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How Business Is Done and the ‘Doing Business’ Indicators : The Investment Climate When Firms Have Climate Control

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This paper examines de jure and de facto measures of regulations, finding the relationship between them is neither one for one, nor linear. "Doing Business" provides indicators of the formal time and costs associated with fully complying with regulations. Enterprise Surveys report the actual experiences of a wide range of firms. First, there are significant variations in reported times to complete the same transaction by firms facing the same formal policy. Second, regulatory compliance appears "under water" as firms report actual times much less than the Doing Business reported days. Third, the data reveal substantial differences between favored and disfavored firms in the same location. Favored firms show minimal variation, so Doing Business has little predictive power for the times they report. For disfavored firms, the variation is greater, although still not significantly correlated with Doing Business. Fourth, where multiple Enterprise Surveys are available, there is little association over time...

Who Survives? The Impact of Corruption, Competition and Property Rights across Firms

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Size, age, sector, and productivity are commonly cited as factors determining a firm s survival. However, there are several dimensions of the investment climate in which the firm operates that affect whether it continues in business or exits. This paper uses new panel data from 27 Eastern European and Central Asian countries to test the importance of five areas of the business climate on firm exit: the efficiency of government services, access to finance, the extent of corruption or cronyism, the strength of property rights, and the degree of competition. The paper finds that weaknesses in these areas do affect the probability of firm exit largely in ways that undermine the Schumpeterian cleansing role of exit in raising overall productivity. Greater costs and regulatory burdens raise the probability that more productive firms exit, while less developed financial and legal institutions mitigate forces that would otherwise push less productive firms to exit. Thus, the more productive firms stand to gain the most from improvements in the investment climate...

Explaining Enterprise Performance in Developing Countries with Business Climate Survey Data

Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Hirn, Maximilian; Straub, Stéphane
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
This paper surveys the recent literature which examines the impact of business climate variables on productivity and growth in developing countries using enterprise surveys. Comparable enterprise surveys today cover some 70,000 firms in over 100 countries around the world. The literature that has analyzed this data provides evidence that a good business climate drives growth by encouraging investment and higher productivity. Various infrastructure, finance, security, competition and regulation variables have been shown to significantly impact firm performance. Section 1 of this paper outlines the theoretical framework that underpins the investment climate literature. Section 2 describes the available datasets and surveys the key findings of the empirical literature, first macroeconomic and then microeconomic studies. Particular attention is paid to the robustness of the reported results. Section 3 highlights important econometric issues common to this literature and suggests a research agenda and possible improvements in survey design.

Guyana - Investment Climate Assessment : Volume 1. Main Findings and Policy Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This document presents the main findings of the Guyana Investment Climate Survey (ICS) conducted between November 2004 and March 2005. The ICA report provides an evaluation of different aspects of the environment of doing business in Guyana. It covers governance-related obstacles, labor and technology issues, the financial sector, and infrastructure. The ICA is based on the results of the World Bank Guyana Investment Climate Survey (ICS), as well as other sources of information, including an opinion survey of Guyanese commercial bank managers, and interviews with Guyanese entrepreneurs and government leaders. The findings of the survey, combined with relevant information from other sources, provide a practical basis for identifying the most important areas for reform aimed at improving the investment climate.

Does Fiscal Decentralization Result in a Better Business Climate?

Sobel, Russell S.; Dutta, Nabamita; Roy, Sanjukta
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Previous literature generally finds that greater fiscal decentralization is associated with faster economic growth, improved government performance and stronger constraints on the Leviathan behaviour of governments. Because economic growth critically depends on the presence of good government policies and institutions, the likely but untested link between these strands of literature is that greater decentralization probably improves growth because it results in government policies more conducive to entrepreneurship and business success. We test (and confirm) this hypothesis using several business climate measures for the US states.

Explaining Enterprise Performance in Developing Countries with Business Climate Survey Data

Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Hirn, Maximilian; Straub, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The authors survey the recent literature which examines the impact of the business climate on productivity and growth in developing countries using enterprise surveys. Comparable enterprise surveys today cover more than 100,000 firms in 123 countries. The literature that has analyzed this data provides evidence that a good business climate favors growth by encouraging investment and higher productivity. Various infrastructure, finance, security, competition, and regulation variables have been shown to have a significant impact on enterprise performance. The authors state their motivation for their review by explaining why a disaggregated, firm-level analysis of the relationship between enterprise performance and business climate—as opposed to a more macroaggregate analysis—is important to gaining insights into these issues. They review the main findings of the empirical microliterature based on enterprise surveys and consider the robustness of the results. To conclude they put forward some ideas to advance research on business climate and growth, and they suggest possible improvements in survey design.

Investment Climate Around the World : Voices of the Firms from the World Business Environment Survey

Batra, Geeta; Kaufmann, Daniel; Stone, Andrew H. W.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
The analysis of firm-level data collected through parallel international enterprise surveys can reveal important linkages between governance constraints and business growth and investment. The World Business Environment Survey (WBES), an initiative led by the World Bank Group in 1999 and 2000, collected enterprise data from more than 10,000 firms in 80 countries. Econometric analysis of responses to that survey points to a strong association between corruption, financing, regulatory and tax constraints, policy uncertainty, and protection of intellectual property rights with firm-level performance, as measured by sales and investment growth and participation in the formal economy. This book present the core WBES questionnaire and survey findings, and confirms the significance of key country conditions on the firm performance and behavior. The finding provide a basis for regional comparison, but suggest the need for caution when averaging across categories, especially in light of country conditions that can significantly affect firm-level sales and investment.

Gates, Hired Guns and Mistrust - Business Unusual : The Cost of Crime and Violence to Businesses in Papua New Guinea

Lakhani, Sadaf; Willman, Alys M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
High levels of crime and violence are widely viewed as a critical constraint to development in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The most casual discussion on the topic inevitably elicits stories of personal experiences of victimization, or those of friends or family. Reports of violent incidents appear in the media on a daily basis. Despite 10 years of strong economic growth, with an increase in GDP of over 8 percent in 2011, there is a perception is that crime and violence have an impact on the business climate in the country, and that the costs to development are significant. This paper is the fourth in a series produced by the World Bank as part of the study "Socioeconomic Costs of Crime and Violence in PNG". The aim of the study has been to conduct targeted data collection and mine existing information sources, creating new analyses, in order to feed an informed dialogue among key stakeholders in PNG, and to help the business community in their ongoing discussions. As such, the study provides an overview of costs according to key themes along with presenting relevant empirical evidence...

Investment Climate Reform : An Independent Evaluation of World Bank Group Support to Reforms of Business Regulations

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Private firms are at the forefront of the development process providing more than 90 percent of jobs, supplying goods and services, and representing a significant source of tax revenues. Their ability to grow, create jobs, and reduce poverty depends critically on a well-functioning investment climate defined as the policy, legal and institutional arrangements underpinning the functioning of markets and the level of transaction costs and risks associated with starting, operating and closing a business. The World Bank Group has been providing extensive support to investment climate reforms—having supported over the period FY07–13, 819 projects with investment climate interventions in 119 countries for a total estimated value of $3.7 billion. This evaluation is designed to assess the relevance, effectiveness, and social value as it relates to concerns for inclusion and shared prosperity of World Bank Group support to investment climate reforms.

Explaining Enterprise Performance in Developing Countries with Business Climate Survey Data

Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Hirn, Maximilian; Straub, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The authors survey the recent literature which examines the impact of the business climate on productivity and growth in developing countries using enterprise surveys. Comparable enterprise surveys today cover more than 100,000 firms in 123 countries. The literature that has analyzed this data provides evidence that a good business climate favors growth by encouraging investment and higher productivity. Various infrastructure, finance, security, competition, and regulation variables have been shown to have a significant impact on enterprise performance. The authors state their motivation for their review by explaining why a disaggregated, firm-level analysis of the relationship between enterprise performance and business climate—as opposed to a more macroaggregate analysis—is important to gaining insights into these issues. They review the main findings of the empirical microliterature based on enterprise surveys and consider the robustness of the results. To conclude they put forward some ideas to advance research on business climate and growth, and they suggest possible improvements in survey design.

An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Kenya

Iarossi, Giuseppe
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The central objective of this Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to identify the main impediments to productivity growth Kenyan firms face. This objective is achieved through the analysis of firm-level data directly collected by the World Bank in 2007. This ICA arrives at a critical juncture; the government has committed to improving the investment climate, even further convinced that growth can be achieved only through a prosperous private sector. Based on the view that prosperity requires a thriving industrial sector, private sector-led growth is central to the government's economic recovery strategy and its recent "vision 2030." In early 2007 Government of Kenya (GoK) launched its first-ever private sector development strategy. This strategy is based on five pillars: improving Kenya's business environment, accelerating institutional transformation, facilitating growth through greater trade expansion, improving productivity of enterprises, supporting entrepreneurship, and developing small and medium enterprises. All these pillars are linked to the ICA's analytical goal. The ICA uses a robust and standardized methodology that has been applied to many countries worldwide.

Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment Report : Vitalizing the Private Sector, Creating Jobs, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
The objective of the Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in Bhutan in all its operational dimensions and promote policies to strengthen the private sector. This ICA consists of two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the main results. Volume 2 presents a more detailed analysis of each of the three main themes of the report: labor productivity and skills, access to finance, and business government relations, and is supplemented by a chapter on the gender dimensions of the investment climate. Volume 2 also includes the supporting econometric analysis of the enterprise survey data. The purpose of Volume 2 is to provide additional detail on the underlying data and analysis which supports the main results summarized in Volume 1. In Volume 2, Chapter 1 sets the Bhutanese context and background, explains what's new in the second Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment, and presents the overall findings of the 2010 report. Chapter 2 reviews the characteristics of the investment climate in Bhutan...

The Investment Climate in 16 Indian States

Iarossi, Giuseppe
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
In this paper, the author attempts to identify the characteristics of the business climate in India that can help explain the different performance of individual states in terms of investment and growth. The paper develops a new Investment Climate Index aimed at summarizing the aspects of the business environment that entrepreneurs consider when deciding whether to invest. Using this index, the author explores the investment climate in several typologies of Indian states and identify the key features of a poor business environment in India. The analysis shows that infrastructure and institutions remain the main bottlenecks in the country's private sector development. More specifically, power, transportation, corruption, tax regulations, and theft are major factors explaining the poor business environment in some Indian states. Infrastructure appears to be the single most important constraint, as it is particularly binding in states that show low levels of domestic investment and GDP growth.

Malaysia - Productivity and Investment Climate Assessment Update

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
In the decades prior to the Asian financial crisis, the Malaysian economy experienced rapid growth and a significant structural transformation. It went from an economy that relied on agriculture and commodities to one dominated by manufacturing and services. Since then, however, Malaysia's growth has slowed to a level well below its key competitors in Asia, including the large labor-surplus economies of China and India. The economy seems to be caught in a middle-income trap, unable to remain competitive as a high-volume, low-cost producer and unable to move up the value chain and achieve rapid growth by breaking into fast growing markets for knowledge, and innovation-based products and services. The Malaysian authorities have expressed their commitment to regain their earlier growth and reposition their economy as a rapidly growing, knowledge-based, high value-added and high income economy. A key element of their strategy is to encourage Malaysians to invest more of their savings at home, instead of abroad. Equally important is the need to improve the quality of that investment. As part of this effort...

Mozambique - Investment Climate Assessment - 2009 : Sustaining and Broadening Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Mozambique's recent history is a rare example of a successful post-conflict recovery and economic takeoff. Emerging from decades of economic stagnation and decline, a consequence first of a failed socialist economic experience and then of a vicious civil war that only ended in 1992, the country has achieved a commendable degree of political stability. This has been accompanied by prudent and stable economic policy continuity, as well as coordinated and ever more efficient use of substantial international aid. These factors have contributed to sustained economic growth that averaged 7.8 percent between 1992 and 2006. Furthermore, this growth has been 'pro-poor': increasing output has been accompanied by real and significant decreases in poverty levels, with the poverty headcount index declining from 69 percent in 1997 to 54 percent in 2003. Based on the enterprise survey results for Mozambique, this report assesses the main obstacles to achieving an investment climate that supports private sector growth and provides policy options for improving the business environment and increasing competitiveness with the goal of achieving sustained and broad-based growth. The focus is on microeconomic constraints and reforms where...

Thailand : Investment Climate Assessment Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This report provides an up-to-date assessment of the investment climate of Thailand. As the socio-economic framework in which enterprises operate including infrastructure, policies and regulations improving the investment climate is helpful for productivity and economic growth. The report is based mainly on the results of the second round of the Thailand Productivity and Investment Climate Surveys (PICS) carried out in 2007 and on a comparison with results from the first round (conducted between March 2004 and February 2005). Some 1043 establishments from nine manufacturing sectors (food processing, textiles, garments, automobile parts, electronic parts, electrical appliances, rubber/plastics, furniture/wood, and machinery) in six regions (North, Central, metropolitan Bangkok, East, Northeast, and South) were surveyed. This report aims to present policymakers with detailed information on key business climate indicators and their relationship to Thai economic performance. Thailand's rapid growth and transition to middle-income country status in the past two decades was mainly the result of the rapid increase in employment and capital goods.

An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Nigeria

Iarossi, Giuseppe; Mousley, Peter; Radwan, Ismail
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Nigeria's vision of 2020 is a bold desire to be among the top twenty economies by the year 2020. The economy has posted impressive growth figures since 2003 driven by higher oil prices and a series of home-grown, economic reforms. The country is now firmly on the road to middle-income status. This Investment Climate Analysis is built on a 2,300 firm survey and provides evidence-based recommendations designed to support the vision 2020. Survey results represent investment climate status in Nigeria and are grouped by the following topics: firm productivity and business environment, comparison of state level investment climates, access to finance, entrepreneurship and managerial capacity in firms, and investment climate aspects. The authors conclude that stakeholder consultations on the diagnostic work, policy assessment, and design would improve Nigeria's investment climate.

Doing Business, An Independent Evaluation : Taking the Measure of the World Bank-IFC Doing Business Indicators; Doing business : une evaluation independante - les indicateurs Doing Business de la Banque mondiale-IFC passes au crible

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
Doing Business (DB), the annual World Bank- International Finance Corporation (IFC) benchmarking exercise launched in 2004, is one of the Bank Group's flagship knowledge products. It aims to measure the costs to firms of business regulations in 178 countries and ranks the countries along 10 dimensions. It also aims to advance the World Bank Group's private sector development agenda by motivating and informing the design of regulatory reforms, enriching international initiatives on development effectiveness, and informing theory. By ranking countries and spotlighting both leaders and laggards, DB has attracted the interest of senior policy makers and is claimed to have inspired reforms on business climate issues. DB's lively communications style has helped give the DB indicators an international profile. The report has five sections: the first chapter reviews the intellectual underpinnings of the DB indicators. The second chapter reports on how DB collects and assembles data. The chapters third and fourth discuss the relevance of the dimensions measured by the exercise and their use inside and outside the Bank. And finally...

Mauritania - Policy Options to Enhance Private Sector Development : Country Economic Memorandum; Mauritanie - Options de politiques pour l'amelioration du developpement du secteur prive : memorandum economique du pays

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Mauritania has undergone massive economic and political changes. Mauritania is a West African country located on the western edge of the Sahara desert, with a population of approximately 3 million people that is mostly concentrated in the urban areas. Since independence in the 1960s, Mauritania's economy has been dependent on natural resources, iron ore first then combined with fisheries, and presently oil and other minerals. Natural resources exploitation and more recently oil discovery boosted Mauritania's rate of economic growth, but key challenges remain, in particular the promotion of productive value-adding activities and the creation of a strong, formal class of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The Government of Mauritania recognizes the strategic role of the private sector and the urgency of supporting SME development as a catalyst for long-term growth. In the Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP-II), the Mauritanian authorities indicated that accelerating economic growth will be based on: (i) optimizing spinoff effects from developing the oil business and implementing more effective policies for harnessing the growth potential of other promising sectors; (ii) a thorough reform of the financial system; (iii) significant improvement in the business climate and the development of SMEs; and (iv) giving a greater economic and land-use planning dimension to the infrastructure that supports growth (World Bank...

EDBM's Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for Investment Climate Reforms in Madagascar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
To assist the Economic Development Board of Madagascar (EDBM) in setting-up such a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system, this report defines the goals and impacts and objectives and outcomes of the EDBM interventions, proposes a list of key outcome and impact indicators to monitor the investment climate and its resultant impacts, presents a (draft) comprehensive logical framework (logframe) with the above-mentioned indicators and their potential sources of verifications, presents some of the tools to monitor and evaluate EDBM's success in contributing to PSD and IC reforms through policy advocacy, and discusses some of the key next steps in setting-up EDBM's M&E system. The report is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the M&E framework for EDBM. Section 3 presents a reform tracking matrix to track the reforms facilitated by EDBM and their intended results. Section 4 concludes the report by highlighting some of the key next steps. A draft logframe is presented in Annex 1. Annex 2 provides the terms of reference (ToR) for EDBM's M&E system design. Annex 3 provides the list of stakeholders consulted for this report.