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HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh

Azim, Tasnim; Khan, Sharful Islam; Haseen, Fariha; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Henning, Lars; Pervez, Md. Moshtaq; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Sarafian, Isabelle
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
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Bangladesh initiated an early response to the HIV epidemic starting in the mid-1980s. Since then, the res-ponse has been enhanced considerably, and many HIV-prevention interventions among the most at-risk populations and the general youth are being undertaken. Alongside prevention activities, gathering of data has been a key activity fostered by both the Government and individual development partners. This paper reviews available sources of data, including routine surveillance (HIV and behavioural among most at-risk populations), general population surveys, and various research studies with the aim to understand the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh. Available data show that the HIV epidemic is still at relatively low levels and is concentrated mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Dhaka city. In addition, when the passively-reported cases were analyzed, another population group that appears to be especially vulnerable is migrant workers who leave their families and travel abroad for work. However, all sources of data confirm that risk behaviours that make individuals vulnerable to HIV are high—this is apparent within most at-risk populations and the general population (adult males and youth males and females). Based on the current activities and the sources of data...

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Tobacco Consumers in a Rural Area of Bangladesh

Choudhury, Kaneta; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Bhuiya, Abbas
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
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Bangladesh typifies many developing countries experiencing an increasing trend in tobacco consumption. However, little is known about the general pattern of tobacco consumption and about population groups who are more prone to tobacco consumption. This paper aimed at generating knowledge on tobacco consumption, especially emphasizing the identification of sociodemographic groups who are more prone to tobacco consumption vis-à-vis tobacco-related health consequences in a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Information on the tobacco consumption status of 6,618 individuals (52.1% males, 47.9% females), aged over 15 years, was collected in 1994. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were done. Individuals were categorized as consumers if they consumed tobacco in any form at all, i.e. smoke or chew. The independent variables included various characteristics of individuals and households. Overall, 43.4% of the study subjects consumed tobacco. Males were 9.38 times more likely to consume tobacco than their female counterparts. Individuals with no education were 3.62 times more likely to consume tobacco than those who had completed six or more years of schooling, and the poor were almost twice as likely to consume tobacco than the rich. Tobacco consumption in both smoke and chewing form has been a part of household consumption in Bangladesh from time immemorial. Only aggressive anti-tobacco programmes on various fronts may salvage the vulnerable groups from the menace of tobacco consumption in Bangladesh.

Relationships of Exclusion and Cohesion with Health: The Case of Bangladesh

Johnston, Heidi Bart
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2009 Português
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The concept of social exclusion, applied widely in the European Union, has in recent years been gaining use in Bangladesh, mostly by international development agencies. Does this discourse of deprivation, developed in the welfare states of northern Europe, have salience in its application to deprivation in countries like Bangladesh where, for example, 31% of the rural population lives in chronic poverty? The concept of social exclusion has three principal components: a dynamic and relational perspective which requires the identification of who or what causes exclusion; an explicit recognition of multiple dimensions of deprivation; and a longitudinal perspective, recognizing that individuals and groups are dynamic intra- and intergenerationally. The Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health expanded the concept to include health status as a contributor to and an outcome of exclusion and to show that actors beyond the state or public sector can critically impact exclusionary processes. In the Bangladesh application, the relevance of the modified model was explored to find that while there are negative associations between social exclusion and health status, much stronger documentation is needed of the relationship. The modification of including multiple sectors...

HIV/AIDS Interventions in Bangladesh: What Can Application of a Social Exclusion Framework Tell Us?

Khosla, Nidhi
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2009 Português
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Bangladesh has maintained a low HIV prevalence (of less than 1%) despite multiple risk factors. However, recent serological surveillance data have reported very high levels of HIV infection among a subgroup of male injecting drug-users (IDUs). This suggests that an HIV/AIDS epidemic could be imminent in Bangladesh. Although biomedical and behavioural change projects are important, they do not address the root causes of observed risky behaviours among ‘high-risk’ groups. In Bangladesh, these groups include sex workers, IDUs, males who have sex with males, and the transgender population—hijra—who are all excluded groups. Using a social exclusion framework, this paper analyzed existing literature on HIV in Bangladesh to identify social, economic and legal forces that heighten the vulnerability of such excluded groups to HIV/AIDS. It found that poverty and bias against women are major exclusionary factors. The paper presents areas for research and for policy action so that the social exclusion of high-risk groups can be reduced, their rights protected, and an HIV epidemic averted.

Vitamin D Status of Infants in Northeastern Rural Bangladesh: Preliminary Observations and a Review of Potential Determinants

Roth, Daniel E.; Shah, M. Rashed; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public-health concern, even in tropical regions where the risk of deficiency was previously assumed to be low due to cutaneous vitamin D synthesis stimulated by exposure to sun. Poor vitamin D status, indicated by low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], has been observed in South Asian populations. However, limited information is available on the vitamin D status of young infants in this region. Therefore, to gain preliminary insights into the vitamin D status of infants in rural Bangladesh, 25(OH)D was assessed in a group of community-sampled control participants in a pneumonia case-control study in rural Sylhet, Bangladesh (25°N) during the winter dry season (January-February). Among 29 infants aged 1-6 months, the mean 25(OH)D was 36.7 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.2-43.2]. The proportion of infants with vitamin D deficiency defined by 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L was 28% (95% CI 10-45), 59% (95% CI 40-78) had 25(OH)D<40 nmol/L, and all were below 80 nmol/L. From one to six months, there was a positive correlation between age and 25(OH)D (Spearman=0.65; p=0.0001). Within a larger group of 74 infants and toddlers aged 1-17 months (cases and controls recruited for the pneumonia study)...

Causes of Neonatal Deaths in a Rural Subdistrict of Bangladesh: Implications for Intervention

Chowdhury, Hafizur Rahman; Thompson, Sandra; Ali, Mohammed; Alam, Nurul; Yunus, Md.; Streatfield, Peter Kim
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The study assessed the timing and causes of neonatal deaths in a rural area of Bangladesh. A population-based demographic surveillance system, run by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, recorded livebirths and neonatal deaths during 2003-2004 among a population of 224,000 living in Matlab, a rural subdistrict of eastern Bangladesh. Deaths were investigated using the INDEPTH/World Health Organization verbal autopsy. Three physicians independently reviewed data from verbal autopsy interview to assign the cause of death. There were 11,291 livebirths and 365 neonatal deaths during the two-year period. The neonatal mortality rate was 32.3 per 1,000 livebirths. Thirty-seven percent of the neonatal deaths occurred within 24 hours, 76% within 0-3 days, 84% within 0-7 days, and the remaining 16% within 8-28 days. Birth asphyxia (45%), prematurity/low birthweight (15%), sepsis/meningitis (12%), respiratory distress syndrome (7%), and pneumonia (6%) were the major direct causes of death. Birth asphyxia (52.8%) was the single largest category of cause of death in the early neonatal period while meningitis/sepsis (48.3%) was the single largest category in the late neonatal period. The high proportion of deaths during the early neonatal period and the far-higher proportion of neonatal deaths caused by birth asphyxia compared to the global average (45% vs 23-29%) indicate the lack of skilled birth attendance and newborn care for the large majority of births that occur in the home in rural Bangladesh. Resuscitation of newborns and management of low-birthweight/premature babies need to be at the core of neonatal interventional packages in rural Bangladesh.

Prevalence and Patterns of Multimorbidity among Elderly People in Rural Bangladesh: A Cross-sectional Study

Khanam, Masuma Akter; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Qiu, Chengxuan; Cornelius, Christel; Wahlin, Åke
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Data on multimorbidity among the elderly people in Bangladesh are lacking. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged ≥60 years in Matlab, Bangladesh. Information on their demographics and literacy was collected through interview in the home. Information about their assets was obtained from a surveillance database. Physicians conducted clinical examinations at a local health centre. Two physicians diagnosed medical conditions, and two senior geriatricians then evaluated the same separately. Multimorbidity was defined as suffering from two or more of nine chronic medical conditions, such as arthritis, stroke, obesity, signs of thyroid hypofunction, obstructive pulmonary symptoms, symptoms of heart failure, impaired vision, hearing impairment, and high blood pressure. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among the study population was 53.8%, and it was significantly higher among women, illiterates, persons who were single, and persons in the non-poorest quintile. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, female sex and belonging to the non-poorest quintile were independently associated with an increased odds ratio of multimorbidity. The results suggest that the prevalence of multimorbidity is high among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. Women and the non-poorest group of the elderly people are more likely than men and the poorest people to be affected by multimorbidity. The study sheds new light on the need of primary care for the elderly people with multimorbidity in rural Bangladesh.

Healthcare-seeking Behaviour among the Tribal People of Bangladesh: Can the Current Health System Really Meet Their Needs?

Rahman, Syed Azizur; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara; Normand, Charles
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2012 Português
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Despite the wealth of studies on health and healthcare-seeking behaviour among the Bengali population in Bangladesh, relatively few studies have focused specifically on the tribal groups in the country. This study aimed at exploring the context, reasons, and choices in patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviour of the hill tribal population of Bangladesh to present the obstacles and challenges faced in accessing healthcare provision in the tribal areas. Participatory tools and techniques, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant-observations, were used involving 218 men, women, adolescent boys, and girls belonging to nine different tribal communities in six districts. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the narrative analysis approach. The following four main findings emerged from the study, suggesting that the tribal communities may differ from the predominant Bengali population in their health needs and priorities: (a) Traditional healers are still very popular among the tribal population in Bangladesh; (b) Perceptions of the quality and manner of treatment and communication can override costs when it comes to provider-preference; (c) Gender and age play a role in making decisions in households in relation to health matters and treatment-seeking; and (d) Distinct differences exist among the tribal people concerning their knowledge on health...

A Framework for Addressing Implementation Gap in Global Drowning Prevention Interventions: Experiences from Bangladesh

Hyder, Adnan A.; Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; Rahman, Aminur; Arifeen, Shams El
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards...

Recent developments in the Bangladesh economy

Alauddin, Mohammad
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 316714 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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The economy of Bangladesh has experienced significant shifts in trade, fiscal, industrial, agricultural and financial policies over last two decades. Bangladesh is significantly dependent on external resources and at the behest of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, Bangladesh adopted a set of structural adjustment policies that impacted on all sectors of the economy and every aspect of the short- and medium-term economic management. The key sectors embodying the pace of reforms are agriculture industry, external trade, finance and banking and foreign exchange. The reform process has been discussed in detail in the literature (see for example, Jahan, 1998; Hossain and Alauddin, 2005; Sobhan, 1996). This paper does not repeat their arguments. Suffice it to say that reforms under the structural adjustment programme were activated through a set of comprehensive economic policies through which the government (a) acted directly to restructure taxation and the provision of social services, and (b) intervened in the market to change pricing behaviour to create a favourable environment for investment and growth. On the whole, therefore, the reform process represents significant changes in policy direction in almost all spheres of economic activity in Bangladesh. The policy base has shifted primarily from one of state interventionism to one of greater reliance on the operation of the market forces. This paper provides a broad overview of the recent developments in the Bangladesh economy paying particular attention to the trade liberalization phase. Section 2 examines the performance of the Bangladesh economy in terms of broad economic indicators including growth rates in GDP its composition and stability. Section 3 discusses the performance of the external sector and implications of the changes that it has experienced. It argues that despite significant changes...

Integrated river basin management for the Ganges: lessons from the Murray-Darling and Mekong River Basins (a Bangladesh perspective).

Shahjahan, Mosharefa
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
This thesis examines the applicability of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) model of Integrated River Basin Management to the Ganges Basin by utilising the lessons from the Mekong experience of adopting the MDB model. The Ganges is one of the major rivers in the world and the sharing of its water has long been an issue of dispute between the riparian countries. Fragmented and uncoordinated upstream management of the Ganges has caused serious ecological and economic loss in the downstream environment posing a threat to future sustainability of river resources. Cooperation among the riparian countries of the Ganges in order to embrace an integrated and basin-wide management approach is rapidly becoming more important. Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) is a concept widely advocated in different forums for managing the river basins of the world and is adopted in many transboundary river basins. The Australian example of managing the Murray-Darling Basin is considered as a model in the field. The Murray-Darling Basin Commission is well known internationally as a good example of a multi-jurisdictional water management institution. Similar river basin institutions are also evolving in other regions such as the Mekong River Commission for the management of the Mekong River in South-East Asia. The countries sharing the Ganges could learn lessons from the Murray-Darling and Mekong experiences and adopt a basin-wide approach for the better management of the Ganges. However...

Community-based autonomous adaptation and vulnerability to extreme floods in Bangladesh: processes, assessment and failure effects.

Younus, Md Aboul Fazal
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 Português
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (2007), especially Chapter 17: Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity demonstrates the importance of adaptation to climate change. The IPCC (2007) warned that the megadelta basins in South Asia, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding, and that the region’s poverty would reduce its adaptation capacity. A key issue in assessing vulnerability and adaptation (V & A) in response to extreme flood events (EFEs) in the GBM river basin is the concept of autonomous adaptation. This thesis investigates autonomous adaptation using a multi-method technique which includes two participatory rapid appraisals (PRA), a questionnaire survey of 140 participant analyses over 14 mauzas in the case study area, group and in-depth discussions and a literature review. The study has four key approaches. First, it reviews the flood literature for Bangladesh from 1980 to 2009 and identifies a general description of flood hazard characteristics, history and research trends, causes of floods, and types of floods. Second, it examines farmers’ crop adaptation processes in a case study area at Islampur...

Food security implications of failure of autonomous crop adaptation to extreme flood events: a case study in Bangladesh

Younus, M.A.; Bedford, R.; Morad, M.
Fonte: Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad Publicador: Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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37.1%
Climate change has significant implications for flooding in Bangladesh. As a consequence, millions of farmers of Bangladesh have experienced three great floods in 1988, 1995 and 1998 and have demonstrated resilience to flooding in the form of autonomous crop adaptations. However, the severity of events has meant that, where these adaptations have collapsed, millions of marginal farmers have become vulnerable, and faced acute shortage of the prime crop aman. The cumulative effects of food shortage pose obvious threats to food security, and as a consequence, human security in Bangladesh is also at threat. Farmers have employed a wide range of in-built, routine and tactical adjustments in the endeavour to revive some crop production during the huge floods. The multiple peak flows of the 1998 flood compromised most of these adjustments, and it was one of the most destructive flood events for the farmers in Islampur (a case study area) could recall for 50 or more years. An important finding was that the success of autonomous adjustment strategies is very much influenced by the nature of the flood event in terms of timing to encounter the onset of flooding, the depth of the flood waters, the duration (time flood waters stayed on the crop lands)...

Performance of kala-azar surveillance in Gaffargaon subdistrict of Mymensingh, Bangladesh

Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Samarawickrema, Indira V. M.; Harley, David; Olsen, Anna; Butler, Colin D.; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Luby, Stephen P.; Sleigh, Adrian C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 9 pages
Português
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INTRODUCTION Elimination of kala-azar is planned for South Asia requiring good surveillance along with other strategies. We assessed surveillance in Gaffargaon upazila (a subdistrict of 13 unions) of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh highly endemic for kala-azar. METHODS In 4703 randomly sampled households, within nine randomly sampled villages, drawn from three randomly sampled unions, we actively searched for kala-azar cases that had occurred between January 2010 and December 2011. We then searched for medical records of these cases in the patient registers of Gaffargaon upazila health complex (UHC). We investigated factors associated with the medical recording by interviewing the cases and their families. We also did a general observation of UHC recording systems and interviewed health staff responsible for the monthly reports of kala-azar cases. RESULTS Our active case finding detected 58 cases, but 29 were not recorded in the Gaffargaon UHC. Thus, only 50% (95% CI: 37%-63%) of kala-azar cases were reported via the government passive surveillance system. Interviews with health staff based in the study UHC revealed the heavy reporting burden for multiple diseases, variation in staff experience, high demands on the staff time and considerable complexity in the recording system. After adjusting for kala-azar treatment drug...

Carbonomics of the Bangladesh agricultural output: Causality and long-run equilibrium

Murad, Wahid; Ratnatunga, Janek
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Purpose – The key purpose of this paper is to examine the causality and long-run relationship between CO2 emission and agricultural output for an agriculture-dependent developing country, namely Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach – In order to attain the objective, this study has used long-time series data and employed advanced econometric techniques of unit root test, nonlinear least square estimation, Vector Error Correction estimation and Granger causality test. Findings – The empirical results of the study reveal that Bangladesh agricultural output is not a Granger causal for Bangladesh CO2 emission, but the country's CO2 emission is a Granger causal for its agricultural output. The results also reveal for Bangladesh that any disequilibrium between CO2 emissions and agricultural output could take approximately 17 years to converge to the long-run equilibrium. The results further reveal that the adjustment rate for Bangladesh agricultural output is positive and quite fast at the rate of 69 percent a year. So any disequilibrium will be corrected mostly by the adjustment in Bangladesh agricultural output. Practical implications – The current CO2 emission in Bangladesh is still below the equilibrium level, which is considered to be an advantage for the country...

Nutrition: Basis for Healthy Children and Mothers in Bangladesh

Faruque, A.S.G.; Ahmed, A.M. Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M. Munirul; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Roy, S.K.; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A.
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR, B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984–2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)...

Measurement of and Trends in Unintended Birth in Bangladesh, 1983-2000

Gipson, Jessica D.; Hossain, Mian Bazle; Koenig, Michael A.
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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37.1%
Bangladesh has experienced a rapid decline in fertility in the past several decades, facilitated by proactive population policies, provision of contraceptives, and broader societal shifts, encouraging smaller families and use of contraceptive to achieve revised childbearing norms. This paper presents 18 years of data from the Sample Registration System, a demographic surveillance system operated by the Maternal and Child Health–Family Planning Extension Project in six study areas in Bangladesh. Prospective measurements of women's fertility preferences were used for classifying nearly 25,000 birth outcomes from 1983 to 2000 as intended, unintended, or ‘up to God/Allah’. Over the 18-year period, the level of unintended births varied from 22% to 38%, with the lowest levels in the mid-1990s. Fatalistic responses declined significantly from 25% in the mid-1980s to 1% by the late 1990s. Results of the comparison of two geographic areas of Bangladesh indicate differential declines in the levels of unintended pregnancies over the study period. Pros-pective measurements of unintended pregnancies were 2-3 times the magnitude indicated by retrospective estimates of unwanted births from the demographic and health surveys conducted during the study period. This unique dataset provides a rare opportunity to visualize the vast changes in fertility preferences and unintended births in Bangladesh from 1983 to 2000. Significant declines in fatalistic responses reflect broader social changes that occurred in Bangladesh to facilitate the fertility decline and contraceptive uptake. The drastic differences between prospective and retrospective measurements of fertility preferences highlight the importance of considering the strengths and limitations of each method when attempting to estimate the true level of unintended pregnancies and births in a population.

Dual Burden of Underweight and Overweight among Women in Bangladesh: Patterns, Prevalence, and Sociodemographic Correlates

Kamal, S.M. Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The discourse of dual burden caused through underweight and overweight is well-documented globally but this issue and its connection with women's health in Bangladesh is yet to be explored widely. To enrich the current debate, this study, in the context of Bangladesh, examines the patterns, prevalence, and socioeconomic factors influencing the ever-married women of being underweight and overweight over normal weight. Data used in this study have been extracted from the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. To achieve results connected with the research objectives, both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses have been employed. In bivariate analysis, we used seven categories of BMI cutoff points for Asian countries as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the net effect of socioeconomic factors on underweight, pre-overweight, and overweight over normal weight. The results confirm the co-existence of underweight and overweight among women as we found the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, pre-overweight, overweight, and obesity to be 24.1%, 46.7%, 12.8%, 13.5%, and 2.9% respectively. Compared to the richest, the women from the poorest households were significantly (p<0.001) most likely to be underweight (OR=2.75...

Geography of Rural Enterprise Banking and Microfinance Institutions in Bangladesh

Mahmud, Azim Uddin; Tulla i Pujol, Antoni F.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
In remote areas of Bangladesh, it can be difficult for entrepreneurs, businesses and farmers to obtain needed bank loans, as banks are typically located in and around administrative centres. In addition, the banks have limitations in their product design (credit and savings) and have mostly avoided the challenges of rural enterprises. During the 1970s, the concept of the Microfinance Institution (MFI) emerged, based on the non-governmental organization model and favouring locations in rural areas not far from the administrative centres and rural markets. In this untapped market, MFIs grew by taking an institutional good practices approach and offering products designed to cater to low-income households and enterprises, although they still face legal constraints in holding public savings deposits. In addition, although the MFI reaches less accessible areas because of its organization pattern, its attempts to upscale MFI credit are not widely successful due to both unwillingness and inability of the existing microfinance client pool to repay loans. Therefore, it is important to explore which entity (bank or MFI) has an advantageous geographic distribution and institutional good practices to meet the needs of rural enterprise.; En aquest article es pretén explicar les dificultats de les empreses i explotacions agràries en àrees remotes de Bangla Desh per accedir als crèdits que necessiten per dur a terme la seva activitat econòmica. La localització dels bancs en àrees rurals remotes de Bangla Desh mostra la mateixa distribució dels centres administratius. A la dècada dels anys setanta del segle xx va començar a aparèixer la figura de la «institució financera de microfinances» (MFI)...

A study of migration from Bangladesh to Assam, India and its impact.

Sarma, Madhumita
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Migration from Bangladesh to Assam, a north-eastern state in India bordering Bangladesh, has significant implications for its demography, economy, socio-political framework and environment. The migration that started at the end of 19th century from areas in today’s Bangladesh continues unabated making it a large-scale migration problem. This study is based on author’s data gathered through a number of field surveys conducted in Assam between 2009-2012. It has also been complemented by existing knowledge of the migration from various sources; notably, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the literature. The primary aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the scale, composition, causes, trends, process and impact of migration to Assam, with a special focus on migrants’ adjustment in their destinations. An in-depth analysis of factors that influence migration has been presented by developing a comprehensive understanding of the implications on Assam’s changing demography, socio-political dynamics, environment and economy. The study has also dealt with several other underlying issues, topics and problems which are important and relevant to the subject. Implications of various policies relating to migration have been discussed. Although the migration from Bangladesh is being projected by some quarters only as a major problem for Assam with no benefits whatsoever...