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Critérios de avaliação da qualidade da informação em sistemas de internet banking; Factors for information quality evaluation in internet banking systems

Mattar, Alexandre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2007 Português
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Diariamente surgem novas aplicações de sistemas baseados na internet, influenciando a forma como vivemos, trabalhamos e interagimos na sociedade. No entanto, a maioria dos sistemas é elaborada com base no senso comum e intuição, raramente utilizando conceitos de avaliação da qualidade da informação provida pelos websites. Numa tentativa de aprofundar mais este tipo de metodologia, este estudo faz uma adaptação ao modelo de avaliação de qualidade da informação de websites, proposto por Kim, Kishore e Sanders (2005), para avaliar de sistemas de internet banking. Foi realizado um levantamento entre alunos de graduação, com o objetivo de se verificar a aderência do modelo à sistemas de internet banking, bem como critérios factíveis de comparações entre instituições financeiras, a respeito de sistemas de internet banking. Como forma de atingir esses objetivos, foi feito uso de métodos estatísticos, com a utilização de análise fatorial, coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, método de escalas somadas e testes de médias, por meio de ANOVAS.; On a daily basis new internet based systems are born, changing the way we live, work and interact with the society. In spite of that, most of these systems are developed based on common sense and intuition...

Related Lending and Banking Development

Cull, Robert; Haber, Stephen; Imai, Masami
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Does related lending have positive or negative effects on the development of banking systems? This paper analyzes a unique cross-country data set covering 74 countries from 1990 to 2007, and finds that related lending, on average, does not have any effect on the growth of credit. The authors do find, however, that there are conditional relationships: related lending tends to retard the growth of banking systems when rule of law is weak, while it tends to promote the growth of banking systems when rule of law is strong. They also find that related lending appears to be associated with looting when banks are owned by non-financial firms, but that it does not when non-financial firms are owned by banks. The results indicate that whether related lending is positive or pernicious depends critically on the institutional context in which it takes place; there is no single "best policy" regarding related lending. These findings are robust to alternative specifications, including instrumental variable regressions.

Payment Systems, Inside Money and Financial Intermediation

Merrouche, Ouarda; Nier, Erlend
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper assesses the impact of introducing an efficient payment system on the amount of credit provided by the banking system. Two channels are investigated. First, innovations in wholesale payments technology enhance the security and speed of deposits as a payment medium for customers and therefore affect the split between holdings of cash and the holdings of deposits that can be intermediated by the banking system. Second, innovations in wholesale payments technology help establish well-functioning interbank markets for end-of-day funds, which reduces the need for banks to hold excess reserves. The authors examine these links empirically using payment system reforms in Eastern European countries as a laboratory. The analysis finds evidence that reforms led to a shift away from cash in favor of demand deposits and that this in turn enabled a prolonged credit expansion in the sample countries. By contrast, while payment system innovations also led to a reduction in excess reserves in some countries...

Competitive Implications of Cross-Border Banking

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper reviews the recent literature on cross-border banking, with a focus on policy implications. Cross-border banking has increased sharply in recent decades, particularly in the form of entry, and has affected the development of financial systems, access to financial services, and stability. Reviewing the empirical literature, the author finds much, although not uniform, evidence that cross-border banking supports the development of an efficient and stable financial system that offers a wide access to quality financial services at low cost. But as better financial systems have more cross-border banking, the relationship between cross-border banking and competitiveness has to be carefully judged. While developing countries have some special conditions, provided a minimum degree of oversight is in place, they experience effects similar to industrial countries. There are some questions, though, on the effects of cross-border banking on lending based on softer information and on stability. Relevant experiences from capital markets show that the degree of cross-border financial activities can affect local market sustainability and there can be path dependency when opening up to cross-border competition. Reviewing the fast changing landscape of financial services provision...

Banking Services for Everyone? Barriers to Bank Access and Use around the World

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Using information from 193 banks in 58 countries, the authors develop and analyze indicators of physical access, affordability, and eligibility barriers to deposit, loan, and payment services. They find substantial cross-country variation in barriers to banking and show that in many countries these barriers can potentially exclude a significant share of the population from using banking services. Correlations with bank- and country-level variables show that bank size and the availability of physical infrastructure are the most robust predictors of barriers. Further, the authors find evidence that in more competitive, open, and transparent economies, and in countries with better contractual and informational frameworks, banks impose lower barriers. Finally, though foreign banks seem to charge higher fees than other banks, in foreign dominated banking systems fees are lower and it is easier to open bank accounts and to apply for loans. On the other hand, in systems that are predominantly government-owned, customers pay lower fees but also face greater restrictions in terms of where to apply for loans and how long it takes to have applications processed. These findings have important implications for policy reforms to broaden access.

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Nigeria, against the BCP methodology issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in October 2006, was completed between August 27 and September 19, 2012, as part of a Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update, undertaken jointly by the Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, and reflects the regulatory and supervisory framework in place as of the date of the completion of the assessment. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, both generally and as specifically related to the financial sector, and a detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institutions responsible for banking supervision. Banking systems differ from one country to another, as do their domestic circumstances. The BCPs are capable of application to a wide range of jurisdictions whose banking sectors will inevitably include a broad spectrum of banks. The co-ordination of the activities of the Nigerian banking sector supervisory authorities is conducted under the aegis of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)/Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) executive committee on supervision which should ensure that operations of the two supervisory authorities are coordinated to remove overlaps...

Banking in Africa

Beck, Thorsten; Cull, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are shallow but stable. African banks are well capitalized and over-liquid, but lend less to the private sector than banks in non-African developing countries. African enterprises and households are less likely to use financial services than their peers in other developing countries. The paper also describes a number of financial innovations across the continent that can help overcome different barriers to financial inclusion and have helped to expand the bankable and the banked population.

Inside the Crisis : An Empirical Analysis of Banking Systems in Distress

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Detragiache, Enrica; Gupta, Poonam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Much of the substantial literature on banking crises, focuses on early warning indicators. The authors look at what happens to the economy, and the banking sector after a banking crisis breaks out. Much of the theory of banking crises assigns a central role to depositor runs, with vulnerability to runs viewed as a basic characteristic of banks as financial intermediaries. But banking systems can be financially distressed, even when depositors do not withdraw their deposits, if other bank creditors rush for the exit, or if banks become insolvent. Are contemporary banking crises characterized by large declines in deposits? The authors find that contemporary banking crises are not accompanied by declines in aggregate bank deposits, and credit does not fall relative to output, but the growth of both deposits, and credit does slow down substantially. Output recovery begins the second year after the crisis, and is not led by a resumption of credit growth. Instead, banks (including the stronger banks) reallocate their asset portfolio away from loans. This suggests that protecting deposits during a banking crisis...

The Use of Asset Management Companies in the Resolution of Banking Crises

Klingebiel, Daniela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Asset management companies have been used to address the overhang of bad debt in the financial system. There are two main types of asset management company: those set up to expedite corporate restructuring and those established for rapid disposal of assets. A review of seven asset management companies reveals a mixed record. In two of three cases, asset management companies for corporate restructuring did not achieve their narrow goal of expediting bank or corporate restructuring, suggesting that they are not good vehicles for expediting corporate restructuring. Only a Swedish asset management company successfully managed its portfolio, acting sometimes as lead agent in restructuring - and helped by the fact that the assets acquired had mostly to do with real estate, not manufacturing, which is harder to restructure, and represented a small fraction of the banking systems assets, which made it easier for the company to remain independent of political pressures and to sell assets back to the private sector. Asset management companies used to dispose of assets rapidly fared somewhat better. Two of four agencies (in Spain and the United States) achieved their objectives...

Bulgaria Financial Sector Assessment Program; Detailed Assessment of Observance--Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel core principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Bulgaria has been completed as a stand-alone report on the observance of standards and codes undertaken by the international monetary fund (IMF) and the World Bank during March of 2015 at the request of the Bulgarian authorities. It reflects the regulatory and supervisory framework in place as of the date of the completion of the assessment. The Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has an internal governance structure which, by vesting the majority of the powers of supervision in the Deputy Governor for banking supervision, exposes the supervisory function to risks. Under the BNB’s legal structure, supervision and enforcement is dissociated from the Governing Council, and the Governing Council has no right to compel transparency of decision making or to impose a framework to ensure consistency in the use of the enforcement regime. There are material concerns that the BNB is too resource constrained to deliver effective minimum levels of supervision. Despite a broad range of supervisory powers...

Reaching Out : Access to and Use of Banking Services across Countries

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The authors (1) present new indicators of banking sector penetration across 99 countries based on a survey of bank regulatory authorities, (2) show that these indicators predict household and firm use of banking services, (3) explore the association between the outreach indicators and measures of financial, institutional, and infrastructure development across countries, and (4) relate these banking outreach indicators to measures of firms' financing constraints. In particular, they find that greater outreach is correlated with standard measures of financial development, as well as with economic activity. Controlling for these factors, the authors find that better communication and transport infrastructure and better governance are also associated with greater outreach. Government ownership of financial institutions translates into lower access, while more concentrated banking systems are associated with greater outreach. Finally, firms in countries with higher branch and ATM penetration and higher use of loan services report lower financing obstacles, thus linking banking sector outreach to the alleviation of firms' financing constraints.

Banking Policy and Macroeconomic Stability: An Exploration

Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Honohan, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Whether and when does banking serve to stabilize the economy? The authors view the banking system as a filter through which foreign and domestic shocks feed through to the domestic economy. The filter can dampen or amplify the shocks through various credit market channels, including credit growth, import of foreign capital, and possibly interest rates. The question is whether the prudential quality of banking, as proxied by measures of regulatory quality and openness to foreign banking, amplify or dampen these shocks. The authors find that many of the regulatory characteristics that have been found to deepen a financial system and make it more robust to crises-notably those which empower the private sector-also appear to reduce the sector's ability to provide short-term insulation to the macro-economy. It is as if prudent bankers are reluctant to absorb short-term risks that, if neglected, might cause solvency and growth problems in the longer run. Forbearance might dampen short-term volatility, but at the expense of the longer run health of the banking sector and the economy. One way to avoid this apparent tradeoff is evident: banking systems which have a higher share of foreign-owned banks...

Banking Crises in Transition Economies : Fiscal Costs and Related Issues

Tang, Helena; Zoli, Edda; Klytchnikova, Irina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The authors look at strategies for dealing with banking crises in 12 transition economies -- five from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, and Poland; the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; and four countries from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Ukraine. Three types of strategies were used to deal with the crises. The CEE countries generally pursued extensive restructuring and recapitalizing of banks; most CIS countries pursued large-scale liquidation; and the Baltic states generally pursued a combination of liquidation and restructuring. The strategy pursued reflected macroeconomic conditions and the level of development in a country's banking sector. There were more new banks in the former Soviet Union (FSU-the CIS and Baltic states), but they tended to be small, undercapitalized, and not deeply engaged in financial intermediation. The CEE countries generally incurred higher fiscal costs than the FSU countries but ended up with sounder...

Using Development-Oriented Equity Investment as a Tool for Restructuring Transition Banking Sectors

Meigas, Helo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Over the past 10 years the three Baltic republics have undertaken significant restructuring of their banking sectors, supported by the World Bank through three projects: the Financial Institutions Development Project in Estonia, the Enterprise and Financial Sector Restructuring Project in Latvia, and the Enterprise and Financial Sector Project in Lithuania. These projects included a credit line, channeled through local commercial banks, to provide long-term funding and complementary technical assistance to private enterprises. In parallel, the government of Sweden injected equity into the commercial banks from Swedfund Financial Markets (SFM). The projects and the accompanying Swedfund equity were aimed at promoting sound banking systems in the three Baltic countries-by strengthening the equity in the banks and thereby expanding medium- and long-term financing. Meigas examines the role of SFM-which provides development-oriented equity investment (DEI) to Baltic banks-in the context of the World Bank programs. She examines the arguments for deploying DEI as a development vehicle by gauging its impact in the three Baltic countries on banking skills and services...

Making Cross-Border Banking Work for Africa

Beck, Thorsten; Fuchs, Michael; Singer, Dorothe; Witte, Makaio
Fonte: Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Publicador: Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Cross-border banking has been a critical part of Africa's financial history since colonial times. While the period after independence saw a wave of nationalization across the continent, with many of the colonial banks exiting, this trend was reversed in the 1980s with the arrival of financial liberalization. Failing state-owned and private banks were sold mostly to global investors or multinational banks. Increasing international and regional economic integration, including of financial services, and deregulation further increased the number of foreign banks and by the mid-2000s many African banking systems were yet again dominated by foreign banks. This introductory chapter documents trends in cross-border banking in Africa and the increasing shift in the composition of foreign banks in Africa. The next section provides a short overview of financial systems in Africa to set the stage. Section two characterizes the population of cross-border banks operating in Africa today, their expansion across the continent...

Financial Dependence, Banking Sector Competition, and Economic Growth

Claessens, Stijn; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The relationships among competition in the financial sector, access of firms to external financing, and associated economic growth are ambiguous in theory. Moreover, measuring competition in the financial sector can be complex. In this paper the authors first estimate for 16 countries a measure of banking system competition based on industrial organization theory. They then relate this competition measure to growth of industries and find that greater competition in countries' banking systems allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These results are robust under a variety of tests. Their results suggest that the degree of competition is an important aspect of financial sector functioning.

Bank Bailouts, Competition, and the Disparate Effects for Borrower and Depositor Welfare

Calderon, Cesar; Schaeck, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper investigates how government interventions into banking systems such as blanket guarantees, liquidity support, recapitalizations, and nationalizations affect banking competition. This debate is important because the pricing of banking products has implications for borrower and depositor welfare. Exploiting data for 124 countries that witnessed different policy responses to 41 banking crises, and using difference-in-difference estimations, the paper presents the following key results: (i) Government interventions reduce Lerner indices and net interest margins. This effect is robust to a battery of falsification and placebo tests, and the competitive response also cannot be explained by alternative forces. The competition-increasing effect on Lerner indices and net interest margins is also confirmed once the non-random assignment of interventions is accounted for using instrumental variable techniques that exploit exogenous variation in the electoral cycle and in the design of the regulatory architecture across countries. (ii) Consistent with theoretical predictions...

Banking Systems Around the Globe : Do Regulation and Ownership Affect the Performance and Stability?

Barth, James R.; Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The authors report cross-country data on commercial bank regulation and ownership in more than 60 countries. They evaluate the links between different regulatory/ownership practices in those countries and both financial sector performance and banking system stability. They document substantial variation in response to these questions: Should it be public policy to limit the powers of commercial banks to engage in securities, insurance, and real estate activities? Should the mixing of banking and commerce be restricted by regulating commercial bank's ownership of non-financial firms and non-financial firms' ownership of commercial banks? Should states own commercial banks, or should those banks be privatized? They find: 1) There is no reliable statistical relationship between restrictions on commercial banks' ability to engage in securities, insurance, and real estate transactions and how well-developed the banking sector, how well-developed securities markets and non-bank financial intermediaries are, or the degree of industrial competition. Based on the evidence...

Reforming State-Dominated Banking Systems in Africa : Financial Adjustment and Technical Assistance Programs; La reforme des systèmes bancaires controles par l'Etat en Afrique : les programmes d'ajustement financier et d'assistance technique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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The objective of the reforms is to improve the capacity of financial institutions to serve the needs of economic agents and the population at large. In Cote d'Ivoire, downsizing, reorganization and (as required) privatization and liquidation of key banks and insurance companies, in the early 1990s led to the establishment of a more efficient and competitive banking system. In Benin, all state-owned commercial banks were liquidated in the late 1980s, leading the way to the emergence of a strong network of private banks serving urban areas, and of grass root-based institutions serving people in rural areas. On the other hand, efforts undertaken in Tanzania in the late 1980s and early 1990s to restructure the banking system met with failure. Continued fiscal disequilibria, lack of political commitment behind the privatization of the state-owned National Bank of Commerce (NBC), and lack of clarity on the appropriate strategy to carry out such privatization have left Tanzania with well over 80 percent of banking assets held by NBC and with well over half of the loan portfolios of NBC and other state-owned banks non-performing.

Recapitalizing Banking Systems : Implications for Incentives and Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Honohan, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In the aftermath of a banking crisis, most attention is rightly focused on allocating losses, rebuilding properly managed institutions, and achieving debt recovery. But the authorities' decision to use budgetary funds to help restructure a large failed bank or banking system also has consequences for the incentive structure for the new bank management, for the government's budget, and for monetary stability. These issues tend to be lumped together, but each should be dealt with in a distinctive manner. The author points out, among other things, how apparent conflicts between the goals in each of these areas can be resolved by suitably designing financial instruments and appropriately allocating responsibility between different arms of government. First the government must have a coherent medium-term fiscal strategy that determines broadly how the costs of the crisis will be absorbed. Then the failed bank must be securely reestablished with enough capital and franchise value to move forward as a normal bank. This will typically entail new financial institutions involving the government on both the asset and the liability sides of the bank's balance sheet. The bank should not be left with mismatches of maturity...