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Facilitating Cross-Border Trade between the DRC and Neighbors in the Great Lakes Region of Africa : Improving Conditions for Poor Traders

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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This report looks at the current situation and opportunities for cross-border trade between Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbors with a focus on agricultural products. It recognizes that much of current trade across these borders is informal and carried by individual traders, most of whom are poor women. The report shows that it is very important that informality not be equated with illegality. The large numbers of traders that cross the border every day do so through official border crossings. The aim of the report is to provide information on the current state and the potential for cross border trade between the DRC and Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda, to document the conditions and problems that traders face in crossing the borders and provide suggestions to policy makers on the priorities for trade facilitating measures at the border. Exploiting the potential for cross-border trade will be an important element of growth and poverty reduction in the region and a key mechanism for enhancing stability. Comparing prices for food products in a range of markets in the three countries...

Changes in Cross-Border Trade Costs in the Pan-Arab Free Trade Area, 2001–2008

Hoekman, Bernard; Zarrouk, Jamel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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56.49%
The Pan-Arab Free Trade Area, negotiated under auspices of the Arab League, came into force in 1997. Under the agreement all tariffs on goods of Arab origin were to be removed by January 1, 2005. This paper summarizes the results of a firm-level survey in nine countries regarding the implementation of the Pan-Arab Free Trade Area. A majority of respondent companies report that tariffs on intra-regional trade have largely been removed, and that there has been a marked improvement in customs clearance-related procedures. Costs associated with administrative red tape and weaknesses in transport-related infrastructure services are ranked as the most important constraints to intra-regional trade. This suggests that from a policy perspective, efforts to reduce real trade costs deserve priority, including transportation and logistics services. Periodic monitoring and assessment of trade incentives and performance would help governments to benchmark performance and identify priority areas for action, at both the national and the sub-regional levels.

Facilitating Cross-Border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa

Maimbo, Samuel; Saranga, Tania; Strychacz, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.49%
The use of mobile banking is an increasingly important component of national and regional economic development in Southern Africa. Mobile banking can help bring the large unbanked population into the formal financial sector, and can facilitate cross-border trade by easing the difficulty for small businesses and traders to make financial transactions. For mobile banking to reach its full potential in Southern Africa, however, African governments must establish more efficient regulatory frameworks and implement well-designed pilot programs to gain more insight into the challenges facing a full rollout of mobile banking.

Regional Cross-Border Trade Facilitation and Infrastructure Study for Mashreq Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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46.66%
Many opportunities for trade of the Mashreq (Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon and Syria) countries are being lost because of inefficient trade facilitation processes and procedures, and to a lesser extent because of underdeveloped transport infrastructure. Implementation of the Pan Arab Free Trade Agreement has substantially reduced formal trade barriers between the countries. There is today extensive knowledge on the institutional arrangements for such agencies that work best under different conditions. Trade facilitation and transport services are largely the responsibility of private operators, yet an increase in their effectiveness would come through this agency which would include both private and public sector representation. The institutional proposals included in the short and medium term action plans are designed to create this new context. Recent initiatives within the Arab League to establish sub-regional committees of transport ministers have a similar objective of bringing a more focused attention to addressing trade facilitation issues. The proposal for a corridor management system presented in this report builds on these initiatives and draws on the experience gained from the operation of management systems in other corridors. This study used two analytical tools to assess the major trade and transport impediments to increased trade.

Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment Flows and Trade-Investment Inter-Linkages in Southern Africa : Linking Middle-Income and Low-Income Neighbors

Isik, Gozde; Yoshino, Yutaka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This report discusses the patterns of foreign direct investment flows and trade-investment inter-linkages in Southern Africa. It will discuss how cross-border investment flows create a possible channel of growth spillover from South Africa and other MICs to LICs in the subregion, and identify the roles of subregional trade and investment flows in generating these neighborhood effects with LICs. After an introduction with background on the subregion of Southern Africa, Section 2 provides facts on the patterns of trade in Southern African countries to illustrate how much (or little) the Southern African subregion is integrated today and whether or not intraregional trade is growing. Section 3 presents aggregate trends in foreign direct investment flows (and stocks) in SSA, discusses how SASR is situated in such trends, and analyzes the emerging trends of intra-SASR cross-border investments, largely driven by South Africa. Section 4 analyzes trade-investment linkages in Southern Africa at the firm level. Section 5 discusses areas of domestic policies in enhancing trade and foreign direct investment in Southern Africa. Section 6 summarizes the findings from this analysis and discusses their policy implications.

Trade and Regional Cooperation between Afghanistan and its Neighbors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.67%
The report envisages significant, medium-term benefits for Afghanistan and its neighbors from trade policy liberalization, from country-by-country reforms in trade logistics, and, especially within Afghanistan, from road rehabilitation and building a commercially-oriented enabling environment for trade, private investment and entrepreneurial development. The growth of regional and transit trade will boost private investment and growth in the short-to-medium term and help to realize the long-term vision for Afghanistan as a country moving toward middle-income status, based on sustainable development of its resources. Recommendations focused on Afghanistan include calls for priority action, with broad support from the international community, aimed at: improving security throughout the country both for persons and property; completing the main road rehabilitation, extending telephone and other telecommunication systems and ensuring that after reconstruction maintenance is undertaken to sustain roads in good condition; streamlining of border crossing procedures; reestablishing formal financial and insurance systems including development of a effective clearance and settlement system; implementing a national customs and transit system; eliminating restrictions on direct transit; removing internal checking-posts and en-route inspections; and increasing domestic trucking competition. To foster a strong...

Regional Agreements and Trade Services : Policy Issues

Mattoo, Aaditya; Fink, Carsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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46.66%
Every major regional trade agreement now has a services dimension. Is trade in services so different that there is need to modify the conclusions on preferential agreements pertaining to goods reached so far? The authors first examine the implications of unilateral policy choices in a particular services market. They then explore the economics of international cooperation and identify the circumstances in which a country is more likely to benefit from cooperation in a regional rather than multilateral forum.

Estimating Trade Flows, Describing Trade Relationships, and Identifying Barriers to Cross-Border Trade Between Cameroon and Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.75%
Cameroon and Nigeria share a common border of nearly 1,700km and both countries have strong historical and cultural ties. However, the partnership between the two countries has had its difficult periods, most recently when the relationship turned hostile over the disputed Bakassi Peninsula, and economic linkages between the economies remain limited. Expanding trade between the two countries could play a critical role in accelerating economic development and regional integration by opening up new markets for producers, and allowing them to benefit from economies of scale. This will require reducing barriers to cross-border trade, allowing increased trade flows to reach the larger market, and permitting private sector producers to increase the scale of their activities. Removing barriers to trade between the two neighbors is likely to benefit particularly relatively remote areas of both countries. The study finds that regulatory and security barriers at the border and along the road remain key impediments to trade. The remainder of this report proceeds as follows. Section one describes drivers for cross border trade such as historical relations...

The Security and Trade Facilitation Nexus

Kerswell, Clay; Kunaka, Charles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DCB Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DCB
Tipo: Brief
Português
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46.66%
Improving levels of trade facilitation is one of the remaining challenges to enhancing connectivity and trade growth in South Asia, but border and internal security concerns are often perceived as a barrier to implementing key reforms. Security is a legitimate issue for South Asian nations. But there needs to be a balance to achieve the optimum level of security without restricting trade and damaging a nation’s ‘economic’ security. Even border management agencies employing a ‘100 percent’ intervention policy does not have the resources to examine every package. The challenge is to focus security resources to target transactions of highest risk, using sophisticated analysis of transaction data and maintaining visibility and integrity of supply chains. After the 9/11 attacks, several governments had to address the challenge of securing their national borders and protecting their international supply chains against terrorist threats. There is concern that poor border security risks the trafficking of weapons or drugs...

Dark Costs, Missing Data; Shedding Some Light on Services Trade

Anderson, James E.; Borchert, Ingo; Mattoo, Aaditya; Yotov, Yoto V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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46.69%
A structural gravity model is used to estimate barriers to services trade across many sectors, countries, and time. Since the disaggregated output data needed to infer border barriers flexibly are often missing for services, this paper derives a novel methodology for projecting output data. The empirical implementation sheds light on the role of institutions, geography, size, and digital infrastructure as determinants of border barriers. The paper finds that border barriers have generally fallen over time, but there are differences across sectors and countries. Notably, border effects for the smallest economies have remained stable, giving rise to a divergent pattern across countries.

Regional Trade in Food Staples : Prospects for Stimulating Agricultural Growth and Moderation Food Security Crises in Eastern and Southern Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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56.5%
This report focuses on growing trade in food staples in the Southern and Eastern African region of Africa as one of the largest growth opportunities available to African farmers. This paper examines the impact of regional trade in food staples, both for maintaining farmer incentives in surplus food production zones and for moderating price spikes in deficit areas. The paper begins by identifying the geographic extent of major maize market sheds in Eastern and Southern Africa. It then focuses on the South Eastern Africa market shed, the one centered in Malawi, Northern Mozambique and Zambia. This analysis concentrates on the regions two most important food staples, maize and cassava. Given the volatility of the region's rainfed maize production, this section aims to empirically evaluate the impact of maize production shocks on staple food prices, production incentives, consumption and trade. To do so, the paper develops a spatially disaggregated model o f maize and cassava markets in order to evaluate the impact of supply shocks...

Economic Development and the World Trade Organization After Doha

Hoekman, Bernard M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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46.66%
The author analyzes what actions could be taken in the context of the World Trade Organization's Doha negotiations to assist countries in reaping benefits from deeper trade integration. He discusses the policy agenda that confronts many developing countries and identifies a number of focal points that could be used both as targets and as benchmarks to increase the likelihood that WTO negotiations will support development. To achieve these targets, the author proposes a number of negotiating modalities for both goods and services-related market access issues, as well as rule-making in regulatory areas. Throughout the analysis, the author refers to the work of J. Michael Finger, whose numerous writings in this area have not only greatly influenced the thinking of policymakers and researchers on the interaction between trade policy, economic development, and the GATT/WTO trading system, but also provides a model for how to pursue effective policy research.

Trade Polices for Electronic Commerce

Mattoo, Aaditya; Schuknecht, Ludger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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56.55%
Some countries in the World Trade Organization initially opposed WTO's decision to exempt electronic delivery of products from customs duties, out of concern for the revenue consequences. Others supported the decision as a means of securing open trading conditions. The authors argue that neither the inhibitions nor the enthusiasm is fully justified. First, even if all delivery of digitizable media products moved on-line--an unlikely prospect--the revenue loss for most countries would be small. More important, however, the prohibition of customs duties does not ensure continued open access for electronically delivered products and may even prompt recourse to inferior instruments of protection. Barrier-free electronic commerce would be more effectively secured by deepening and widening the limited cross-border trade commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and by clarifying and strengthening certain GATS disciplines.

What Does MFN Trade Mean for India and Pakistan? Can MFN be a Panacea?

De, Prabir; Raihan, Selim; Ghani, Ejaz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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46.7%
India and Pakistan, the two largest economies in South Asia, share a common border, culture and history. Despite the benefits of proximity, the two neighbors have barely traded with each other. In 2011, trade with Pakistan accounted for less than half a percent of India's total trade, whereas Pakistan's trade with India was 5.4 percent of its total trade. However, the recent thaw in India-Pakistan trade relations could signal a change. Pakistan has agreed to grant most favored nation status to India. India has already granted most favored nation status to Pakistan. What will be the gains from trade for the two countries? Will they be inclusive? Is most favored nation status a panacea? Should the granting of most favored nation status be accompanied by improvements in trade facilitation, infrastructure, connectivity, and logistics to reap the true benefits of trade and to promote shared prosperity? This paper attempts to answer these questions. It examines alternative scenarios on the gains from trade and it finds that what makes most favored nation status work is the trade facilitation that surrounds it. The results of the general equilibrium simulation indicate Pakistan's most favored nation status to India would generate larger benefits if it were supported by improved connectivity and trade facilitation measures. In other words...

Understanding the Benefits of Regional Integration to Trade : The Application of a Gravity Model to the Case of Central America

Gordillo, Darwin Marcelo; Stokenberga, Aiga; Schwartz, Jordan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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46.7%
The paper identifies the impact of physical barriers to trade within Central America through the use of an augmented and partially constrained Gravity Model of Trade. Adjusting the Euclidian distance factor for Central America by real average transport times, the model quantifies the impact of poor connectivity and border frictions on the region's internal trade as well as its trade with external partners, such as the United States and Europe. In addition, the authors benchmark Central America's trade coefficients against those of a physically integrated region by running a parallel Gravity Model for the 15 core countries of the European Union. This allows for the estimation of potential intra-regional and external trade levels if Central America were to reduce border frictions and time of travel between countries and thus benefit from both the adjacency of each country's neighbors and the gravitational pull of the region's economies. The analysis is conducted for all of Central America's trade and is also disaggregated for three groups of products -- processed fruits and vegetables; steel and steel products; and grains -- by both volume and value. This differentiation tests the consistency of the results while providing insight into the differentiation in trading patterns and potential for these containerized...

The Business Environment in Southern Africa : Issues in Trade and Market Integration - Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
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56.69%
This report assesses some of the key barriers to greater trade and factor market integration in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The SADC has been a free trade area since 2008, and has an ambitious agenda for further trade integration. This report assesses the roles that cross-country differences in business environments have had in impeding cross-border trade flows and the cross-border integration of credit markets and the labor market based on the analysis of microeconomic data on firms and households. The aim of the assessment is to help inform the policy and business environment harmonization agenda of the community. The full report discusses and illustrates the use of price data in monitoring intraregional trade integration. The report evaluates the extent of integration of labor markets among members the statistical agencies of which regularly collect the minimum data required for this purpose, which are South Africa, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Zambia. The results show that, although there is considerable integration of South Africa's labor market with many others in the region...

The Business Environment in Southern Africa : Issues in Trade and Market Integration - Full report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
This report assesses some of the key barriers to greater trade and factor market integration in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The SADC has been a free trade area since 2008, and has an ambitious agenda for further trade integration. This report assesses the roles that cross-country differences in business environments have had in impeding cross-border trade flows and the cross-border integration of credit markets and the labor market based on the analysis of microeconomic data on firms and households. The aim of the assessment is to help inform the policy and business environment harmonization agenda of the community. The full report discusses and illustrates the use of price data in monitoring intraregional trade integration. The report evaluates the extent of integration of labor markets among members the statistical agencies of which regularly collect the minimum data required for this purpose, which are South Africa, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Zambia. The results show that, although there is considerable integration of South Africa's labor market with many others in the region...

Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia : Emerging Patterns of Trade and Cross-Border Cooperation

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Mitra, Saumya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.77%
Local populations' economic opportunities can be enhanced through special arrangements governing movement of people and goods in neighboring areas. For instance, in the Tajikistan-Uzbekistan border-crossing points (BCPs), preferential treatment accorded to residents in contiguous regions varies from one BCP to another, even within one borderline, restricting the distance allowed for travel into the territory of another country to the closest large city or marketplace. When governments impose restrictions on the movements of individuals, vehicles, or goods or close BCPs or bazaars, they may do so on public policy grounds. Security is often cited as a factor for imposing controls, as is prevention of contraband trade. Such government imposed obstacles are a blunt and expensive instrument to attain such public policy aims. The income and welfare costs levied on poor communities of such public policies may be disproportionate to achieve stated public policy goals. Instead, BCPs and bazaars could be opened but made subject to strict and effective policing, ideally using risk-based criteria; similarly, risk-based surveillance or vehicle searches could take the place of an outright ban. Moreover, a government may find that the security benefits of stronger community ties across borders may be considerable; after all...

More Favorable and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries : Toward a New Approach in the World Trade Organization

Hoekman, Bernard; Michalopoulos, Constantine; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The authors discuss options that could be considered in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to provide more favorable treatment-so-called special and differential treatment (SDT)-to small and low-income countries. They argue that there is a need both for differentiation across WTO members and for steps that would benefit all developing countries. The authors suggest the following to make the Doha Round more supportive of development: 1) A binding commitment by industrial countries to abolish export subsidies and nontariff barriers (tariff quotas) and to reduce most-favored-nation tariffs on labor-intensive products of export interest to developing countries to no more than 5 percent in 2010, and to no more than 10 percent for agricultural products. All tariffs on manufactures should go to zero by 2015, the target date for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Liberalization should also be undertaken by developing countries on the basis of a formula approach. 2) A binding commitment by industrial countries on services to expand temporary access for service providers by a specific amount-for example...

Estimating Informal Trade across Tunisia's Land Borders

Ayadi, Lotfi; Benjamin, Nancy; Bensassi, Sami; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.71%
This paper uses mirror statistics and research in the field to estimate the magnitude of Tunisia's informal trade with Libya and Algeria. The aim is to assess the scale of this trade and to evaluate the amount lost in taxes and duties as a result as well as to assess the local impact in terms of income generation. The main findings show that within Tunisian trade as a whole, informal trade accounts for only a small share (5 percent of total imports). However, informal trade represents an important part of the Tunisia's bilateral trade with Libya and Algeria, accounting for more than half the official trade with Libya and more than total official trade with Algeria. The main reasons behind this large-scale informal trade are differences in the levels of subsidies on either side of the border as well as the varying tax regimes. Tackling informal trade is not simply a question of stepping up the number of controls and sanctions, because differences in prices lead to informal trade (and to an increase in corruption levels among border officials) even in cases where the sanctions are severe. As local populations depend on cross-border trade for income generation...