth for the past six years. However, this report argues that important goals have not been met, and there are still significant opportunity costs, and risks to the development strategy. Priority reforms should be a decisive move to liberalize prices, production, marketing and distribution, coupled with the imposition of hard budget constraints. Given the need for a robust supply response, reforms need to be sufficiently comprehensive, and deep to allow for rapid re-alignment of productive factors. The initial liberalization would be followed by further institutional reforms, and restructuring in enterprise, banking, and energy sectors. Recommendations suggest the liberalization of the foreign exchange regime in conjunction with tight fiscal...

Deposit Insurance and Banking Reform in Russia

Camara, Modibo K.; Montes-Negret, Fernando
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
The objective of this paper is not to review the pros and cons of deposit insurance systems, but to focus, rather narrowly, on the recent adoption of a deposit insurance system (DIS) in Russia, the rationale offered, and the potential impact it might have on the stability and development of the Russian banking system. An attempt is made to draw some lessons from the implementation experience in Russia. The paper starts with a brief description of the Russian DIS, followed by an overview of the banking system's structure and some observations on the sequencing followed for adopting the DIS and the political economy of its adoption. It concludes with a discussion of areas requiring attention.

Serbia : Financial Sector Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
The purpose of this Financial Sector Note (FSN) is to review recent developments in Serbia's financial system, and to provide policy recommendations for its future development. The FSN builds upon, complements, and seeks to expand, the broad financial sector reform agenda pursued under the ongoing Bank program, which is anchored on two adjustment operations - First and Second Public Financial Sector Adjustment Credits (PFSAC I and II), and parallel technical assistance efforts. The main objectives of this FSN are: 1) to provide an up-to-date snapshot of the Serbian financial sector (banks as well as non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs)), including an in-depth assessment of the performance of the banking sector, analyzing both the efficiency and stability characteristics of individual Serbian banks; 2) to identify existing constraints to financial intermediation, as well as potential systemic risks; and, 3) to reinforce previous messages to the Serbian authorities and the Bank's internal audience about the urgent necessity of implementing the next stages in financial sector reform. This report should be viewed as part of the broader ongoing assessment of how to deepen the reform process...

Banking Systems Around the Globe : Do Regulation and Ownership Affect the Performance and Stability?

Barth, James R.; Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
The authors report cross-country data on commercial bank regulation and ownership in more than 60 countries. They evaluate the links between different regulatory/ownership practices in those countries and both financial sector performance and banking system stability. They document substantial variation in response to these questions: Should it be public policy to limit the powers of commercial banks to engage in securities, insurance, and real estate activities? Should the mixing of banking and commerce be restricted by regulating commercial bank's ownership of non-financial firms and non-financial firms' ownership of commercial banks? Should states own commercial banks, or should those banks be privatized? They find: 1) There is no reliable statistical relationship between restrictions on commercial banks' ability to engage in securities, insurance, and real estate transactions and how well-developed the banking sector, how well-developed securities markets and non-bank financial intermediaries are, or the degree of industrial competition. Based on the evidence...

Lao PDR Economic Monitor, April 2008

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Vientiane Publicador: World Bank, Vientiane
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
Lao PDR's economic outlook remains favorable, with continued strong growth. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth remained at above 7 percent in 2007. Output expanded in mining, newly emerging processing industries, agriculture, and new construction of hydropower projects, tourism and other services. Non-resource sectors contributed over 5 percent to this growth, and the resource sector around 2.5 percent. As Lao PDR is surrounded by some of the fastest growing economies in the world, it has benefited from increased demands for its products and large FDI inflows from neighboring countries, such as China, Vietnam and Thailand. The macroeconomic situation remained fairly stable, but is at risk of rising inflation. After falling to a record low level of 4.5 percent in 2007, overall inflation climbed to 6.4 percent in February 2008. High fuel prices pushed up the costs of transportation for individuals and households, construction (including imported raw materials and other chemical related products), land clearing and agricultural farming (including processing materials). The kip nominal exchange rates appreciated almost by 9 percent against US$ and was steady against the Thai baht during the last six to months from Oct 2007 to Mar 2008. It reports on recent economic performance (Part I)...

Visible Success and Invisible Failure in Post-Crisis Reform in the Republic of Korea : Interplay of the Global Standards, Agents, and Local Specificity

Lee, Keun; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Chung H.; Yee, Jaeyeol
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
The reform package in post-crisis Korea was one of the most comprehensively designed and decisively implemented. Though impressed by the quick recovery, many are now raising doubts about real changes in the economy, as the result of a cost-benefits analysis: While the business climate is more stable and supportive, the economy is suffering from weak investment and rising unemployment. This study views the Korean story as one of "visible success and invisible failure," based on the following findings: First, while some new laws were enacted and several quantifiable targets met, little real progress was made in changing institutional conventions, habits, and beliefs, such as enhancing transparency in management or trust in labor relations. Second, the reform process involved tension between global standards and local specificity, which accounts for the mixed results. Third, special interest politics at the implementation stage, plus the complexities caused by increasing democratization and globalization, have undermined the authorities' implementation capacity, which accounts for uneven outcomes of the reform. While globalization necessitates increasing flexibility, Korean managers are now facing much stronger labor unions. The outcome is not a fully flexible but segmented labor market...