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On the continuous equilibria of affiliated-value, all-pay auctions with private budget constraints

Kotowski, Maciej Henryk; Li, Fei
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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66.49%
We consider all-pay auctions in the presence of interdependent, affiliated valuations and private budget constraints. For the sealed-bid, all-pay auction we characterize a symmetric equilibrium in continuous strategies for the case of N bidders. Budget constraints encourage more aggressive bidding among participants with large endowments and intermediate valuations. We extend our results to the war of attrition where we show that budget constraints lead to a uniform amplification of equilibrium bids among bidders with sufficient endowments. An example shows that with both interdependent valuations and private budget constraints, a revenue ranking between the two auction formats is generally not possible. Equilibria with discontinuous bidding strategies are discussed.

Managing Subnational Credit and Default Risks

Waibel, Michael; Liu, Lili
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.48%
As a result of worldwide decentralization, subnational debt is rising. Subnational debt crises in major developing countries in the 1990s have led to strengthened regulatory frameworks for subnational borrowing and insolvency. With the fragility of the global recovery and increasing public debt, and the structural trends of decentralization and urbanization, it becomes more important to prudently manage subnational default risks. Although the regulatory frameworks share central features, the historical context and entry points for reform drive variations across countries. Addressing soft budget constraints is integral to the regulatory framework. Ex ante fiscal rules for subnational governments attempt to limit default risks; ex post regulation predictably allocates default risk, while providing breathing space for orderly debt restructuring and fiscal adjustment, as well as the continued delivery of essential public services. The regulatory reforms are inseparable from the reform of broader intergovernmental fiscal systems and financial markets.

Cameroon - The Path to Fiscal Decentralization : Opportunities and Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.55%
Decentralization in Cameroon is an instrument to meet multiple objectives. This report takes stock of Cameroon s experience with decentralization. It examines whether the design has been coherently formulated and preconditions for decentralization have been put in place. It also suggests short to medium-term proposals to make the process work better, within the constraints of significant data limitations. The design of the decentralization process in Cameroon reflects the normative approaches to decentralization-assuming benign officials and policy makers, and stipulating a normative allocation of responsibilities. In reality, a political economy story is at play, as suggested by developments in the positive literature that drop the assumption of disinterested officials. The legal framework relating to decentralization is overlapping, cumbersome and contradictory, and in many respects open to different interpretations. The main difficulty is that decentralized functions are ill-defined and not distinct from deconcentrated operations of the central government. This report examines the building blocks of the decentralization framework-starting in chapter one with a description of the status quo and the methods to be used. In chapter two discuss the unclear legal framework in Cameroon. The fuzzy spending responsibilities and lack of effective strategy to address the extent and scope of decentralization are examined in chapter three. The weaknesses in information flows and public financial management (PFM) issues...

Structural Adjustment in the Transition : Case Studies from Albania, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Moldova

Siegelbaum, Paul J.; Sherif, Khaled; Borish, Michael; Clarke, George
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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46.41%
The study reviews the performance of four transition countries - Albania, Azerbaijan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Moldova - in the areas of private, and financial sector development, identifying both their achievements, and challenges, to extract beneficial reform efforts, and alternative approaches, setting the pace for sustainable growth. These countries were selected because they are among the poorest in the region, whose problems are seemingly intractable, and have been largely detached from the international marketplace until the transition began. Thus, in terms of history, resource endowment, and proximity to markets they are viewed as "late reformers" in economic development, and competitiveness, despite policy reforms. Enterprise arrears, and soft budget constraints have been a significant problem in many transition economies, more often than not, manifested as some fiscal tightening occurred to offset budget constraints. Hence, a core challenge of the transition is to reduce the role of government from all encompassing presence...

Give Growth and Macroeconomic Stability in Russia a Chance

Pinto, Brian; Drebentsov, Vladimir; Morozov, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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46.37%
The authors analyze the links between Russias disappointing growth performance in the second half of the 1990s, its costly and unsuccessful stabilization, the macroeconomic meltdown of 1998, and the spectacular rise of non-payments. Non-payments flourished in an environment of fundamental inconsistency between a macroeconomic policy geared at sharp disinflation, and a microeconomic policy of bailing enterprises out through soft budget constraints. Heavy untargeted implicit subsidies flowing through the non-payments system (amounting to 10 percent of GDP annually) have stifled growth, contributed to the August 1998 meltdown, through their impact on public debt, and have made at best a questionable contribution to equity. Dismantling this system must be a top priority, along with promoting enterprise restructuring and growth (by hardening budget constraints) and medium-term macroeconomic stability (by reducing the size of subsidies). Getting the government out of the non-payments system means settling all appropriately controlled budgetary expenditures on time...

Ten Years of Transformation

Wyplosz, Charles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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46.46%
After surveying the facts and distilling the voluminous literature on the transition to market economies, the author arrives at several conclusions: with hindsight, the old debate - Big Bang versus gradualism - was really a problem of feasibility, although many of the arguments in favor of the Big Bang have now been proven right. Once more, inflation has been found to be incompatible with growth and the importance of a good microeconomic structure - especially an effective banking system - has been confirmed. The decline of the state in transition economies is both spectacular and puzzling - combining features that are both desirable and dangerous. Among useful lessons learned: 1) It has paid to start early and move fast. The Big Bang is highly desirable but impractical, and gradualism is unavoidable but ought to be compressed as much as possible. The countries that bit the bullet early and hard have done better over the past decade. 2) Stabilize first; growth next. Macroeconomic stabilization is a prerequisite for growth. The budget deficit need not be eliminated...

The effect of soft budget constraints on access and quality in hospital care

Shen, Yu-Chu; Eggleston, Karen
Fonte: National Bureau of Economic Research Publicador: National Bureau of Economic Research
Tipo: Livro
Português
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66.37%
Given an increasingly complex web of financial pressures on providers, studies have examined how the hospitals' overall financial health affect different aspects of hospital operation. In our study, we analyze this issue focusing on hospital access and quality by introducing an important aspect of the financial incentives, soft budget constraints (SBC), that take into account both hospital's current and past financial health as well as their expected financial outlook (i.e., whether there is a sponsoring organization to bail them out). We develop a conceptual framework of SBC by considering the resultant incentives on cost control and quality improvement innovations; and examine the effect of SBC on the following aspects of access and quality: safety net service survival and AMI mortality rates. We find that hospitals with softer budget constraints appear to have better mortality outcomes, suggesting that the reduced incentive to engage in cost control innovation as the result of SBC outweighs the dampening effect of quality improvement innovation.

Decentralization and the Challenge of Hard Budget Constraints; Descentralizacao e o desafio das rigidas contencoes orcamentarias

Rodden, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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66.44%
Since the early 1980s fiscal and political decentralization have spread around the world. But decentralization can encourage dangerous opportunistic behavior by state and local officials. Left unrestricted, such opportunism can undermine macroeconomic stability and other objectives. The most pressing manifestation of this problem is the softening of subnational budget constraints. The impact of decentralization on public sector efficiency and macroeconomic stability depends on a country's ability to prevent lower-level governments from passing on their liabilities to higher-level governments. This note draws on 11 countries to identify institutional factors associated with hard and soft budget constraints and extract policy lessons for other countries.

Reforms under Fiscal Stress : A Policy Note on the Priorities for Fiscal and Budget Reform in Nepal

Bajracharya, Roshan Darshan; Biletska, Nataliya; Rajaram, Anand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.53%
This note, first of the several on fiscal management and policy option notes planned, provides a concise assessment of the achievements to date of the ongoing reforms to budget management in Nepal and concludes with some guidance on the key focus areas of fiscal policy and expenditure management over the near and medium term. It is a selective assessment that looks at major aspects of the policy and budget process with a view to identifying areas for strategic focus, rather than a detailed rendering of the reforms. The note highlights the fiscal challenges that are assuming increasing prominence and which must be addressed by policy decisions and medium term reforms. While recognizing the uniqueness of Nepal's initial conditions, capacities and current security related challenges, the note takes account of international experience in implementing such reforms. The note starts with the economic and political background. The second section reviews fiscal trends and outlines issues to be considered by a fiscal strategy. The third section discusses institutional issues to strengthen the budget process.

Romania - Restructuring for EU Integration--The Policy Agenda : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.37%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) looks at the broad reform program, including institutional, governance, and economic restructuring reforms Romania is pursuing, which are anchored in its process for accession to the European Union (EU). The challenge is to expand integration with the EU more broadly throughout the economy, by relying on market driven mechanisms in a predictable rules-based policy environment, with the state sharply focused on the provision of essential public goods. Implementing the institutional reform agenda is the first priority in the accession-led reform, having the country the largest increase in its share of EU external imports among the Central Eastern European Countries (CEECs), with trade diversification providing a robust foundation for trade expansion. But, to deepen trade integration, Romania would need to broaden its trade performance throughout the economy. On restructuring the enterprise sector, the CEM indicates enterprise reform needs to be accelerated, and budget constraint discipline needs to be extended to the transaction interface between the state and enterprises. As for implementing agricultural transformation...

Romania - Restructuring for EU Integration--The Policy Agenda : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Main Report and Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) looks at the broad reform program, including institutional, governance, and economic restructuring reforms Romania is pursuing, which are anchored in its process for accession to the European Union (EU). The challenge is to expand integration with the EU more broadly throughout the economy, by relying on market driven mechanisms in a predictable rules-based policy environment, with the state sharply focused on the provision of essential public goods. Implementing the institutional reform agenda is the first priority in the accession-led reform, having the country the largest increase in its share of EU external imports among the Central Eastern European Countries (CEECs), with trade diversification providing a robust foundation for trade expansion. But, to deepen trade integration, Romania would need to broaden its trade performance throughout the economy. On restructuring the enterprise sector, the CEM indicates enterprise reform needs to be accelerated, and budget constraint discipline needs to be extended to the transaction interface between the state and enterprises. As for implementing agricultural transformation...

Liquidity Constraints and Investment in Transition Economies; The Case of Bulgaria

Budina, Nina; Garretsen, Harry; de Jong, Eelke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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56.31%
The authors use firm level data on Bulgaria to investigate the impact of liquidity constraints on firms investment performance. Internal funds are a important determinant of investment in most industrial economies. The authors use a simple accelerator model of investment to test whether liquidity constraints are relevant in Bulgaria's case. Their estimates are based on data for 1993-95, before Bulgaria's financial crisis of 1996-97. It turns out that Bulgarian firms are liquidity-constrained and that firms size and financial structure help to distinguish between firms that are more and less liquidity-constrained. In the authors' view, liquidity constraints in transition economies should be interpreted in different ways than those in industrial economies. In Bulgaria, liquidity constraints, and hence access to external funds should be seen in the context of soft budget constraints and the financial systems failure to enforce the efficient allocation of funds. The relationship between liquidity constraints and firm characteristics may actually be the opposite of what is normally the case in industrial countries. In Bulgaria...

Nigeria : State Finances Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.5%
Fiscal management and broader macroeconomic policy is complicated when government financing is highly dependent on natural resource revenues and therefore susceptible to wide fluctuations. This challenge is compounded further in a context of fiscal federalism, particularly when sub national governments have considerable autonomy over their spending, constitute a significant share of consolidated government financing and lack a tradition of strong fiscal discipline. Nigeria happens to be in this situation: government is highly dependent on oil revenues and inappropriate management of the oil revenue cycle has historically been at the heart of macroeconomic instability in the country. In recent years, Nigeria's new fiscal federalism context and the increased autonomy of states, has added additional challenges to the conduct of fiscal and macroeconomic policy. Nigeria is a federation with power and responsibilities shared between the Federal Government and thirty-six constituent state governments' Local governments are constitutionally recognized but are subject to the creation...

Critical Administrative Constraints to Service Delivery : Improving Public Services in Afghanistan's Transformational Decade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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46.52%
Since 2001, the Afghan population's access to basic services has greatly improved in nearly all sectors. School enrolment has increased sharply, with over eight million children currently enrolled in school, of which 39 percent are girls. Current strategies for improving sub-national service delivery focus on delegating greater authority to provincial and district administrations. This report aims to identify administrative constraints in three key sectors of public service delivery, education, health and agricultural extension services. The analysis follows the service delivery chain, from central to provincial, through district to community level, and is particularly concerned to examine service delivery in these three sectors through the window of sub-national governance and its relations to the service delivery mandates of line ministries. The study provides the Government of Afghanistan with recommendations on how to alleviate critical constraints to service delivery at sub-national levels on a sustainable basis...

Republic of Uzbekistan : Country Economic Memorandum

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Uzbekistan adopted upon independence in 1991, an import substitution development strategy, intended to transform the economy from heavy dependence on agriculture and natural resources, to a modern industrial economy, helping achieve some objectives, notably energy and food self-sufficiency, having sustained growth for the past six years. However, this report argues that important goals have not been met, and there are still significant opportunity costs, and risks to the development strategy. Priority reforms should be a decisive move to liberalize prices, production, marketing and distribution, coupled with the imposition of hard budget constraints. Given the need for a robust supply response, reforms need to be sufficiently comprehensive, and deep to allow for rapid re-alignment of productive factors. The initial liberalization would be followed by further institutional reforms, and restructuring in enterprise, banking, and energy sectors. Recommendations suggest the liberalization of the foreign exchange regime in conjunction with tight fiscal...

Practitioners' Toolkit for Agriculture Public Expenditure Analysis; Manuel d'analyse des depenses publiques dans l'agriculture destine aux professionnels

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This toolkit for analyzing public expenditures in agriculture contributes to a broader effort to enhance the focus, quality, and appropriate scaling of public spending in the sector. More specifically, the toolkit has two goals: to provide checklists for practitioners conducting various kinds of agriculture public expenditure analyses, and to provide selected examples on aspects of the checklist to help guide analysis. The toolkit presents a diversity of approaches and describes experiences both positive and negative in conducting agricultural public spending analyses in different settings and with different objectives. It offers checklists of issues and options, rather than a minimum list of issues to be covered. Needs, existing work time, and budget constraints will likely drive the selection of the checklist topics to be covered in any given analysis of public expenditures. The toolkit is organized to facilitate this selectivity of topic, while maintaining a strategic perspective. The supporting examples draw on numerous analyses of public expenditures in agricultures.

Health Financing Reform in Thailand : Toward Universal Coverage under Fiscal Constraints

Hanvoravongchai, Piya
Fonte: World Bank,Washington DC Publicador: World Bank,Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Thailand's model of health financing and its ability to rapidly expand health insurance coverage to its entire population presents an interesting case study. Even though it is still a middle-income country with limited fiscal resources, the country managed to reach universal health insurance coverage through three main public schemes: the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), the Social Security Scheme (SSS), and the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS). The UCS, which is the largest and most instrumental scheme in the expansion of coverage to the poor and to those in the informal sector, is the focus of this report. It describes the nuts and bolts of the UCS as a key component of the health financing system in Thailand. It analyzes Thailand's experience in health insurance coverage expansion within limited fiscal constraints through various mechanisms to contain costs. It also explores the two commonly discussed approaches for the universal coverage movement: the expansion model (starting from covering the poor and formal sector to universal coverage) and the comprehensive approach (covering the entire population at the same time).

Infrastructure and Public Utilities Privatization in Developing Countries

Auriol, Emmanuelle; Picard, Pierre M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The paper analyzes governments' tradeoff between fiscal benefits and consumer surplus in privatization reforms of noncompetitive industries in developing countries. Under privatization, the control rights are transferred to private interests so that public subsidies decline. This benefit for tax-payers comes at the cost of price increases for consumers. In developing countries, tight budget constraints imply that privatization may be optimal for low profitability segments. For highly profitable public utilities, the combination of allocative inefficiency and critical budgetary conditions may favor public ownership. Finally, once a market segment gives room for more than one firm, governments prefer to regulate the industry. In the absence of a credible regulatory agency, regulation is achieved through public ownership.

The Quality of Budget Execution and Its Correlates

Addison, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
What determines the quality of budget execution around the world, measured in terms of a government's ability to accurately hit its own revenue and expenditure targets? The answers could be relevant to the topics of macroeconomic stability, national development, public service delivery, and political reputation. This paper takes a step toward finding answers through the exploration of a new database of budgets and budget outcomes and potential cross-country correlates of budget execution in levels and in composition. Few countries within the data sample execute their budgets well, in levels or in composition. Expenditure deviations are positively but rather loosely correlated with revenue deviations. Within this broad tendency, there is considerable variation in behavior not only across countries, but also across time within countries. In explaining the cross-country variations, the data confirm traditional drivers for common pool behavior while also supporting constructive roles for political institutions and the technical capacity for public financial management. This is good news for reform minded governments.

Budget Constraints in Prediction Markets

Devanur, Nikhil; Dudík, Miroslav; Huang, Zhiyi; Pennock, David M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2015 Português
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46.46%
We give a detailed characterization of optimal trades under budget constraints in a prediction market with a cost-function-based automated market maker. We study how the budget constraints of individual traders affect their ability to impact the market price. As a concrete application of our characterization, we give sufficient conditions for a property we call budget additivity: two traders with budgets B and B' and the same beliefs would have a combined impact equal to a single trader with budget B+B'. That way, even if a single trader cannot move the market much, a crowd of like-minded traders can have the same desired effect. When the set of payoff vectors associated with outcomes, with coordinates corresponding to securities, is affinely independent, we obtain that a generalization of the heavily-used logarithmic market scoring rule is budget additive, but the quadratic market scoring rule is not. Our results may be used both descriptively, to understand if a particular market maker is affected by budget constraints or not, and prescriptively, as a recipe to construct markets.