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Preliminary Specification of Basic Services and Protocols

Blair, G.; Brudna, C.; Cahill, V.; Casimiro, António; Cunningham, R.; Duran-Limon, H.; Kaiser, J.; Martins, Pedro; Veríssimo, Paulo
Fonte: Department of Informatics, University of Lisbon Publicador: Department of Informatics, University of Lisbon
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em /07/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The objective of D5 is to provide a preliminary definition of basic services and protocols that will be necessary to program CORTEX applications made of sentient objects. Furthermore, the aim of D5 is also to provide an architectural view of the possible composition of services and relations among them. In this view, some services are intended to facilitate communication with certain required properties, others are fundamentally event-oriented services, providing extra functionality at a middleware level and, finally, the remaining services are essentially supporting services, which can be used by event and communication services, as well as directly by applications. More specifically, in terms of event and communication services the deliverable describes a content and cell based predictive routing protocol to provide predictability in mobile ad hoc environments as envisaged in CORTEX, it specifies the messages used by the TBMAC protocol and studies the inaccessibility of the latter, it specifies an event service that implements anonymous communication based on the publish-subscribe paradigm, it describes the deployment of event-channels on a CAN-bus network and, finally, it provides a preliminary specification of the interface of an adaptable timed event service (ATES). In terms of supporting services...

Mexico : Reaching the Poor with Basic Health Services

Marquez, Patricio; de Geyndt, Willy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
In the mid-1990s, many Mexicans lived in poverty without adequate access to health and social services. Of a total population of 84 million, 25 percent were considered poor and 16 percent, extremely poor. Urban areas had health indicators similar to OECD countries, with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries, while many people in rural areas and the southern states still suffered from common infectious diseases and malnutrition. Life expectancy in rural areas was 55 versus 71 in urban areas and 53 among the poor. The Mexican government realized that inequitable access to basic health care for poor and indigenous people hampered economic development, jeopardized investments in basic education and deprived citizens of their constitutional right to attain good health. So it devised a strategy to reduce inequities, improve health care, and modernize the Federal Health Secretariat (SSA). A 1994 presidential decree created a Health Cabinet (Gabinete de Salud) headed by the President with representatives from social security...

Reaching Unserved Communities in Africa with Basic Services : Can Small-Scale Private Service Providers Save the Day?

Kariuki, Mukami; Schwartz, Jordan; Schur, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
With urban and especially periurban populations set to grow at unprecedented rates in Africa, and service coverage continuing to lag, governments and donors have begun to recognize that small-scale providers have an increasingly critical role to play. They have also begun to focus on the importance of creating an environment that enables these providers to supply good quality service. Most African countries face big deficits in infrastructure, and their efforts to scale up the services of small-scale service providers may be impeded by lack of capacity or resources or even by collusion and rent seeking by larger, formal service providers. Improving or extending the services of small scale service providers must therefore be part of-not a substitute for-reform of the infrastructure sector.

Who Needs Legal Aid Services? Addressing Demand in Jordan

Prettitore, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
With the launch of two World Bank-funded programs, Jordan is stepping where few countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have gone before the development of comprehensive legal aid services based more closely on demand. For many poor persons, regular avenues of dispute resolution may prove inaccessible due to the costs involved, the complicated nature of procedures, the inability to procure legal information and representation, and a general lack of knowledge about rights and the means to enforce them. Legal aid services information, counseling and representation in court can help poor persons overcome these obstacles. They are not only important as services themselves, but are gateway services they may ultimately lead to access to other services, such as social welfare benefits or basic services.

Output-Based Aid : Supporting Infrastructure Delivery Through Explicit and Performance-Based Subsidies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Increasing access to basic infrastructure, and social services is critical to reducing poverty, and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, increasing access is a challenge because of the gap between what it costs to deliver a desired level of service, and what can be funded through user charges. Subsidies have often played a role in funding this gap, for a variety of socio-economic reasons. However, given the political commitment by a number of countries to increase aid flows, but at the same time the mounting concerns of aid effectiveness, it is critical that subsidies be linked to the actual delivery of services, or "outputs." One way to do this is through Output-Based aid (OBA), a strategy for using explicit performance-based subsidies to deliver basic services-such as water, sanitation, electricity, transport, telecommunications, education, and health care-where policy concerns would justify public funding to complement, or replace user fees. OBA can help improve aid effectiveness by: increasing accountability; improving transparency; increasing value for money; and...

Monitoring Basic Opportunities throughout the Lifecycle with the Human Opportunity Index in Chile

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Chile has made significant progress towards equalizing opportunities in recent years, especially those pertaining to poverty alleviation, school enrollment, and access to health services. A monitoring system of basic opportunities that effectively incorporates equity concerns may help policymakers to design better policies for vulnerable groups in Chile. The Human Opportunity Index (HOI) is an equality of opportunity adjusted coverage rate. The HOI provides a tractable way, in a single indicator, to measure progress toward universal coverage of opportunities as well as equitable access to those opportunities. Along with being a simple, intuitive and tractable measure, the HOI also satisfies several properties deemed desirable for an equity measure. Any increase in the amount of opportunities will improve the HOI despite to whom it is allocated. It is pro-vulnerable because if the coverage rate of a vulnerable group increases holding the overall coverage rate constant, the HOI also increases. Similarly, for a given expansion of available services...

Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare. The urban poverty profile is examined in each city, through migration, growth, and mobility patterns, including education and labor characteristics. In terms of land and housing, in all three cities, almost half of the poor who reported being property owners have weak, or no documentation over their properties, and, considerable portions of the poor population, are not connected to the public aqueduct, while few if any, receive help from the government. High dependency on public transportation was reported, e.g., one hundred percent in El Salvador, ninety seven percent in Tegucigalpa. Institutional, and policy issues explain the current situation: in terms of decentralization...

Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities, Volume 2. City Reports

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare. The urban poverty profile is examined in each city, through migration, growth, and mobility patterns, including education and labor characteristics. In terms of land and housing, in all three cities, almost half of the poor who reported being property owners have weak, or no documentation over their properties, and, considerable portions of the poor population, are not connected to the public aqueduct, while few if any, receive help from the government. High dependency on public transportation was reported, e.g., one hundred percent in El Salvador, ninety seven percent in Tegucigalpa. Institutional, and policy issues explain the current situation: in terms of decentralization...

Improving Basic Services for the Bottom Forty Percent : Lessons from Ethiopia

Khan, Qaiser M.; Faguet, Jean-Paul; Gaukler, Christopher; Mekasha, Wendmsyamregne
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Ethiopia, like most developing countries, has opted to deliver services such as basic education, primary health care, agricultural extension advice, water, and rural roads through a highly decentralized system (Manor 1999; Treisman 2007). That choice is based on several decades of theoretical analysis examining how a decentralized government might respond better to diverse local needs and provide public goods more efficiently than a highly centralized government. Ethiopia primarily manages the delivery of basic services at the woreda (district) level. Those services are financed predominantly through intergovernmental fiscal transfers (IGFTs) from the federal to the regional and then the woreda administrations, although some woredas raise a small amount of revenue to support local services. Since 2006, development partners and the government have cofinanced block grants for decentralized services through the Promoting Basic Services (PBS) Program. Aside from funding the delivery of services, the program supports measures to improve the quality of services and local governments capacity to deliver them by strengthening accountability and citizen voice.

Do African Children Have an Equal Chance? : A Human Opportunity Report for Sub-Saharan Africa

Dabalen, Andrew; Narayan, Ambar; Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime; Suarez, Alejandro Hoyos; Abras, Ana; Tiwari, Sailesh
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
This study explores the changing opportunities for children in Africa. While the definition of opportunities can be subjective and depend on the societal context, this report focuses on efforts to build future human capital, directly (through education and health investments) and indirectly (through complementary infrastructure such as safe water, adequate sanitation, electricity, and so on). It follows the practice of earlier studies conducted for the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region (Barros et al. 2009, 2012) where opportunities are basic goods and services that constitute investments in children. Although several opportunities are relevant at different stages of an individual s life, our focus on children s access to education, health services, safe water, and adequate nutrition is due to the well-known fact that an individual s chance of success in life is deeply influenced by access to these goods and services early in life. Children s access to these basic services improves the likelihood of a child being able to maximize his/her human potential and pursue a life of dignity.

Republic of Burundi Fiscal Decentralization and Local Governance : Managing Trade-Offs to Promote Sustainable Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.13%
Despite the remarkable progress achieved since the end of the conflict, Burundi still faces significant development challenges. Since 2005, the Government of Burundi has embarked on a potentially transformative process of decentralization, with the aim of strengthening social cohesion, improving local governance, and promoting access to basic infrastructure and service delivery. The weakness of the communal tax system, coupled with low mobilization of local revenue and nonexistent (current) or negligible (capital) transfers from the national budget threaten the financial viability of communes, which struggle to support even basic operating costs. Addressing a specific government request, the present study aims to provide concrete policy recommendations to help the Government of Burundi improve the financial and institutional sustainability of the decentralization reform process, while enabling communes to address popular demands and deliver better services. The report will also look at the implications of these macro-level challenges at the sectoral level...

Arab Republic of Egypt - Inequality of Opportunity in Access to Basic Services among Egyptian Children

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Egypt's children and youth, representing more than one-third of the country´s population and its future, face several significant challenges, as shown by higher child poverty rates and unequal access to basic services. The objective of this report is three-fold: (i) to analyze the extent of inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children; (ii) to inform government policy on how success in life is influenced by factors predetermined at birth; and (iii) to identify policies and interventions that may contribute to improving equality of opportunity. The underlying premise is that ensuring equality of opportunity entails leveling the playing field in such a way that every child, regardless of the circumstances of his/her birth, will have an equal chance to succeed in life. This report analyzes the extent of provision of equal access to basic opportunities to all children (including healthcare, education, clean water and sanitation), and identifies the main circumstances that affect it and therefore determine human development outcomes. The analysis in this report builds on the concepts and ideas developed in the World Development Report (WDR). The findings are aimed at supporting debates and discussions...

Papua New Guinea : Poverty and Access to Public Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
This report analyzes the distribution of income, constructs a poverty profile, and looks at the extent to which the poor have access to basic services in Papua New Guinea. The analysis is based on data collected during a national household survey in 1996, and, data on a range of socioeconomic indicators, were collected nationally among urban, and rural households, within the country's five major regions. This shows that the distribution of consumption is highly uneven, since real per capita consumption level is over eight times higher than the poorest quartile, with marked disparities in consumption levels. A detailed review on the distribution of access to basic services, such as education, health care, rural infrastructure, and utilities is presented, suggesting the unequal access to these services further accentuates the effects of unequal income distribution. The county's safety net system is examined, revealing this system allows for income transfers from members of a particular "wantok" - informal network based on ethnicity...

Critical Administrative Constraints to Service Delivery : Improving Public Services in Afghanistan's Transformational Decade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Since 2001, the Afghan population's access to basic services has greatly improved in nearly all sectors. School enrolment has increased sharply, with over eight million children currently enrolled in school, of which 39 percent are girls. Current strategies for improving sub-national service delivery focus on delegating greater authority to provincial and district administrations. This report aims to identify administrative constraints in three key sectors of public service delivery, education, health and agricultural extension services. The analysis follows the service delivery chain, from central to provincial, through district to community level, and is particularly concerned to examine service delivery in these three sectors through the window of sub-national governance and its relations to the service delivery mandates of line ministries. The study provides the Government of Afghanistan with recommendations on how to alleviate critical constraints to service delivery at sub-national levels on a sustainable basis...

Investing in the Best Buys : A Review of the Health, Nutrition, and Population Portfolio, FY1993-99

Claeson, Mariam; Mawji, Tazim; Walker, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
This review of the "best buys" in the health, nutrition, and population portfolio, FY93-99, shows that content, as well as process must receive attention in health systems development, in order to achieve increased access to quality health services. The report suggest that significant gains can be made, and measured within lending, by increasing efforts to identify, and invest in the best buys. It describes the Bank's mixed lending for the best buys, ranging from direct support to public health, and clinical services (i.e., investment in disease control programs), to health systems strengthening (i.e., investment in surveillance, and pharmaceutical systems, managerial and technical capacity building) that indirectly support delivery of basic services. Recommendations suggest linking the guidelines of this review to the knowledge management system, and training in basic public health, and Poverty Reduction Strategy work. Moreover, an in-depth review of data at the regional level, could explicitly define options for inclusion of best buys in project implementation...

Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

Improving Basic Services for the Bottom Forty Percent : Results of the Poverty and Social Impact Assessment of Decentralized Basic Service Delivery in Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This report is part of a programmatic knowledge series which will include future reports which will go further on the issues covered. These reports will include among others studies based on services delivery quality in health and education based on on-going surveys as well detailed survey based impact assessment the Promotion of Basic Services (PBS) program. This program based on multi-round surveys over the next three years, an impact assessment of the social accountability component of PBS program for which baseline survey has taken place and a full report is due in two years, all of these studies will further elucidate the findings in this report. This report is structured with a section describing the PBS program and inter-government fiscal transfers underlying Ethiopia's decentralized federal structure. That section will be followed by a section on study approach and then a section on the governance and accountability framework underlying the program. After that there will be a section on the effectiveness of Ethiopia's intergovernmental transfers program (IGFT) on development results in education...

How Does Bribery Affect Public Service Delivery? Micro-Evidence from Service Users and Public Officials in Peru

Kaufmann, Daniel; Montoriol-Garriga, Judit; Recanatini, Francesca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
When seeking a public service, users may be required to pay in bribes more than the official price. Consequently, some users may be discouraged and choose not to seek a service due to the higher price imposed by the bribery "tax." This paper explores the price and quantity components of the relationship between governance and service delivery using micro-level survey data. The authors construct new measures of governance using data from users of public services from 13 government agencies in Peru. For some basic services, low-income users pay a larger share of their income than wealthier ones do; that is, the bribery tax is regressive. Where there are substitute private providers, low-income users appear to be discouraged more often and not to seek basic services. Thus, bribery may penalize poorer users twice - acting as a regressive tax and discouraging access to basic services. The paper explores the characteristics of households seeking public services. Higher education and age are associated with higher probability of being discouraged. Trust in state institutions decreases the probability of being discouraged...

Blending Top-Down Federalism with Bottom-Up Engagement to Reduce Inequality in Ethiopia

Khan, Qaiser; Faguet, Jean-Paul; Ambel, Alemayehu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Donors increasingly fund interventions to counteract inequality in developing countries, where they fear it can foment instability and undermine nation-building efforts. To succeed, aid relies on the principle of upward accountability to donors. But federalism shifts the accountability of subnational officials downward to regional and local voters. What happens when aid agencies fund anti-inequality programs in federal countries? Does federalism undermine aid? Does aid undermine federalism? Or can the political and fiscal relations that define a federal system resolve the contradiction internally? This study explores this paradox via the Promotion of Basic Services program in Ethiopia, the largest donor-financed investment program in the world. Using an original panel database comprising the universe of Ethiopian woredas (districts), the study finds that horizontal (geographic) inequality decreased substantially. Donor-financed block grants to woredas increased the availability of primary education and health care services in the bottom 20 percent of woredas. Weaker evidence from household surveys suggests that vertical inequality across wealth groups (within woredas) also declined...

Improving basic services for the bottom forty percent: lessons from Ethiopia

Khan, Qaiser M.; Faguet, Jean-Paul; Gaukler, Christopher; Mekasha, Wendmsyamregne
Fonte: World Bank Group Publicador: World Bank Group
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Ethiopia, like most developing countries, has opted to deliver services such as basic education, primary health care, agricultural extension advice, water, and rural roads through a highly decentralized system (Manor 1999; Treisman 2007). That choice is based on several decades of theoretical analysis examining how a decentralized government might respond better to diverse local needs and provide public goods more efficiently than a highly centralized government. Ethiopia primarily manages the delivery of basic services at the woreda (district) level. Those services are financed predominantly through intergovernmental fiscal transfers (IGFTs) from the federal to the regional and then the woreda administrations, although some woredas raise a small amount of revenue to support local services. Since 2006, development partners and the government have cofinanced block grants for decentralized services through the Promoting Basic Services (PBS) Program. Aside from funding the delivery of services, the program supports measures to improve the quality of services and local governments capacity to deliver them by strengthening accountability and citizen voice.