Página 1 dos resultados de 288 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Implementing a WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation : What Makes Sense?

Finger, J. Michael; Wilson, John S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Contrary to the prevailing view that the Doha negotiations have achieved little, the authors find that on trade facilitation much progress has been made. This is particularly true in regard to action by development banks and bilateral development agencies to meet client demand for assistance in reform. Active private sector participation has been an important factor driving change. Many agencies have been involved in this work. The authors find that their roles have been consistent with their comparative advantages. As to how the international community can best support continued progress, the authors conclude in favor of a cautious approach to the imposition of new WTO obligations in the area of trade facilitation. On the whole, this is the approach the WTO has taken, for example, by limiting its negotiations on trade facilitation to several specific provisions of the GATT. The WTO can continue to function as a catalyst for reform. It is perhaps uniquely placed to relate the trade facilitation agenda to the overall trade agenda. On design and construction of the relevant infrastructures and capacities to spur development, the development institutions, including bilateral agencies, should continue to lead. The authors find little evidence to support the need for a comprehensive new "platform" or mechanism to channel trade-related aid as part of implementation of any new agreement at the WTO on trade facilitation. They recommend...

Export Promotion Agencies : What Works and What Doesn’t

Lederman, Daniel; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Payton, Lucy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The number of national export promotion agencies (EPAs) has tripled over the past two decades. While more countries have made them part of their national export strategy, studies have criticized their efficiency in developing countries (Hogan, Keesing, and Singer 1991). Partly in reaction to these critiques, EPAs have been retooled (see International Trade Centre, ITC, 1998 or 2000, for example). This paper studies the impact of existing EPAs and their strategies based on a new data set covering 104 industrial and developing countries. Results suggest that on average they have a strong and statistically significant impact on exports. For each $1 of export promotion, the paper estimates a $40 increase in exports for the median EPA. However, there is heterogeneity across regions, levels of development, and types of instruments. Furthermore, there are strong diminishing returns, suggesting that as far as EPAs are concerned, small is beautiful.

Delivering Aid Differently : Lessons from the Field

Fengler, Wolfgang; Kharas, Homi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
Delivering aid differently was written at a time when the future of foreign aid is being fiercely debated. The book includes an overview; case studies of Aceh/Indonesia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Pakistan, and Tajikistan; and thematic chapters on joint assistance strategies, information systems, and humanitarian aid. This new aid environment is characterized by three important shifts that have emerged in the last decade: 1) strong growth in many developing countries has redefined the role of aid; 2) the donor landscape has changed fundamentally over the last decade, a trend that will likely accelerate in the coming years; and 3) innovation, especially in information technology, has started to reshape development aid. Knowledge transfer has become as important as financial aid, and combining the two can be remarkably transformative. The author advocates two institutional changes. First, authors encourage the development of one (or more) geographically based development authorities within poor countries...

Assessment of the Impact of the Crisis on New PPI Projects : Update 5

Izaguirre, Ada Karina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
New private infrastructure activity in developing countries recovered selectively in the third quarter of 2009. This review of new PPI projects sheds some light on recent activity and on the short-term impact of the financial crisis. Projects reaching financial or contractual closure face more difficult financial market conditions. Local state-owned banks, as well as multilateral and bilateral agencies, continue to be key financiers, and infrastructure sponsors are looking for new sources of funding such as local financing. Projects continue to be delayed or, to a lesser extent, canceled. The rate of project closure varies across developing regions, with investment in the third quarter higher in South Asia, stable in Latin America and East Asia and Pacific, and lower in the other three. The rate also varies across country income groups, with investment in the third quarter higher in lower-middle-income countries, stable in upper-middle-income countries, and lower in low-income countries. Greenfield projects continue to show growth in investment (and debt raised)...

Designing Community Based Development

Narayan, Deepa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
When properly designed, community based programs can be highly effective in managing natural resources, providing basic infrastructure or ensuring primary social services. Participation in community based development (CBD) depends on reversing control and accountability from central authorities to community organizations. Successful design requires tapping into local needs, understanding and building on the strengths of existing institutions, and defining the changes needed in intermediary implementing agencies to support community action.

Drug Donations in Post-Emergency Situations

Autier, Philippe; Govindaraj, Ramesh; Gray, Robin; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Nassery, Homira G.; Schmets, Gerard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The objectives of this project were to conduct situation analyses on drug donations in East Timor (post-conflict country), El Salvador and Gujarat State in India (both affected by earthquakes), and Mozambique (floods), applying criteria derived from the Interagency Guidelines for Drug Donations; to determine how and whether the implementation of the Guidelines has affected the processes and outcomes of drug donations; and to build evidence to facilitate wider acceptance of the Guidelines. The study teams undertook to identify the organizations responsible for inappropriate donations, a step not often taken in earlier investigations. This information can now be used to facilitate educational initiatives aimed at preventing similar problems in the future. Awareness of the Guidelines was high and appropriate drug donations were made in El Salvador, Gujarat State in India and East Timor. In Mozambique, it was found that even with strong recipient awareness of the Guidelines and country ownership of the drug donation process...

China Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2012 - June 2013)

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
The Country Opinion Survey for FY2012 in China assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in China perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in China on 1) their views regarding the general environment in China; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in China; 3) overall impressions of the WBG s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in China; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG s future role in China.

Improving public sector performance: the experiences of line agencies in Papua New Guinea

Demas, Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 52868 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
[Introduction]:Improving public sector performance has been a concern both within Papua New Guinea and externally, from foreign investors, financial institutions such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and also Papua New Guinea’s traditional bilateral development partners. Because of the poor performance of the public sector in promoting economic growth, good governance and the delivery of basic services,organisations such as the World Bank have included this as part of the package under the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), calling it ‘improving public sector performance’ within the framework of the Public Sector Reform (PSR). This paper discusses three key issues—leadership, the capacity of the bureaucracy to deliver the quality of policy analysis and, most important of all, the degree of political commitment to reform. Papua New Guinea’s experience with public sector reform under the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are examined in terms of • what have been some of the impacts of Public Sector Reforms under the SAPs? • how has public sector reform supported the decentralisation process and the delivery of services at the provincial, district and local levels under the new Organic Law of Provincial and Local-Level Governments? • what public sector reform has occurred under the Public Sector Reform Management Unit (PSRMU)? What is the level of commitment to public sector reform? • what have been some of the impacts of public sector reform in the line agencies under the previous structural adjustment programs in Papua New Guinea?; Kumul Scholars International papers from the Conference in Canberra...

The recruitment industry in the Philippines: government-business relations in the overseas employment program

Blank, Nathan Ryan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
No major country in the world is as reliant on migrant remittance flows as is the Philippines, with some 8-11 million workers overseas sending $17 billion back home each year. As important as these flows are to the Philippine economy, the export of labor has never been part of a coherent development strategy. At least 13 major government agencies are involved in matters pertaining to overseas Filipino workers, but the result is more of a patchwork of overlapping roles than a systematic regulatory regime. My thesis examines relations between these agencies and the approximately 1,500 recruitment agencies that are the key private-sector actors in facilitating overseas migration from the Philippines. Despite the importance of these agencies, no previous research has examined their role, their associational ties, or the nature of their relations with a range of government actors. Theoretically, my research contributes to debates within political economy on what roles the private sector and government have in pursuing and achieving national economic development objectives. Beyond this primary contribution, my research also provides insights into debates on alternative development strategies in developing states, the politics of international labor migration...

Cooperation between antitrust agencies at the international level

ZANETTIN, Bruno
Fonte: Hart Publicador: Hart
Tipo: Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Bilateral cooperation between antitrust agencies, in particular the European Commission and the US agencies, is the focus of this new work. It first shows how bilateral cooperation was developed as a response to the limits of the unilateral and extraterritorial application of national competition laws, and how it has evolved from an instrument initially designed to avoid conflicts into a tool aimed at coordinating joint investigations of international competition cases. It then considers how bilateral cooperation could be used optimally, by analysing two forms of advanced cooperation: the exchange of confidential information, and positive comity, which is the only satisfactory answer competition law can provide to market access cases. It shows that the use of such instruments is limited by significant legal and political obstacles, even in the context of the exemplary EC-US relationship. The book therefore argues that the efficient use of bilateral cooperation will be limited to a small number of well-established competition agencies. If international anticompetitive practices are to be efficiently addressed by an increasingly large and heterogeneous group of competition agencies, horizontal cooperation between antitrust agencies must be complemented by a multilateral and supranational solution going beyond the proposals currently put forward. The book concludes that only the WTO and its dispute settlement system could provide the basis for such a system.; (Published version of EUI PhD thesis...

Which Donors, Which Funds?; The Choice of Multilateral Funds by Bilateral Donors at the World Bank

Reinsberg, Bernhard; Michaelowa, Katharina; Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
The rapid growth of trust funds at multilateral development organizations has been widely neglected in the academic literature so far. Using a simple illustrative model, this paper examines the choice by sovereign donors among various trust fund options. The authors contend that the choice among the different trust funds involves a fundamental trade-off: larger funds provide donors with the benefit of burden sharing. Conversely, each donor can better assert its individual preferences in a fund with fewer other donors. The theoretical considerations yield testable implications on a range of factors affecting this fundamental tradeoff, most notably the area of intervention of the trust fund and competing domestic interests of donor countries. Using a sample of World Bank trust funds, the paper examines the participation decisions of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee donors over the past decade. In line with the theoretical argument, preference homogeneity among donors as well as indicators for global activities and fragile states assistance are robust determinants of participation in (large) multi-donor funds. In contrast...

On the Delegation of Aid Implementation to Multilateral Agencies

Annen, Kurt; Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Some multilateral agencies implement aid projects in a broad range of sectors, with aid disbursements showing a strong overlap with those of bilateral donors. The question then arises of why do bilateral donors delegate sizable shares of their aid to non-specialized agencies for implementation? This paper develops a game theoretic model to explain this puzzle. Donors delegate aid implementation to the multilateral agency (ML) to strengthen the policy selectivity of aid, incentivizing policy improvements in recipient countries, in turn improving aid’s development effectiveness. Bilateral donors are better off delegating aid to ML even when they are purely altruistic but disagree on how aid should be distributed across recipients. Key for our result to hold is that ML searches some middle ground among disagreeing donors. Aid selectivity—in terms of both policy and poverty—emerges endogenously and is credible, as it is the solution to ML’s optimization problem. Moreover, the model shows that if one sufficiently large donor is policy selective in its aid allocations...

Global Logistics Indicators, Supply Chain Metrics, and Bilateral Trade Patterns

Hausman, Warren H.; Lee, Hau L.; Subramanian, Uma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Past research into the determinants of international trade highlighted the importance of the basic spatial gravity model augmented by additional variables representing sources of friction. Studies modeled many sources of friction using various proxies, including indices based on expert judgment in some cases. This paper focuses on logistics friction and draws on a data set recently compiled by the World Bank with specific quantitative metrics of logistics performance in terms of time, cost, and variability in time. It finds that the new variables that relate directly to logistics performance have a statistically significant relationship with the level of bilateral trade. It also finds that a single logistics index can capture virtually all of the explanatory power of multiple logistics indicators. The findings should spur public and private agencies that have direct or indirect power over logistics performance to focus attention on reducing sources of friction so as to improve their country's ability to compete in today's global economy. Moreover, since the logistics metrics are directly related to operational performance, countries can use these metrics to target actions to improve logistics and monitor their progress.

Do Export Promotion Agencies Promote New Exporters?

Cruz, Marcio
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Do export promotion agencies impact the probability of non-exporting firms to export? In the last decade many countries have introduced export promotion agencies to support their firms to deal with asymmetric information problems and make feasible additional gains from trade. Some recent studies have found that the support of these agencies has been effective with respect to the intensive and extensive margins of trade. Nevertheless, because of the lack of information on non-exporting firms, few of them analyze their impact on the probability of promoting new exporters. This paper evaluates the impact of the Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency (Apex-Brasil) on firms' export status using a unique firm-level dataset that covers the full manufacturing sector in Brazil. To identify the impact of Apex's assistance on firms' export propensity, the paper relies on a procedure of matching difference-in-difference estimators. The empirical results show evidence of the program's positive impact on the probability of promoting new exporters. The effect is heterogeneous according to firms' size categories and sectors. Furthermore...

Export Promotion Agencies Revisited

Lederman, Daniel; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Payton, Lucy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
The number of national export promotion agencies has tripled over the past two decades. Although more countries made them part of their export strategy, studies criticized their efficacy in developing countries. The agencies were retooled, partly in response to these critiques. This paper studies the impact of today's export promotion agencies and their strategies, based on new survey data covering 103 developing and developed countries. The results suggest that on average they have a statistically significant effect on exports. The identification strategies highlight the importance of EPA services for overcoming foreign trade barriers and solving asymmetric information problems associated with exports of heterogeneous goods. There are also strong diminishing returns, suggesting that as far as export promotion agencies are concerned, small is beautiful.

Colombia - Peace Programmatic I : Demobilization and Reinsertion of Ex-Combatants in Colombia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This report presents the results of the study on the demobilization and reinsertion of excombatants from illegal armed groups in Colombia. The report describes and analyzes the Colombian case, compares it with international experience, discusses critical issues of the current program, and presents options to improve its design and implementation. The study responds to a request by the Colombian government to conduct an assessment of the previous and current approaches to demobilization and reinsertion in Colombia and, in light of national and international experience, to present options to improve the program. This study relied principally on secondary data and information from existing studies, essays, and press articles produced by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, United Nations and bilateral agencies, specialized analysts, and media. The analysis also used primary information collected for the study, including: (1) information from interviews with government and non-government sources about the current condition of individuals demobilized during the 1990s; (2) the profiles of a sample of young excombatants (18-26 years old) enrolled in the current reinsertion program in Medellin and Bogota; (3) the assessment of the demobilization and reinsertion experience of the 1990s as viewed by leaders of existing foundations from four of the demobilized groups; and (4) a special work session held with 50 representatives from diverse private-sector associations and businesses. This study assesses Colombia's experience using a framework of five interwoven phases from armed conflict to peace: prevention...

Increasing Selectivity of Foreign Aid, 1984-2002

Dollar, David; Levin, Victoria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The authors examine the allocation of foreign aid by 41 donor agencies, bilateral and multilateral. Their policy selectivity index measures the extent to which a donor's assistance is targeted to countries with sound institutions and policies, controlling for per capita income and population. The poverty selectivity index analogously looks at how well a donor's assistance is targeted to poor countries, controlling for institutional and policy environment as measured by a World Bank index. The authors' main finding is that the same group of multilateral and bilateral aid agencies that are very policy focused are also very poverty focused. The donors that appear high up in both rankings are the World Bank's International Development Association, the International Monetary Fund's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Norway, Ireland, and the Netherlands. As a robustness check the authors alternatively use institutional quality measures independent of the World Bank and find the same pattern of selectivity. They also find that policy selectivity is a new phenomenon: in the 1984-89 period...

Review of Risk Mitigation Instruments for Infrastructure Financing and Recent Trends and Developments

Matsukawa, Tomoko; Habeck, Odo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
The objective of the Review of Risk Mitigation Instruments for Infrastructure Financing and Recent Trends and Developments is to provide a concise yet comprehensive guide as well as reference information for practitioners of infrastructure financing, including private sector financiers and developing country officials. The work is also intended as a reference for institutions offering (or developing) risk mitigation instruments, allowing them to learn from each other's recent practices. The book is organized into five chapters with the following objectives: Chapter 1 Type of Risk Mitigation Instruments: increases awareness of the different types and nature of risk mitigation instruments currently available for private financiers. Chapter 2 Recent Trends in Risk Mitigation: highlights areas in risk mitigation for developing country infrastructure financing receiving recent attention. Chapter 3 Characteristics of Providers and Compatibility: summarizes the characteristics of multilateral, bilateral, and private providers of risk mitigation instruments and the compatibility of those instruments. Chapter 4 Innovative Application of Risk Mitigation Instruments: presents recent developments and innovative applications of risk mitigation instruments through case transactions. Chapter 5 Challenges Ahead: summarizes areas that pose challenges to the use of risk mitigation instruments as catalysts of infrastructure development. The focus of this book is on the multilateral development banks and agencies (that is...

Foreign-Aid Donors’ Allocation Preferences across Bilateral and Multilateral Channels

Woollacott, Jared
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
This paper examines how developed countries allocate foreign aid to less developed countries. In giving aid, countries act on a variety of motives that have received much attention in academic literature. I focus on three motives: geopolitical, commercial, and humanitarian. Once being motivated to give aid, a donor must decide how it will do so. Broadly, the donor can use bilateral or multilateral channels – it can act alone or with its peers. Each method comes with particular costs and benefits for donors, and one channel might better serve certain motives than another might. The primary task of this work is to identify for which criteria major donors exhibit strong channel preferences.1 Donors exhibit a strong multilateral bias in allocating on democracy (humanitarian) and capital openness (commercial). These criteria share certain characteristics that make them likely candidates for multilateral channels. First, both objectives are widely shared by major western donors. Second, they both confer broad benefits that are difficult for donors to particularize to certain interest groups. Third, they are critical aspects of a country’s political and economic control, requiring large-scale coordinated efforts if donors hope to induce changes in recipient governments. By expressing these preferences through multilateral channels...

The determinants of aid allocation by regional multilateral development banks and United Nations agencies

Neumayer, Eric
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
This paper examines which factors can explain the allocation of aid by four regional development banks as well as three United Nations agencies. The results suggest the following: Most donors examined also exhibit a bias apparent in bilateral aid allocation in favor of less populous countries. Some of them also share another bias of bilateral donors who give more aid to their former colonies. However, the three United Nations agencies contravene a third bias of bilateral aid allocation and provide more aid to countries geographically more distant from the centers of the Western world. While the regional development banks with the possible exception of the Inter-American one focus exclusively on economic need as measured by per capita income, the three United Nations agencies also take into account human development need in their aid allocation as measured by the Physical Quality of Life Index. Some tentative evidence is found that respect for political freedom is rewarded with higher aid receipts at the aggregate multilateral level and by the Inter-American Development Bank as well as perhaps, in a few estimations, by two of the three United Nations agencies. Neither respect for personal integrity rights nor low levels of perceived corruption play any role in the allocation of aid by the donors looked at. In general...