Página 1 dos resultados de 289 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Metodologia para estimar a linha de base de projeto MDL conectado a sistema elétrico: uma abordagem prospectiva.; Methodology to estimate the baseline emissions by a grid connected CDM project activity: a forecasting approach.

Reis, Tereza Virginia Mousinho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Essa pesquisa tem como objetivo propor um novo referencial metodológico para estimar a linha de base para projetos de MDL a serem conectados ao sistema interligado nacional SIN, a partir de uma visão do mix futuro das fontes energéticas que serão responsáveis pelas gerações de energia, nos próximos dez anos. Objetiva também aplicar essa nova abordagem para calcular as emissões deslocadas pelas atividades de projetos de MDL, através do cálculo do fator de substituição, medido em tCO2/MWh. Este fator estima a redução das emissões decorrente da substituição de parte da energia gerada pelas usinas térmicas convencionais, pela entrada no sistema de usinas que geram energia limpa e/ou pela redução da demanda agregada do sistema elétrico pela implementação de programas/medidas de eficiência energética pelo lado da demanda Para tanto, usando um modelo que simula o equilíbrio entre a oferta elétrica e os requisitos de energia previstos para o horizonte de 10 anos de energia calcula-se, inicialmente, as emissões dos GEE do sistema elétrico sem considerar a entrada do projeto de MDL. Na seqüência, as emissões do sistema elétrico são novamente calculadas, considerando a entrada do projeto MDL. Atualmente a linha de base do SIN é calculada...

Market-Based Instruments for International Aviation and Shipping as a Source of Climate Finance

Keen, Michael; Parry, Ian; Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The international aviation and maritime sectors today enjoy relatively favorable tax treatment, as their fuels are not taxed and the sectors are not subject to any value-added tax or turnover tax. Nor are these fuel uses subject to any global measures to reduce their associated CO2 emissions, even though they represent at least 5 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon charge on fuels for international aviation and shipping equal to $25 per tonne of emitted CO2 could raise about $12 billion from aviation and about $26 billion from shipping by 2020. Market-based instruments ought to be used to raise such revenue, preferably charges based on the carbon contents of fuels. Such charges would also scale back emissions by at least 5-10 percent. Developing countries ought to be able to keep their own tax revenue, and additional compensation to them for the economic burdens of these carbon charges may be warranted. Such compensation would constitute at most 40 percent of the raised global revenue. Implementing these charges can be a challenge...

Fiscal Implications of Climate Change

Jones, Benjamin; Keen, Michael; Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This paper provides a primer on the fiscal implications of climate change, in particular the policies for responding to it. Many of the complicated challenges that arise in limiting climate change (through greenhouse gas emissions mitigation), and in dealing with the effects that remain (through adaptation to climate change impacts), are of a fiscal nature. While mitigation has the potential to raise substantial public revenue (through charges on greenhouse gas emissions), adaptation largely leads to fiscal outlays. Policies may unduly favor public spending (on technological solutions to limit emissions, and on adaptation), over policies that lead to more public revenue being raised (emissions charges). The pervasive uncertainties that surround climate change make the design of proper policy responses even more complex. This applies especially to policies for mitigation of emissions, since agreement on and international enforcement of cooperative abatement policies are exceedingly difficult to achieve...

Do We Need A Zero Pure Time Preference or the Risk of Climate Catastrophes to Justify A 2°C Global Warming Target?

Dumas, P.; Hourcade, J. C.; Fabert, B. Perrissin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This paper confronts the wide political support for the 2C objective of global increase in temperature, reaffirmed in Copenhagen, with the consistent set of hypotheses on which it relies. It explains why neither an almost zero pure time preference nor concerns about catastrophic damages in case of uncontrolled global warming are prerequisites for policy decisions preserving the possibility of meeting a 2C target. It rests on an optimal stochastic control model balancing the costs and benefits of climate policies resolved sequentially in order to account for the arrival of new information (the RESPONSE model). This model describes the optimal abatement pathways for 2,304 worldviews, combining hypotheses about growth rates, baseline emissions, abatement costs, pure time preference, damages, and climate sensitivity. It shows that 26 percent of the worldviews selecting the 2C target are not characterized by one of the extreme assumptions about pure time preference or climate change damages.

Simple Model Frameworks for Explaining Inefficiency of the Clean Development Mechanism

Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an offset mechanism designed to reduce the overall cost of implementing a given global target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in industrialized "Annex B" countries of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper discusses various ways in which CDM projects do not imply full offset of emissions, thus leading to an overall increase in global GHG emissions when considering the Annex-B emissions increase allowed by the offsets. The authors focus on two ways in which this may occur: baseline manipulation; and leakage. Baseline manipulation may result when agents that carry out CDM projects have incentives to increase their initial (or baseline) emissions in order to optimize the value of CDM credits. Leakage occurs because reductions in emissions under a CDM project may affect market equilibrium in local and/or global energy and product markets, and thereby increase emissions elsewhere. Remedies against these problems are discussed. Such remedies are more obvious for the baseline problem (where one is simply to choose an exogenous baseline independent of the project) than for the leakage problem (which is difficult to prevent...

Climate Change and the Economics of Targeted Mitigation in Sectors with Long-Lived Capital Stock

Shalizi, Zmarak; Lecocq, Franck
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Mitigation investments in long-lived capital stock (LLKS) differ from other types of mitigation investments in that, once established, LLKS can lock-in a stream of emissions for extended periods of time. Moreover, historical examples from industrial countries suggest that investments in LLKS projects or networks tend to be lumpy, and tend to generate significant indirect and induced emissions besides direct emissions. Looking forward, urbanization and rapid economic growth suggest that similar decisions about LLKS are being or will soon be made in many developing countries. In their current form, carbon markets do not provide correct incentives for mitigation investments in LLKS because the constraint on carbon extends only to 2012, and does not extend to many developing countries. Targeted mitigation programs in regions and sectors in which LLKS is being built at rapid rate are thus necessary to avoid getting locked into highly carbon-intensive LLKS. Even if the carbon markets were extended (geographically, sectorally...

Can Global De-Carbonization Inhibit Developing Country Industrialization?

Mattoo, Aaditya; Subramanian, Arvind; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; He, Jianwu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Most economic analyses of climate change have focused on the aggregate impact on countries of mitigation actions. The authors depart first in disaggregating the impact by sector, focusing particularly on manufacturing output and exports because of the potential growth consequences. Second, they decompose the impact of an agreement on emissions reductions into three components: the change in the price of carbon due to each country s emission cuts per se; the further change in this price due to emissions tradability; and the changes due to any international transfers (private and public). Manufacturing output and exports in low carbon intensity countries such as Brazil are not adversely affected. In contrast, in high carbon intensity countries, such as China and India, even a modest agreement depresses manufacturing output by 6-7 percent and manufacturing exports by 9-11 percent. The increase in the carbon price induced by emissions tradability hurts manufacturing output most while the Dutch disease effects of transfers hurt exports most. If the growth costs of these structural changes are judged to be substantial...

Technical Guide to Actions on Global Warming and Clean Development Mechanism in Sri Lanka

Batagoda, B.M.S.; Nissanka, S.P.; Wijekoon, Suren; Jaytilake, Avanthie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the Government of Sri Lanka is the apex body under which all environmental issues and policy matters are addressed. The Global Affairs Division of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources is tasked with formulating policy and strategic planning and liaise with the international organizations dealing with global environmental issues and is the Designated National Authority (DNA) for matters arising out of the Kyoto Protocol. Under the Kyoto protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides for Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation projects that contribute towards sustainable development in developing nations and the net emission reductions can be traded to a developed nation to meet its Kyoto obligations. The report begins with green house effect with GHG emissions and their contributions to global warming. To highlight the gravity of the problem various projections are presented on future climate change, extreme weather events, sea level rise and their impact on developing countries. It describes the global initiative to tackle climate change and specifically details the Kyoto protocol.

Greenhouse Gas Analysis at the World Bank

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
This report builds on reviews of available methodologies, tools, and practices for greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, and summarizes the outcomes of pilot studies. It discusses the issues and challenges associated with GHG analysis for energy, transport and forestry projects such as setting project boundaries and accounting for indirect emissions. To do this it draws on existing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) methodologies, IPCC National GHG Inventories guidelines, the GEF and CDM/JI methodological frameworks, the GHG Protocol Initiative standards, World Bank Environment Department papers, and methodologies used by other international finance institutions. The outcome of fourteen pilots provides a rich and varied set of experiences in terms of approaches taken, and application of tools and methodologies. Assessing GHG emissions from investment operations is becoming common practice for mostmultilateral and bilateral institutions, and the international financial community in general. The existing methodologies and tools could be applicable to a significant majority of the investment lending portfolio in energy...

Options and Guidance for the Development of Baselines

Partnership for Market Readiness
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Developed under the auspices of the Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) and with advice and input from its Baselines Working Group, this document offers guidance and options for the development of emissions baselines, a key component for assessing the emission reductions in in both market and non-market based mechanisms. In the context of this document, a baseline refers to a scenario that describes expected or desired greenhouse gas emissions levels and that can be used as a basis for determining the amount of emissions reductions achieved as the result of a crediting, trading, or other mechanism. This document is divided into two parts. Part one (sections two and three) presents the context for emissions baselines, introduces key concepts and terms, and describes principles, considerations, and potential trade-offs that can inform decisions in the development of robust and transparent baselines. Part two provides a step-by-step description of how guidance users , a term we use here for those using this guidance...

The Nuts and Bolts of Baseline Setting

Partnership for Market Readiness
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
This document provides an overview of baseline setting for greenhouse gas (GHG) crediting mechanisms. The first section briefly explains the general purpose and objectives of setting a crediting mechanism baseline. The second section summarizes key policy considerations in defining and setting baselines. The final section covers important technical elements of baselines and provides an overview of various methods that can be used to estimate baseline emissions. The main purpose of this technical note is to examine key issues for baseline setting in the context of scaled-up crediting mechanisms. Many of the technical and policy considerations presented here, however, are relevant to existing project-based crediting mechanisms as well, and the discussion takes into account concepts developed and experience gained under these mechanisms. In addition, most of the concepts and examples presented here are relevant to setting baselines in the energy and industry sectors. Where relevant, however, examples from other sectors...

Emissions trading: designing a market for hot air

Rolls, Sophie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Climate change is the buzz-word of the decade. It is being discussed in the media, in universities, in environment groups and in business councils. So what is it and why the concern? Climate change is a relatively new phenomenon, referring to the changes in the Earth's climate as a result of humans releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, largely through fossil fuel combustion. It is a concern because it challenges the way we live, our food resources and our environment. Climate change results in increased temperatures, more frequent and lengthy droughts and severe weather events such as flooding and cyclones. It affects agricultural productivity, increases the risk of infectious diseases such as malaria, and has the potential to destroy sensitive natural areas such as the Great Barrier Reef and alpine regions such as Kosciusko National Park. Increased temperatures can also lead to sea level rise as glaciers and ice caps melt, threatening low-lying populated areas. Thanks to publications such as the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, the public is increasingly aware of the costs involved for present and future generations if action to reduce the impact of climate change is not taken. The call to action is not only coming from left-wing environmentalists...

When Starting with the Most Expensive Option Makes Sense : Use and Misuse of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This article investigates the use of expert-based Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC) to design abatement strategies. It shows that introducing inertia, in the form of the "cost in time" of available options, changes significantly the message from MACCs. With an abatement objective in cumulative emissions (e.g., emitting less than 200 GtCO2 in the 2000-2050 period), it makes sense to implement some of the more expensive options before the potential of the cheapest ones has been exhausted. With abatement targets expressed in terms of emissions at one point in time (e.g., reducing emissions by 20 percent in 2020), it can even be preferable to start with the implementation of the most expensive options if their potential is high and their inertia significant. Also, the best strategy to reach a short-term target is different depending on whether this target is the ultimate objective or there is a longer-term target. The best way to achieve Europe's goal of 20 percent reduction in emissions by 2020 is different if this objective is the ultimate objective or if it is only a milestone in a trajectory toward a 75 percent reduction in 2050. The cheapest options may be sufficient to reach the 2020 target but could create a carbon-intensive lock-in and preclude deeper emission reductions by 2050. These results show that in a world without perfect foresight and perfect credibility of the long-term carbon-price signal...

Mexico - Low-Carbon Development : Main Report; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminución de emisiones de carbono

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries and demand-side electricity efficiency measures to limit high-growth energy-consuming activities, such as air conditioning and refrigeration. It also evaluates a range of renewable energy options that make use of the country's vast wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and geothermal resources. But low-carbon (CO2) development is not only about energy production and consumption. In Mexico one of the most important sources of greenhouse gas emissions continues to be emissions from deforestation. The rate of deforestation has fallen steadily in Mexico over the past decades. Expanded programs for forest management, wildlife conservation, and efforts to increase the stock of forests can provide needed employment in rural areas and help make Mexican forests net absorbers of CO2 in the coming years. A fundamental question often asked about low-cost mitigation options is why they are not already being undertaken. As the study shows...

Evaluating Carbon Offsets from Forestry and Energy Projects : How Do They Compare?

Chomitz, Kenneth M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrial countries accept caps on their emissions of greenhouse gases. They are permitted to acquire offsetting emissions reductions from developing countries - which do not have emissions limitations - to assist in complying with these caps. Because these emissions reductions are defined against a hypothetical baseline, practical issues arise in ensuring that the reductions are genuine. Forestry-related emissions reduction projects are often thought to present greater difficulties in measurement and implementation, than energy-related emissions reduction projects. The author discusses how project characteristics affect the process for determining compliance with each of the criteria for qualifying. Those criteria are: 1) Additionality. Would these emissions reductions not have taken place without the project? 2) Baseline and systems boundaries (leakage). What would business-as-usual emissions have been without the project? And in this comparison, how broad should spatial, and temporal system boundaries be? 3) Measurement (or sequestration). How accurately can we measure actual with-project emissions levels? 4) Duration or permanence. Will the project have an enduring mitigating effect? 5) Local impact. Will the project benefit its neighbors? For all the criteria except permanence...

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions from Diesel Vehicles : Impacts, Control Strategies, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
A 2013 scientific assessment of black carbon emissions and impacts found that black carbon is second to carbon dioxide in terms of its climate forcing. High concentrations of black carbon in the atmosphere can change precipitation patterns and reduce the amount of radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, which affects local agriculture. Acute and chronic exposures to particulate matter are associated with a range of diseases, including chronic bronchitis and asthma, as well as premature deaths from cardiopulmonary disease, lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections. The transportation sector accounted for approximately 19 percent of global black carbon emissions in the year 2000. This report aims to inform efforts to control black carbon emissions from diesel-based transportation in developing countries. It presents a summary of emissions control approaches from developed countries, while recognizing that developing countries face a number of on-the-ground implementation challenges. This study applies a new cost-benefit analysis methodology to four simulated diesel black carbon emissions control projects - diesel retrofit in Istanbul...

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminucion de emisiones de carbono

Johnson, Todd M.; Alatorre, Claudio; Romo, Zayra; Liu, Feng
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
One of the most compelling reasons for pursuing low-carbon development is that the potential impacts of climate change are predicted to be severe, for both industrial and developing countries, and that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of the most catastrophic impacts. The challenge of reducing emissions is sobering: leading scientific models indicate that limiting the rise in global mean temperatures to less than two degree Celsius will require that global greenhouse gas emissions peak within the next 10-15 years and then fall by 2050 to levels about 50 percent lower than in 1990. Although many countries recognize the need to curtail carbon emissions, there is considerable uncertainty about how much this will cost in individual countries, what measures can be undertaken in both the short and longer term, and how cost-effective specific interventions are in reducing emissions. This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries...

EAGGLE : a linear programming model for optimizing mitigation strategies of greenhouse gases emissions in beef cattle production systems = EAGGLE: um modelo de programação linear para otimização de estratégias de mitigação de gases de efeito estufa em sistemas de produção de gado de corte; EAGGLE : um modelo de programação linear para otimização de estratégias de mitigação de gases de efeito estufa em sistemas de produção de gado de corte

Rafael de Oliveira Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
O Brasil e um dos primeiros países em desenvolvimento a se comprometer com metas de redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE). As metas estabelecidas requerem uma redução entre 36,1% a 38,9% relativos as emissões estimadas para 2020. Focando na regiao central do Cerrado, responsavel por cerca de 35% da producao total de carne bovina do Brasil, este estudo estima as emissoes totais de GEE de 2006 a 2030. O estudo tambem identifica o custo efetivo do potencial de reducao das emissoes. A analise foi feito por meio da construcao de um modelo de programacao linear, batizado de "EAGGLE" (Analise Econômica dos Gases de Efeito Estufa das Emissoes da Pecuária), que representa um sistema de producao de gado de corte a pasto, com e sem suplementação, e confinamento. Um segundo modelo foi desenvolvido para estimar os estoques de carbono no solo sob pastagens com diferentes níveis de produtividade. Neste modelo e simulado o efeito da degradação, manutenção, recuperação, e dinâmica de mudança de uso da terra nos estoques de carbono. Os resultados mostraram que, no cenário de referencia, a regiao vai emitir cerca de 1,2 Gt de CO2 entre 2010 a 2020, o que equivale a 8% das emissoes liquidas totais do pais. Um conjunto de tecnologias de mitigação de GEE...

PROJECTING ANTHROPOGENIC METHANE EMISSIONS AND POTENTIAL REDUCTION STRATEGIES OF SIX SOURCES IN SIX NATIONS

Brundage, Adam M.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 428638 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Methane concentrations in our atmosphere have more than doubled since pre-industrial times. Although the rate of change of global concentrations has recently slowed, studies predict that this stabilization will be short-lived. There is a growing need to better understand the emissions sources for this potent greenhouse gas and to assess possible reduction strategies. Global methane emissions pathways have been proposed by the IPCC but the relative contributions from different source types and individual countries is not well determined. I analyze six main anthropogenic sources including emissions from enteric fermentation, rice production, landfills, wastewater treatment, coal mining, and natural gas and oil production. Future changes in the main drivers of population, economic, and technological parameters can impact methane emissions from these six sources in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and the United States through 2050. I develop a simple framework to characterize and project methane emissions enabling the building of a business as usual and multiple alternative scenarios. The methane concentration implications of these projections are analyzed using a simple climate model. Finally, a technological potential reduction scenario is proposed by maintaining baseline assumptions while improving methane capture technologies and options. Under business as usual assumptions...

A perspective on South African coal fired power station emissions

Pretorius,Ilze; Piketh,Stuart; Burger,Roelof; Neomagus,Hein
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
This paper investigates trends of historical and projected future South African coal-fired power station criteria (total primary Particulate Matter (PM), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. It was found that an energy restricted environment has an increasing effect on emissions, as emissions per energy unit increased from the onset of the South African energy crisis. PM emissions particularly, increased during the energy crisis period, due to increased pressure on PM abatement and lowered maintenance opportunity. Projections of future coal-fired power station criteria and CO2 emissions are made for four different future scenarios for the period 2015 to 2030. Three of the four scenarios are based on the lower projected energy demand baseline case as published in the updated Integrated Development Plan (IRP). The difference between these three scenarios is different retrofit rates of power stations with emissions abatement technologies. The fourth scenario is a worst case scenario and assumes high energy demand (and therefore no decommissioning of power stations), high emission rates (similar to worst past emission rates during the period 1999-2012) and no further abatement of emissions above and beyond current mitigation efforts. This scenario gives an indication of what South African coal-fired power station emissions could look like if the energy crisis persists. There is a marked difference between projected best and worst case PM emissions during the entire projected period...