Página 1 dos resultados de 146 itens digitais encontrados em 0.005 segundos

HLA-matched living-related conjunctival limbal allograft for bilateral ocular surface disorders : long-term results; Transplante alogênico inter vivo de limbo conjuntival com pareamento HLA em doenças bilaterais da superfície ocular : resultados em longo prazo

Scocco, Caio Augusto; Kwitko, Sergio; Rymer, Samuel; Marinho, Diane Ruschel; Bocaccio, Francisco Jose de Lima; Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo Leivas
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados em longo prazo do transplante alogênico inter vivo de limbo conjuntival para doenças bilaterais da superfície ocular com compatibilidade HLA doador-receptor. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, não comparativo e intervencionista de 39 olhos de 32 pacientes submetidos a transplante alogênico de limbo com compatibilidade HLA e diagnóstico de deficiência límbica. Foram analisados como desfechos principais acuidade visual, visão ambulatorial (≥ 20/200) e estabilidade da superfície ocular. Limbo doador foi obtido de parentes do paciente após estudo de compatibilidade HLA classe I e II. Resultados: Com um ano de pós-operatório, a acuidade visual melhorou em 46,2%, visão ambulatorial foi atingida em 48,7% e estabilidade da superfície corneana em 84,6% dos pacientes. Ao final do seguimento (média, 48,7 ± 30,6 meses), 66,6% dos olhos que haviam ganho acuidade visual um ano após a cirurgia mantiveram esta melhora (p=0,28), 94,7% dos olhos que haviam alcançado visão ambulatorial um ano após a cirurgia mantiveram visão de 20/200 ou melhor (p<0,001) e 93,9% ainda tinham superfície corneana estável (p=0,043) ao final do seguimento. Conclusões: O transplante alogênico inter vivo de limbo conjuntival com compatibilidade HLA revelou-se método adequado no tratamento de doenças bilaterais da superfície ocular...

HLA-matched living-related conjunctival limbal allograft for bilateral ocular surface disorders: long-term results

Scocco,Caio; Kwitko,Sérgio; Rymer,Samuel; Marinho,Diane; Bocaccio,Francisco; Lindenmeyer,Rodrigo
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcome of HLA-matched lr-CLAL for bilateral ocular surface disorders. METHODS: A retrospective, non-comparative interventional case series study of 39 eyes of 32 patients with bilateral surface disorders and clinical diagnosis of limbal stem cell deficiency who underwent HLA-matched lr-CLAL. Visual acuity (VA), ambulatory vision (> 20/200) and ocular surface stability were evaluated as main outcomes. Donor limbus was obtained from a sibling or a parent of the patient, after an appropriate Class I and II HLA match. RESULTS: One year after surgery, VA improved in 46.2%, ambulatory vision was achieved in 48.7% and a stable corneal surface was achieved in 84.6% of the eyes. At the final follow-up (mean, 48.7 ± 30.6 months), 66.6% of the eyes that had gained VA one year after surgery maintained an improved VA (p=0.28), 94.7% of eyes that had achieved ambulatory vision one year after surgery maintained 20/200 or better (p<0.001) and 93.9% still had a stable corneal surface (p=0.043) at the final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: HLA-matched lr-CLAL can be an adequate method of treatment for bilateral ocular surface disorders, with a reasonable percentage of success of long-term results.

A Revolution in Capacity Development? Africans Ask Tough Questions

Missika-Wierzba, Bathylle; Nelson, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
In the past year, the donor community has paid unprecedented attention to the subject of capacity development. From the World Bank task force on capacity development in Africa to the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness, donors have signaled both the importance of the issue to African development and a new determination to improve results on capacity development interventions. For African practitioners, however, whether this new attention will result in real changes is still unclear. This brief examines some of the African reactions, gathered through a series of consultations in the past year, to growing attention on capacity development among donors. Unless the new commitments lead to real changes in behavior on the ground, the African practitioners say, the latest commitments will simply be remembered as yet another missed turning point.

The Effect of Aid on Growth : Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

Galiani, Sebastian; Knack, Stephen; Xu, Lixin Colin; Zou, Ben
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
The literature on aid and growth has not found a convincing instrumental variable to identify the causal effects of aid. This paper exploits an instrumental variable based on the fact that since 1987, eligibility for aid from the International Development Association (IDA) has been based partly on whether or not a country is below a certain threshold of per capita income. The paper finds evidence that other donors tend to reinforce rather than compensate for reductions in IDA aid following threshold crossings. Overall, aid as a share of gross national income (GNI) drops about 59 percent on average after countries cross the threshold. Focusing on the 35 countries that have crossed the income threshold from below between 1987 and 2010, a positive, statistically significant, and economically sizable effect of aid on growth is found. A one percentage point increase in the aid to GNI ratio from the sample mean raises annual real per capita growth in gross domestic product by approximately 0.35 percentage points. The analysis shows that the main channel through which aid promotes growth is by increasing physical investment.

No security without development : no development without security : European donors and fragile states in Africa

BESANCENOT, Sophie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
In recent years, international donors have steadily increased their focus on fragile states, defined by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) as “those failing to provide basic services to poor people because they are unwilling or unable to do so”. An indication of this shift is the nature of the policies promoted by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD, which encourages bilateral donors that work with fragile states to adopt a whole-of-government approach, i.e. to develop cross-departmental cooperation between defence, diplomacy and development administrations. The question as to why some bilateral donors implement such integrated approaches to confront challenges in fragile states, while others only do so marginally or not at all still remains. Neither the existing literatures on security or development cultures nor the current securitization theories are able to explain the different levels and patterns of implementation of these specific OECD/DAC recommendations. In this thesis, I use the concept of “the organization of hypocrisy” to understand the complex relationship, and often the discrepancy, that exists between “talk” and “action” in the policy attempts to link security and development. Donor organizations are routinely confronted with the security and development demands of various actors. They need to act to produce results...

Which Donors, Which Funds?; The Choice of Multilateral Funds by Bilateral Donors at the World Bank

Reinsberg, Bernhard; Michaelowa, Katharina; Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
The rapid growth of trust funds at multilateral development organizations has been widely neglected in the academic literature so far. Using a simple illustrative model, this paper examines the choice by sovereign donors among various trust fund options. The authors contend that the choice among the different trust funds involves a fundamental trade-off: larger funds provide donors with the benefit of burden sharing. Conversely, each donor can better assert its individual preferences in a fund with fewer other donors. The theoretical considerations yield testable implications on a range of factors affecting this fundamental tradeoff, most notably the area of intervention of the trust fund and competing domestic interests of donor countries. Using a sample of World Bank trust funds, the paper examines the participation decisions of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee donors over the past decade. In line with the theoretical argument, preference homogeneity among donors as well as indicators for global activities and fragile states assistance are robust determinants of participation in (large) multi-donor funds. In contrast...

On the Delegation of Aid Implementation to Multilateral Agencies

Annen, Kurt; Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Some multilateral agencies implement aid projects in a broad range of sectors, with aid disbursements showing a strong overlap with those of bilateral donors. The question then arises of why do bilateral donors delegate sizable shares of their aid to non-specialized agencies for implementation? This paper develops a game theoretic model to explain this puzzle. Donors delegate aid implementation to the multilateral agency (ML) to strengthen the policy selectivity of aid, incentivizing policy improvements in recipient countries, in turn improving aid’s development effectiveness. Bilateral donors are better off delegating aid to ML even when they are purely altruistic but disagree on how aid should be distributed across recipients. Key for our result to hold is that ML searches some middle ground among disagreeing donors. Aid selectivity—in terms of both policy and poverty—emerges endogenously and is credible, as it is the solution to ML’s optimization problem. Moreover, the model shows that if one sufficiently large donor is policy selective in its aid allocations...

Towards a More Effective Operational Response : Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in South and East Asian Countries, Volume 1, Policy Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The detrimental health effects of environmental exposure to arsenic have become increasingly clear in the last few years. High concentrations detected in groundwater from a number of aquifers across the world, including in South and East Asia, have been found responsible for health problems ranging from skin disorders to cardiovascular disease and cancer. The problem has increased greatly in recent years with the growing use of tubewells to tap groundwater for water supply and irrigation. The water delivered by these tubewells has been found in many cases to be contaminated with higher than recommended levels of arsenic. In the study region, countries affected include Bangladesh (the worst affected), India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan (South Asia); and Cambodia, China (including Taiwan), Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam (East Asia). This study concentrates on operational responses to arsenic contamination that may be of practical use to actors who invest in water infrastructure in the affected countries, including governments, donors, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

Yemen - Sector Wide Approach in the Water Sector : Assessment of Readiness and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This report reviews the economically vital and under-funded water sector in Yemen in alignment with the national water strategy and in harmonization with Yemen's development partners to provide support to water strategy implementation. The results indicate that at the level of the water sector, there is willingness and desire to move to a sector wide approach. Yemen National Water Sector Strategy and Investment Program was an integrated and shared strategy and could serve as a platform for common and integrated approaches to sector investment. Therefore, the Government of Yemen and donors agreed to explore the possibilitiessector wide approach investment strategy and the Bank was asked to help assess the potential relevance and scope. Many of the broad framework conditions are there, although preparation work is needed and there are some impediments to alignment that will need to be tackled. Amongst the subsectors, rural water should be a priority because it is poised to move ahead with a restructuring that will repair its current fragmented state. The report concludes that the potential benefits of moving into a sector wide approach framework ensures stronger country ownership...

Improving the Dynamics of Aid : Towards More Predictable Budget Support

Eifert, Benn; Gelb, Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This paper considers approaches towards improving the predictability of aid to low income countries, with a special focus on budget support. In order to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, the donor community is increasing aid flows while pushing for more coordination and tighter performance-based selectivity. However, these factors may increase the unpredictability of aid from current levels, which are already high enough to impose significant costs. Predictability is a particular challenge in the area of budget support, which will continue to increase in importance as aid is sought to underpin longer-term recurrent spending commitments. Budget support reduces transactions costs and drains on capacity, but it tends to be more vulnerable to fluctuations than multi-year project support. Poor predictability raises the threat of a low-level equilibrium: countries, budgeting prudently within a medium-term fiscal framework, will discount commitments; donors will see few funding gaps, so pledges will fall. With some countries discounting aid commitments in formulating budgets, some already see signs of this happening. To improve predictability, donors must extend their funding horizons. However, even if this can be done...

Arab Donors Respond Favorably to the Global Financial Crisis

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The World Bank's 2010 study, Arab Development Assistance: four decades of cooperation, showed that Arab countries have been generous donors over the years, particularly the three Gulf countries - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which represent over 90 percent of total Arab aid provided by those countries on which information is available. This paper confirms that the generosity extends to the period of the global financial and economic crisis. Arab Gulf countries and regional financial institutions were responsive to this new reality and collectively scaled up financial assistance to address critical development and humanitarian needs in developing countries.

Policy Selectivity Forgone: Debt and Donor Behavior in Africa

Birdsall, Nancy; Claessens, Stijn; Diwan, Ishac
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Authors assess the dynamics behind the high net resource transfers by donors and creditors to Sub-Saharan African countries. Analyzing the determinants of overall net transfers for a panel of 37 recipient countries in 1978-98, Authors find that country policies mattered little. Donors especially bilateral donors actually made greater transfers to countries with high debt, largely owed to multilateral creditors, when policies were 'bad'. Authors conclude that comprehensive debt relief has the potential, though not the certainty, to restore selectivity in support of good policies. That would make development assistance more effective going forward and increase public support in donor countries.

Arab Donors' Early Response to the Arab Spring

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The World Bank's 2010 study, Arab Development Assistance: four decades of cooperation, and the subsequent note, Arab donors respond favorably to the global financial crisis (Rouis 2011), showed that the three Gulf countries - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have provided generous aid financing over the years. This paper, which extends the analysis to 2010 for Arab overseas development assistance (ODA) and to 2011 for the assistance provided by the Arab regional financial institutions, confirms that this generosity continues in the wake of the global economic crisis and the events of the Arab Spring movement. The paper shows that Arab assistance has been responsive in addressing critical development and humanitarian needs in developing countries. There are preliminary indications that Arab donors and financial institutions have made some adjustments in response to the needs of the Arab countries going through the unprecedented political transition sparked by the Arab Spring. Arab donor countries and financial institutions have responded favorably and promptly during the global economic and financial crisis. Their increased assistance to countries affected by the Arab Spring has yet to materialize beyond the stage of pledges and commitments.

When Do Donors Trust Recipient Country Systems?

Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness sets targets for increased use by donors of recipient country systems for managing aid. The target is premised on a view that country systems are strengthened when donors trust recipients to manage aid funds, but undermined when donors manage aid through their own separate parallel systems. This study provides an analytical framework for understanding donors' decisions to trust or bypass country systems. Empirical tests are conducted using data from three OECD-DAC surveys designed to monitor progress toward Paris Declaration goals. Tests show that a donor's use of the recipient country's systems is positively related to: (1) the donor's share of aid provided to the recipient (a proxy for the donor's reputational stake in the country's development); (2) perceptions of corruption in the recipient country (a proxy for the trustworthiness or quality of the country's systems); and (3) public support for aid in the donor country (a proxy for the donor's risk tolerance). Findings are robust to corrections for potential sample selection...

Horizontal Adaptable Program Lending : Assessing Suitability for Risk Management of Natural and Climate-induced Hazards in Pacific Island Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The Pacific Island Countries (PICs) are highly vulnerable to natural and climate-induced hazards and this vulnerability is likely to increase over the coming decades. Climate change and natural hazards will have repercussions on coastal development, water supply, energy, agriculture, and health, among other sectors. Therefore, risk management of natural and climate-induced hazards (RMNCH), including climate adaptation, are core development issues for the PICs and the economic, social and environmental benefits of RMnCH investments are likely to far outweigh their costs. The World Bank is currently considering scaling up its engagement in RMNCH activities in the PICs. Specifically, the intention is to develop a business plan to address priority RMCH issues, including both technical assistance and investment activities. However, given the large number, diversity, specific needs, relatively small size, and isolation of the PICs, providing assistance using traditional lending instruments could be a costly...

The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This is the Global Program Review (GPR) of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). The objectives of the Facility are: (a) to assist eligible Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) countries in their efforts to achieve emission reductions from deforestation and/or forest degradation by providing them with financial and technical assistance in building their capacity to benefit from possible future systems of positive incentives for REDD; (b) to pilot a performance-based payment system for emission reductions generated from REDD activities, with a view to ensuring equitable benefit sharing and promoting future, large-scale positive incentives for REDD; (c) to test ways to sustain or enhance livelihoods of local communities and to conserve biodiversity; and (d) to disseminate broadly the knowledge gained in the development of the Facility and implementation of readiness preparation proposals and emission reduction programs. This review concludes that that the FCPF has been an innovative program that has added significant value at the global level in defining the modalities of REDD+ and has produced a roadmap for countries to achieve REDD+ readiness. The FCPF has been willing to take risks and pioneer new ways of doing business. It has created a space for inclusive and transparent debate among donors...

Interactions Among Donors' Aid Allocations : Evidence from an Exogenous World Bank Income Threshold

Knack, Stephen; Xu, Lixin Colin; Zou, Ben
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This study investigates the effects of the World Bank's exogenously-determined income threshold for eligibility for concessionary International Development Association (IDA) loans on the allocations of bilateral donors. The donors might interpret the World Bank's policies and allocations across recipients as informative signals of where their own aid might be used most effectively. Alternatively, other donors might compensate for reduced IDA allocations by increasing their own aid. This paper shows that the signaling effect dominates any crowding out effects. The analysis uses panel data with country fixed effects and finds that aid from the bilateral donor countries is significantly reduced after countries cross the IDA income cutoff, controlling for other determinants of aid. Allocations by other donors are not sensitive to actual IDA disbursements, only to the IDA income threshold. Because crossing the income cutoff for eligibility significantly reduces aid levels from other donors as well as from the World Bank...

The Drive to Partnership : Aid Coordination, and the World Bank

Eriksson, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
The report reviews the Bank's experience with aid coordination, which lies at the intersection of many development effectiveness challenges. While globalization has brought new opportunities for development rewards, poverty has increased, and concessional aid shrunk. In 1995, the Bank focused on enhanced development effectiveness, emphasizing on linkages with the development community. An evaluative research was undertaken in 1998/99, and since then, aid coordination, and partnership has intensified, through initiatives such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), a process by which low-income countries are preparing PRSPs, and, efforts among developing agencies, and bilateral donors are being made. However, the report finds that many challenges still lie ahead, and, examines results-based conceptual frameworks, through the determinants of effective country-led aid coordination, and mutual responsibility under country leadership, through selected country experiences, measuring the quality of aid coordination. While the review concludes that the development community has been well-served by the Bank's leadership...

The Influence of Social Analysis on a Solid Waste Management Project : West Bank and Gaza

Davis, Deborah
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The West Bank and Gaza suffer from severe environmental degradation, including deterioration of groundwater and uncontrolled dumping of solid waste. These problems have been addressed in Gaza with the assistance of bilateral donors, but until the design of the Solid Waste and Environment Management Project (SWEMP) in 2000, they were largely neglected in the West Bank. Solid waste management practices in the West Bank are characterized by infrequent and inadequate waste collection services, improper disposal at open dump sites, and open air burning. Hospital and household waste are mixed together at sites that are only marginally controlled. Litter and waste are dumped in open lots, on the roadside, and in small village dumps. Odors from these sites discourage tourism, thus depriving residents of a possible source of income. Moreover, runoff and leachate threaten to pollute groundwater aquifers, the West Bank's main source of water supply. These environmental and public health problems are compounded by weak infrastructure and lack of institutional capacity.

Foreign-Aid Donors’ Allocation Preferences across Bilateral and Multilateral Channels

Woollacott, Jared
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.61%
This paper examines how developed countries allocate foreign aid to less developed countries. In giving aid, countries act on a variety of motives that have received much attention in academic literature. I focus on three motives: geopolitical, commercial, and humanitarian. Once being motivated to give aid, a donor must decide how it will do so. Broadly, the donor can use bilateral or multilateral channels – it can act alone or with its peers. Each method comes with particular costs and benefits for donors, and one channel might better serve certain motives than another might. The primary task of this work is to identify for which criteria major donors exhibit strong channel preferences.1 Donors exhibit a strong multilateral bias in allocating on democracy (humanitarian) and capital openness (commercial). These criteria share certain characteristics that make them likely candidates for multilateral channels. First, both objectives are widely shared by major western donors. Second, they both confer broad benefits that are difficult for donors to particularize to certain interest groups. Third, they are critical aspects of a country’s political and economic control, requiring large-scale coordinated efforts if donors hope to induce changes in recipient governments. By expressing these preferences through multilateral channels...