Página 1 dos resultados de 1204 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

Reforming Government Debt Markets in MENA

Garcia-Kilroy, Catiana; Silva, Anderson Caputo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
This paper examines the current stage of development of government securities markets in the non-GCC MENA region focusing in five countries that have government bond markets with a minimum size and greater potential for market development: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia. The analysis focuses on the five key building blocks that normally sustain deep and liquid public debt markets: (i) money markets; (ii) primary market (issuance policy and placement mechanisms); (iii) secondary market organization; (iv) investor base; and (v) clearing and settlement infrastructure. The study shows that despite country differences, several common weaknesses in the key building blocks explain the underdevelopment of MENA bond markets. Most important among these are a symbiotic relationship between banks and Governments caused by lack of alternative investments that makes banks act as captive demand and dominate bond markets, opportunistic primary issuance practices, and excess liquidity in the financial system. These demand and supply characteristics have led to highly concentrated buy-and-hold portfolios by banks and State-owned institutions...

Financial Institutions and Markets across Countries and over Time : Data and Analysis

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This paper introduces the updated and expanded version of the Financial Development and Structure Database and presents recent trends in structure and development of financial institutions and markets across countries. The authors add indicators on banking structure and financial globalization. They find a deepening of both financial markets and institutions, a trend concentrated in high-income countries and more pronounced for markets than for banks. Similarly, the recent increase in cross-border lending and debt issues has been concentrated in high-income countries, while low and lower-middle income countries have experienced an increase in remittance flows. Low net interest margins, rising profitability and declining stability in high-income countries banking sectors characterize the recent financial sector boom in high income countries leading up to the global financial crisis of 2007.

Does Financial Openness Lead to Deeper Domestic Financial Markets?

Calderón, César; Kubota, Megumi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
Advanced and emerging market economies have rapidly integrated into international capital markets and this growing globalization of financial markets has led to some important changes in the patterns of saving and investment across the world. The main goal of this paper is to test whether the cross-border asset trade has led to improvements in the intermediation of these savings -- that is, foster development of domestic financial markets. The authors have collected annual information on financial market development, financial openness, and other control variables for a sample of 145 countries for the period 1974-2007. Controlling for the likely endogeneity of financial openness, the analysis finds that rising financial openness expands private credit, bank assets, and stock market and private bond market development, and generates efficiency gains in the banking system. However, the impact of financial openness on domestic financial development may depend on the level of institutional quality, the extent of investor protection...

Financial Institutions and Markets across Countries and over Time

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
This article introduces the updated and expanded version of the Financial Development and Structure Database. The database includes indicators on the size, efficiency, and stability of banks, nonbank financial institutions, and equity and bond markets over 1960–2007. It also contains indicators of financial globalization.

Broadening the Offering Choice of Corporate Bonds in Emerging Markets : Cost-Effective Access to Debt Capital

Endo, Tadashi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
The development of corporate bond markets has been constrained in many emerging economies, partly because the regulatory model is implicitly designed for stand-alone public offerings. Corporate bonds are intrinsically more suitable for non-retail investors than for retail investors. Nonetheless, the prevailing regulatory model puts an excessive emphasis on disclosure and investor protection as well as government oversight, regardless of targeted investors. Such a non-differentiating regulatory approach disconnects issuers from investors by considerably raising opportunity costs to issuers. Broadening the choice of offering methods would lower corporate bond issuance costs, thereby allowing more issuers to finance their investments with bond issues. Additional forms of offerings are traditional private placements, institutional offerings, and shelf registration facilitated by integrated disclosure.

How Firms Use Domestic and International Corporate Bond Markets

Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
This paper provides the first comprehensive documentation of how firms use domestic and international corporate bond markets. Debt issues in domestic and international markets have different characteristics, not explained by differences across firms or countries. International issues tend to be larger, of shorter maturity, denominated in foreign currency, include more fixed rate contracts, and entail lower yields. These patterns remain when analyzing issues by firms from countries with more developed domestic markets and higher financial integration, and even when comparing issues conducted by the same firm in different markets. These findings are consistent with the views that (1) frictions limit the ability of investors and firms to enter into certain contracts in certain markets, (2) domestic and international markets provide distinct financial services and firms use them as complements, and (3) firms with access to domestic and international markets enjoy advantages relative to those that rely solely on domestic markets.

Bangladesh - Non-Lending Technical Assistance on Capital Markets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
The Bangladesh stock market experienced significant volatility in late 2010 and early 2011 which took stock values high above fundamentals and threatened the stability of the financial system. This note takes a systematic look at the capital markets underpinnings in Bangladesh, including the regulatory framework, the rule-making bodies and enforcement issues. It also addresses systemic weaknesses responsible for market instability which was observed at the end of 2010 and early 2011. The note analyses the outlines specific areas of potential vulnerabilities of securities markets, as assessed against appropriate practice guidelines for stability, sustainability, transparency, and enforcement. A plan of action going forward is also suggested. This note draws on a considerable amount of prior analytical work. Bangladesh capital markets remain ineffective. The government debt securities markets are illiquid preventing the Bangladesh financial system from relying on a market-based yield curve. Bangladesh has yet to develop an active money market. Trading of treasury bills in the secondary market is limited because these instruments...

Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to address the key impediments to the development of a dynamic and robust corporate bond market. This study provides a comprehensive review of the Turkish corporate bond market: chapter two provides an overview of the Turkish economy and financial sector; chapter three discusses key impediments to the vibrant development of the corporate bond; chapter four looks at the Turkish bond market within global bond markets and gives a review of the Turkish government bond market; chapter five discusses issues relating to the investor base, factors constraining the growth of a broad and diversified investor base are highlighted; chapter six provides an overview of derivatives market in Turkey and discusses its important role in enhancing liquidity in the secondary markets for government and corporate bonds. The study concludes with a recommended roadmap to develop the corporate bond market in chapter seven. The annexes cover the latest corporate bond offerings in Turkey and examine the expected transaction costs. Survey details of the survey are also in the annex...

Foreign Investment in Local Currency Bonds : Considerations for Emerging Market Public Debt Managers

Sienaert, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
Foreign investors are increasingly important participants in the local currency sovereign bond markets of developing countries. This note provides context on the overall growth of local currency sovereign debt markets in emerging markets and the growth of foreign investor participation in these markets, a short review of the relevant academic literature, and a summary of the sources of foreign demand. The note concludes with a discussion of the implications of growing foreign investor participation for the managers of public domestic debt in developing countries. The aim of the note is to provide a useful, practically-oriented primer for debt managers beginning to engage on this issue, and in particular to facilitate moving the dialogue beyond overly simple categorizations of countries as "emerging markets" and of investors as a homogeneous source of "hot money".

The Financing and Growth of Firms in China and India : Evidence from Capital Markets

Didier, Tatiana; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
This paper studies the extent to which firms in China and India use capital markets to obtain financing and grow. Using a unique data set on domestic and international capital raising activity and firm performance, it finds that the expansion of financial market activity since the 1990s has been more limited than what the aggregate figures suggest. Relatively few firms raise capital. Even fewer firms capture the bulk of the financing. Moreover, firms that issue equity or bonds are different and behave differently from other publicly listed firms. Among other things, they are typically larger and grow faster. The differences between users and non-users exist before the capital raising activity, are associated with the probability of raising capital, and become more accentuated afterward. The distribution of issuing firms shifts more over time than the distribution of those that do not issue, suggesting little convergence in firm size among listed firms.

Malaysia : Bond Market Development

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
This paper pertains to the bond market development in Malaysia, and provides an overview of the market scenario in the country. Malaysia has been successful in developing the capital markets, particularly bond markets, in the recent past. Now, it faces the challenge of how to improve broader access and efficiency of the bond market. A high degree of investor concentration, dominated by government pension funds, plays a significant role in impeding the growth of higher-yield bond market. The role of the government in stimulating the growth of the bond markets should be now shifted toward encouraging more diversity. In order to promote risk diversity, significant measures should be taken to increase competition on the demand side. Another important challenge for the bond markets going forward is improving transparency to make them more attractive to a broader constituency. To improve liquidity and transparency, the authorities should encourage the establishment of open, independent electronic platforms that integrate price search...

European Economic and Monetary Union Sovereign Debt Markets

Sensoy, Ahmet; Hacihasanoglu, Erk; Rostom, Ahmed
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
This paper focuses on developments in the European Economic and Monetary Union sovereign debt markets in the past decade. The first part analyzes the integration and segmentation structure of the bond markets of the Economic and Monetary Union before and after the sovereign debt crisis, by introducing the novel concept of correlation-based stable networks. Accordingly, a fair integration is observed between the bond markets during the pre-crisis period. However, a strict segmentation emerges, separating the members struggling with debt problems and the ones with relatively strong fiscal performances during the sovereign debt turmoil. The segmentation structure is clearly visualized, revealing the potential paths for crisis and recovery transmission in the future. In the second part, the paper comments on the recent decreasing trend in Economic and Monetary Union member bond yields and their increasing degree of co-movement. Accordingly, the paper argues that these changes do not depend on the fiscal performances of the member countries...

Global Economic Prospects : Financial Markets Outlook, June 2014

Ju Kim, Eung; Stocker, Marc
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
External financing conditions for developing countries have been remarkably favorable in recent months, reflecting expectations of a more drawn-out period of monetary policy accommodation in high-income countries and some narrowing of external vulnerabilities. Additional easing by the European Central Bank, combined with prospects of modest growth and stable inflation in the United States ( Goldilocks recovery ), helped pull down bond yields and volatility worldwide. These benign conditions currently provide support to capital inflows and activity across developing countries, but could at the same time increase the risk of greater and potentially more abrupt market adjustments ahead. Despite some reduction of current account deficits in several developing countries, many remain vulnerable to sudden shifts in investors sentiment and capital outflows. Following a brief period of market turmoil at the start of the year, global financing conditions have eased consider-ably from March to June. Bond spreads for developing countries (i.e. yield difference with 10-year U.S. Treasury bonds) have narrowed...

Hybrid Issuance Regimes for Corporate Bonds in Emerging Market Countries

Loladze, Tamar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Securities regulators in many developing countries are looking for ways to help grow their nongovernment bond markets to finance development. A common challenge is onerous regulations for issuance of bonds, which tend to discourage companies from coming to market. This paper explains and analyzes an issuance framework—a hybrid offer regime (HBOR)—that is particularly suitable for bonds and could help encourage greater issuance and market growth. The HBOR reduces issuance requirements and approval times for bond issuers but maintains certain protections to ensure investor comfort. While certain aspects of this type of issuance have been covered in literature on private placements, the review of hybrid offer regimes, as discussed in this paper, is new and has been evaluated by the WBG. Drawing on the experience of eight countries, the paper identifies key features of HBORs and highlights important issues for policymakers to consider in their implementation. The findings conclude that the most salient features of HBORs are: i) investment limited to qualified investors...

Global Liquidity and External Bond Issuance in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies

Feyen, Erik; Ghosh, Swati; Kibuuka, Katie; Farazi, Subika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Using the universe of all externally issued bonds by corporates and sovereigns in emerging and developing economies during 2000-14, this paper analyzes various issuance trends, including the unprecedented post-crisis surge. The paper focuses on external issuance at the country-industry and individual bond levels and finds that global factors matter greatly for emerging and developing economies issuance. A decrease in U.S. expected equity market (or interest rate) volatility, U.S. corporate credit spreads, and U.S. interbank funding costs and an increase in the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet (i) raise the odds that the monthly issuance volume of a country-industry is above its historical average; (ii) decrease individual bond yields and spreads; and (iii) raise bond maturities, after controlling for country pull factors, bond characteristics (for example, type of issuer, industry, and riskiness). Additionally, we document support that the risk-taking channel of exchange rate appreciation also operates for external bond issuance. Moreover...

How Firms Use Corporate Bond Markets under Financial Globalization

Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
This paper studies how firms from developed and developing countries have used domestic and international corporate bond markets since the 1990s. We find that debt issues in domestic and international markets have different characteristics. International issues tend to be larger, of shorter maturity, denominated in foreign currency, include more fixed rate contracts, and entail lower yields. These patterns persist even when analyzing issues by firms from countries with more developed domestic markets and higher financial integration and when comparing issues conducted by the same firm in different markets. These findings are consistent with the existence of frictions that segment domestic and international corporate bond markets and with these markets providing distinct financial services.

Developing Government Bond Markets : A Handbook

World Bank; International Monetory Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
This handbook is designed as a reference source for two distinct user groups involved in the development of government bonds markets: 1) senior government officials responsible for developing the government bond market; and 2) individuals responsible for guiding the market development process at the operational level, and who have a substantial need to understand the policy issues involved. The handbook is structured as follows: Chapter 1 provides an overview of certain policy considerations relevant to developing a government bond market. This overview considers key issues, but at a level of generality appropriate for senior govenrment offcials responsible for making key strategic decisions. The remaining eleven chapters present more detailed discussions of key policy issues, including substantive considerations relating to implementation. The handbook's primary emphasis, however, focuses on the policy dimension of developing medium-and long-term bond markets. It is not intended as a technical manual for use by individuals engaged in day-to-day implementation or operations. The handbook also provides bibliographic and website references for those interested in pursuing further issues covered. A comprehensive glossary of terms related to securities markets appears at the end of the handbook.

South Asian Bond Markets : Developing Long-Term Finance for Growth

Sophastienphong, Kiatchai; Mu, Yibin; Saporito, Carlotta
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
Bond markets play an essential part in economies. As part of a diversified financial system, a well-developed domestic bond market can help provide the long-term financing needed for sustainable growth. It can also produce broad-ranging benefits throughout the economy. In South Asia the development of domestic debt securities markets lags. The markets remain small compared both with the size of the region's economies and with markets in East Asia. Even in India the market is still small relative to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), suggesting that long-term debt financing remains at an early stage in the region. Equity markets and banks still dominate South Asian financial systems. Measures are needed to enhance both the depth and the breadth of South Asian bond markets, to bring them into line with those in East Asia and, in the long run, with those in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This study assesses domestic debt securities markets in South Asia, identifies constraints to their development...

Financial Development in Asia : Beyond Aggregate Indicators

Didier, Tatiana; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
This paper documents the major trends in financial development in Asia since the early 1990s and the spillovers to firms. It compares Asia with advanced and emerging countries and uses both aggregate and disaggregate indicators. Financial systems in Asia remain less developed than in advanced countries but more developed than in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Bond and stock markets play a larger role and institutional investors have gained importance. Nonetheless, capital-raising activity has not expanded. A few large companies capture most of the issuances. Many secondary markets remain illiquid. The public sector captures a significant share of bond markets. The largest advancements in Asia occurred in China and India. But still in these countries, few large companies use capital markets to expand and grow, becoming much larger than nonuser firms. In sum, Asia's financial systems remain less developed than aggregate measures suggest, with few spillovers to many firms.

Sukuk Markets : A Proposed Approach for Development

Kusuma, Ketut Ariadi; Caputo Silva, Anderson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
The issuance of sukuk, as an instrument in Islamic finance, has been growing in recent years. Many policy makers and businesses are looking at the sukuk markets as sources of long-term financing. The paper identifies key issues impeding further development of sukuk markets globally, namely, standardization of structures and practices, investor protection concerns relating to insolvency and governance regimes, and market liquidity. The paper also offers approaches in developing domestic sukuk markets and in accessing the international market. The authors suggest that, in developing domestic sukuk markets, policy makers use a framework similar to that of the development of conventional bond markets, that is, by establishing (1) well-functioning money markets, (2) efficient primary markets and securities-offering regimes, (3) a robust and diversified investor base, (4) a market infrastructure that facilitates trading, price transparency, and efficient clearing and settlement of transactions, (5) derivatives market and hedging tools to support risk management by issuers and investors...