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Male response to historical and geographical variation in bird song

Derryberry, Elizabeth P.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
In many species, individuals discriminate among sexual signals of conspecific populations in the contexts of mate choice and male–male competition. Differences in signals among populations (geographical variation) are in part the result of signal evolution within populations (temporal variation). Understanding the relative effect of temporal and geographical signal variation on signal salience may therefore provide insight into the evolution of behavioural discrimination. However, no study, to my knowledge, has compared behavioural response to historical signals with response to current signal variation among populations. Here, I measured the response of male white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) to historical songs compared with current songs from their local population, a nearby non-local population and a distant population. Males responded most strongly to current local songs, less, but equally, to historical local and current non-local songs, and least to songs of the distant population. Moreover, response to both temporal and geographical variation in song was proportional to how much songs differed acoustically from current local songs. Signal evolution on an ecological time scale appears to have an effect on signal salience comparable to differences found between current neighbouring populations...

Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.