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Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Plant protection is a multi-disciplinary subject and different strategies need to be addressed for sustainable plant health management Biological control is an ecosystem-based approach extending from lab based investigation to fie ld applications. Hipovirulence is a specific method for biological control of Chestnut Blight a lethal disease of the American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of Chestnut Blight is Cryphonectria parasitica a fungus of Asian origin which is an A2 quarantine organism in Europe. Chestnut Blight was recorded in Portugal since 1990, one of the last European countries where Chestnut Blight has been introduced, and is now well established and widespread with a fast expansion in all regions of chestnut. Biological control with hypovirulent strains of C. parasitica is considered an efficient mean to control the disease and improve chestnut recovered. One of the first goa ls of this study is applying hipovirulence as a biological method for Chestnut Blight control and producing a solid scientific base to extend the method all over the chestnut region. it will have a very high practical impact on crop productivity, and on social perception of applied research. Field records and studies include parameters related to trees (dendrometric parameters and plant health status) and the physical characteristics of the plots (type of soil...

Role of edaphic arthropods on the biological control of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae)

Dinis, Ana Maria de Sousa Pereira
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is a major pest of the olive tree. A great part of its life cycle is spent inside the olive fruit, which hinders the action of natural enemies. However, pupation usually occurs on the ground, which makes this stage more vulnerable to predation by edaphic arthropods. In this context, with the present work, it was studied the role of the edaphic arthropods on the biological control of olive fruit fly. Under laboratory conditions, Calathus granatensis Vuillefroy and Pterostichus globosus Quensel, two species of carabids abundant in groves of Trás-os-Montes were evaluated as potential predators of olive fruit fly. The food preferences of both carabids were studied as olive fruit fly pupae were offered together with pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) in different proportions. It was also evaluated the functional responses of both carabids on different densities of olive fruit fly pupae. Under field conditions predation by edaphic arthropods on olive fruit fly pupae was evaluated using exposed-exclusion boxes to predators along with pitfall traps for capture of the arthropods active near the boxes. The assay was conducted in two olive groves of the region of Mirandela (northeast of Portugal) between January and May. Biological control provided by edaphic arthropods was measured by calculating biological control services indexes that were further correlated with the abundance of arthropods and functional groups captured in the pitfall traps. The results of the laboratory experiments indicate that both species of carabids studied preyed olive fruit fly pupae...

Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

VAN LENTEREN, Joop C.; COCK, Matthew J. W.; BRODEUR, Jacques; BARRATT, Barbara I. P.; BIGLER, Franz; BOLCKMANS, Karel; HAAS, Fabian; MASON, Peter G.; PARRA, José Roberto P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing. This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article...

Fungal pathogens as classical biological control agents against arthropods

HAJEK, Ann E.; DELALIBERA JR., Italo
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Fungal entomopathogens have been used more frequently than other types of pathogens for classical biological control. Among 136 programs using different groups of arthropod pathogens, 49.3% have introduced fungal pathogens (including both the traditional fungi and microsporidia). The most commonly introduced species was Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, with 13 introductions, followed by Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu & Soper, which was released seven times. The majority of introduction programs have focused on controlling invasive species of insects or mites (70.7%) rather than on native hosts (29.4%). Almost half of the introductions of traditional fungi targeted species of Hemiptera and 75% of the microsporidia introduced have been introduced against lepidopteran species. The United States was the country where most introductions of fungi took place (n = 24). From 1993 to 2007, no arthropod pathogens were released in the US due to the rigorous regulatory structure, but in 2008 two species of microsporidia were introduced against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). Establishment of entomopathogenic fungi in programs introducing traditional fungi was 32.1% and establishment was 50.0% for programs introducing microsporidia. In some programs...

Características biológicas de Telenomus remus Nixon em ovos de Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) e Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith): bases para o desenvolvimento de programas de controle biológico aplicado para as culturas da soja e milho; Biological characteristics of Telenomus remus Nixon in Corcyra cephalonica eggs (Stainton) and Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith): bases for the development of biological control programs for soybean and corn

Pomari, Aline Farhat
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Esta tese objetivou realizar pesquisas essenciais como a utilização de hospedeiro alternativo e o comportamento de dispersão de Telenomus remus, para nortear a utilização desta espécie em programas de controle biológico aplicado, nas culturas de milho e soja. Os experimentos iniciais envolveram metodologias que determinaram que para a condução dos experimentos é necessário utilizar ovos inviabilizados, 24 h de exposição ao parasitismo e 20 fêmeas para 100 ovos do hospedeiro. Os estudos sobre a biologia e parasitismo de T. remus em ovos Corcyra cephalonica, por diferentes gerações, apresentaram índices de parasitismo crescentes até a geração F7, a partir desta, o número de ovos parasitados foi semelhante (±62 ovos) e o potencial de parasitismo ao longo da vida foi semelhante àquele verificado para o hospedeiro de criação na geração F19. A influência da umidade relativa foi avaliada e permitiu determinar que deve ser igual ou superior a 80% para que T. remus apresente bom desenvolvimentos em ovos de C. cephalonica. A qualidade dos parasitoides criados em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo foi avaliada mediante análise morfométrica e atividade de vôo e os resultados obtidos demonstraram que, embora T. remus criado em ovos de C. cephalonica apresente tamanho inferior àqueles observados nos parasitoides criados em ovos de S. frugiperda...

Controle biológico de Botrytis cinerea em pós-colheita de morango (Fragaria x ananassa) por linhagem Streptomyces araujoniae sp. nov.; Biological control of Botrytis cinerea on post-harvest strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) by Streptomyces araujoniae sp. nov.

Silva, Leonardo José da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
A produção brasileira de alimentos cresce em ritmo vertiginoso, havendo previsão de expansão nos próximos anos. Nota-se, porém, que o modelo atual empregado ao controle de doenças e pragas agrícolas, tem causado diversos problemas de ordem ambiental, social e econômica. Uma alternativa à redução de tais impactos, tem sido a implementação do controle biológico no modelo de manejo. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o controle biológico do fungo fitopatogênico Botrytis cinerea por compostos produzidos pela linhagem ASBV-1T. Os screenings "in vitro" demonstraram que a linhagem produz quitinases e metabólitos secundários ativos, conhecidamente descritos como fatores importantes ao controle de fitopatógenos. A caracterização parcial do complexo enzimático, indicou que as quitinases produzidas pela linhagem ASBV-1T apresentam maior atividade em meio alcalino (pH 6.8-10.0), temperatura de 30°C e possuem estimativa de peso molecular superior a 100 kDa. Os ensaios "in vivo", realizados em morangos comerciais (cv. Oso Grande) demonstraram a efetividade dos subprodutos bioativos de caráter ionóforos (monactina, dinactina, trinactina, tetranactina e valinomicina) em controlar a infestação de B. cinerea, durante a fase de pós-colheita...

Spatial and temporal population interactions between the parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Tachinidae flies: considerations on the adverse effects of biological control practice

Rossi, M. N.; Fowler, H. G.
Fonte: Blackwell Verlag Gmbh Publicador: Blackwell Verlag Gmbh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 112-119
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
Biological control of Diatraea saccharalis is regarded as one of the best examples of successful classical biological control in Brazil. Since the introduction of the exotic parasitoid Cotesia flavipes, the decrease of D. saccharalis infestation in sugarcane fields has been attributed to the effectiveness of this agent. Recently, the native tachinid fly parasitoids (Lydella minense and Paratheresia claripalpis) have also been implicated in the success. Here, we investigated the spatial and temporal population interactions between C. flavipes and the tachinid flies, and provide a critical analysis of the biological control practice, focusing on the undesirable effects of introductions of exotic natural enemies. To investigate these questions, a large data set comprising information from two sugarcane mills located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Barra and Sao Joao Mills), was analysed. Analysis of the correlation between C. flavipes and tachinid fly population densities through time revealed that such populations were inversely correlated in the Sao Joao Mill and not correlated in the Barra Mill. Logistic regressions were computed to investigate the proportion of sites occupied by the parasitoid species at both mills as a function of time. An increasing trend in the proportion of sites occupied by C. flavipes was observed...

Biological control of sheep parasite nematodes by nematode-trapping fungi: In vitro activity and after passage through the gastrointestinal tract

Graminha, Érika B. N.; Costa, Alvimar J.; Oliveira, Gilson P.; Monteiro, Antonio C.; Palmeira, Solange B. S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 717-722
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
The main method used for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep production is the application of chemotherapeutic agents, which often lead to the selection of parasites resistant to given active principles. Biological control can be considered a promising alternative, contributing to an increase in the efficacy of verminous control. We determined the in vitro activity and in situ survival of the predatory fungi Arthrobotrys musiformis and Arthrobotrys conoides during passage through the gastrointestinal tract of sheep after oral administration of conidia in microencapsulated form and as a liquid in natura. Initial in vitro tests showed that both fungi were efficient in the predation of trichostrongylid L3 larvae present in the faeces of sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The fungi presented high nematophagous activity, which was 99.3% for A. conoides and 73.7% for A. musiformis. A. conoides did not survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract under the conditions of the present experiment. On the other hand, A. musiformis was reisolated after administration in either microencapsulated or liquid form, suggesting that this species is a promising alternative for the control of nematodes in sheep since it survives without any protection (in natura). © Springer 2005.

Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

van Lenteren,Joop C.; Cock,Matthew J. W.; Brodeur,Jacques; Barratt,Barbara I. P.; Bigler,Franz; Bolckmans,Karel; Haas,Fabian; Mason,Peter G.; Parra,José Roberto P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the "Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing". This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article...

Dark clouds and their silver linings: exotic generalist predators in augmentative biological control

CLERCQ,PATRICK DE
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Several polyphagous arthropod predators are commercially available for augmentative biological control targeting mite and insect pests in a variety of cropping systems. A number of these predators are not native to the area of release. The current paper discusses benefits and risks of using exotic generalist predators as biocontrol agents. The fact that polyphagous predators are easily reared on unnatural foods and can be used against different pest species makes them attractive for commercialization. Polyphagous or facultatively phytophagous predators have less difficulty in maintaining their populations at low prey densities and can sometimes be introduced in the crop before the target pest is present, thus preventing the buildup of pest populations before economic damage is done. On the other hand, generalists may interfere with the action of other beneficials in the crop, and facultative plant feeding by predatory arthropods exceptionally causes crop damage. The use of non-native natural enemies may entail environmental risks. In a growing number of countries, risk assessment procedures are being implemented that are largely focused on host range testing. It is emphasized, however, that the experimental evaluation of host specificity should be done under realistic conditions. Furthermore...

Biological control of mycotoxin-producing molds.

MEDEIROS, F. H. V.; MARTINS, S. J.; ZUCCHI, T. D.; MELO, I. S. de; BATISTA, L. R.; MACHADO, J. da C.
Fonte: Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Lavras, v. 36, n. 5, p. 483-497, 2012. Publicador: Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Lavras, v. 36, n. 5, p. 483-497, 2012.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Mycotoxins are produced by the secondary metabolism of many fungi and can be found in almost 25% of the world?s agricultural commodities. These compounds are toxic to humans, animals, and plants and therefore, efforts should be made to avoid mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. Besides, up to 25% of all harvested fruits and vegetables are lost due to storage molds and/ or mycotoxin contamination and many methods have been applied to mitigate these issues, but most of them rely on the use of fungicides. Although chemicals are often the first defensive line against mycotoxigenic fungi, the indiscriminate use of fungicides are awakening the public perception due to their noxious effects on the environment and human/animal health. Thus, there is an increasing public pressure for a safer and eco-friendly alternative to control these organisms. In this background, biological control using microbial antagonists such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts have been shown to be a feasible substitute to reduce the use of chemical compounds. Despite of the positive findings using the biocontrol agents only a few products have been registered and are commercially available to control mycotoxin-producing fungi. This review brings about the up-to-date biological control strategies to prevent or reduce harvested commodity damages caused by storage fungi and the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins. Resumo: As micotoxinas são produzidas pelo metabolismo secundário de várias espécies de fungos e podem ser encontradas em quase 25% das commodities agrícolas. Esses compostos são tóxicos a humanos...

Bacteriophages of Erwinia amylovora and their potential use in biological control

Gill, Jason J.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.78%
Forty-four bacteriophage isolates of Erwinia amy/ovora, the causal agent of fire blight, were collected from sites in and around the Niagara Region of Southern Ontario in the summer of 1998. Phages were isolated only from sites where fire blight was present. Thirty-seven of these phages were isolated from the soil surrounding infected trees, with the remainder isolated from aerial plant tissue samples. A mixture of six E. amy/ovora bacterial host strains was used to enrich field samples in order to avoid the selection bias of a single-host system. Molecular characterization of the phages with a combination of peR and restriction endonuclease digestions showed that six distinct phage types were isolated. Ten phage isolates related to the previously characterized E. amy/ovora phage PEa1 were isolated, with some divergence of molecular markers between phages isolated from different sites. The host ranges of the phages revealed that certain types were unable to efficiently lyse some E. amy/ovora strains, and that some types were able to lyse the epiphytic bacterium Pantoea agg/omerans. Biological control of E. amy/ovora by the bacteriophages was assessed in a bioassay using discs of immature pear fruit. Twenty-three phage isolates were able to significantly suppress the incidence of bacterial exudate on the pear disc surface. Quantification of the bacterial population remaining on the disc surface indicated that population reductions of up to 97% were obtainable by phage treatment...

Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers

Muirhead, K.; Murphy, N.; Sallam, N.; Donnellan, S.; Austin, A.
Fonte: Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science Publicador: Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World)...

Implicações da variabilidade genética de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 no seu desempenho como agente de controle biológico; Genetic variability of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, in its role as a biological control agent

Coelho Junior, Aloisio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/07/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
O conhecimento das implicações da variabilidade genética em populações de inimigos naturais, principalmente parasitoides, é de vital importância para a otimização de programas de controle biológico. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar como a variabilidade genética influencia diferentes parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 em experimentos de laboratório e de campo. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, foram avaliados: 1) o efeito da seleção de isolinhagens de T. pretiosum em condições de laboratório, marcadas por meio do DNA mitocondrial, no subsequente desempenho de campo; 2) como a UR afeta a capacidade de voo de isolinhagens, marcadas por meio do DNA mitocondrial, de espécimes de T. pretiosum oriundas do Brasil e EUA; 3) a compatibilidade reprodutiva entre isolinhagens norteamericanas e brasileira de T. pretiosum, avaliada por meio de uma abordagem integrativa e 4) o possível estabelecimento de uma linhagem de T. pretiosum proveniente da Colômbia num novo ecossistema, no Nordeste brasileiro. Com base nos resultados do presente trabalho conclui-se que a variabilidade genética de T. pretiosum exerce grande influência em parâmetros biológicos do parasitoide...

Biological control of phytopathogens by phloroglucinol and hydrolytic enzyme producing bacterial inoculants

Dunne, Colum; Cronin, D; Moenne-Loccoz, Y; O'Gara, Fergal
Fonte: International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC) Publicador: International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.85%
peer-reviewed; Envionmental and consumer concerns have focused interest on the development of biological control as an alternative, environmentally-friendly strategy for the protection of agricultural and horticultural crops against phytopathogens. Biological control agents. producing a variety of secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes, have been identified among fungi, actinomyceles and bacteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens FII3 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia W81 inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum in vitro and are capable of protecting sugar beet against the effects of damping-off under soil conditions. Transposon mutagenesis of strains FIl3 and W81 has demonstrated that the biocontrol abilities of these strains are mediated by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (pm...) or lytic enzyme production, respectively. Globodera roslochiensis is a phytopathogenic cyst neml1.tode of major agronomic importance. Purified PHL, lytic enzymes, and chitinolytic or phloroglucinol-producing bacterial inoculants negatively influence hatch of G. rostochiensis eggs and decrease subsequent viability of juvenile cyst nematodes in vitro. Similar results were obtained under soil conditions.

Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia
Fonte: ISHS Publicador: ISHS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Hypovirulence is a specific biological control method of chestnut blight, a lethal disease of American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of chestnut blight is Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus of Asian origin and an A2 quarantine organism in Europe. The disease has been reported since 1990 in Portugal, one of the last European countries where the pathogen was introduced. The chestnut blight fungus is now well established and widespread in Portugal with fast expansion in all chestnut regions. Biological control with hypovirulent strains of C. parasitica is considered an efficient means to control the disease and improve chestnut recovery. One of the goals of this study is to apply hypovirulence as a biological method for chestnut blight control and produce a solid scientific base to extend the treatment method over the country's chestnut areas. A successful biological control program will have a very high practical impact on crop productivity and on the social perception of applied research. Field records and studies included parameters related to trees (dendrometric parameters and plant health status) and the physical characteristics of the plots (type of soil, exposure, geographic coordinates, age of trees, actual management of soil...

Evaluación del sistema planta hospedera-huésped alternativo como estrategia para el control biológico de pulgones (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en sistemas de producción hortícola en cultivos protegidos; Evaluation of an alternative host plant-phytophagous system for biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: aphididae) in protected vegetable crops

Andorno, Andrea Verónica
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Los áfidos constituyen una de las plagas de mayor importancia económica sobre una gran variedad de cultivos. El control biológico por conservación utilizando plantas hospederas y fitófagos huéspedes alternativos ha sido exitosamente utilizado en el manejo de áfidos plaga. Esta modalidad consiste en el empleo de especies vegetales hospederas de herbívoros inócuos para el cultivo de interés pero que son utilizados por los enemigos naturales de la plaga como huéspedes alternativos. El objetivo de esta tesis fue evaluar el empleo de este sistema como estrategia para el control del áfido plaga, Myzus persicae por el parasitoide Aphidius colemani en cultivos hortícolas (rúcula y pimiento). Los principales aportes de esta tesis han sido: Conocimiento de las asociaciones áfidos - enemigos naturales parasitoides en cultivos hortícolas y plantas hospederas no cultivadas. Conocimiento de la biología y parámetros poblacionales de M. persicae sobre el cultivo de rúcula. Conocimiento de los atributos biológicos y de la preferencia del parasitoide A. colemani sobre las asociaciones cultivo- huésped plaga y planta hospedera alternativa- áfido alternativo, R. padi. Conocimientos sobre la compatibilidad de empleo de insecticidas y el parasitoide A. colemani. Evaluación del sistema planta hospedera – huésped alternativo para el control biológico de M. persicae por el parasitoide A. colemani.; Aphids are a common problem on a wide variety of crops. Alternative host plant - phytophagous systems has been successfully applied in conservation biological control for aphid pests. The use of alternative host plant – phytophagous provides an alternative suitable food resource for those natural enemies controlling the target pest with no threat for the crop of interest. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use of the alternative host plant - aphid - parasitoid system (oat - Rhopalosiphum padi - Aphidius colemani) as a strategy for aphid pest control in vegetable crop systems (arugula and pepper). The most important contributions from this thesis are: Knowledge of the relationships between aphids - natural enemies parasitoids associated to vegetable crops and uncultivated host plants. Knowledge of the biology of the aphid pest M. persicae in arugula. Knowledge on the biology and host preference of the aphid parasitoid A. colemani. Knowledge on the side effect of pesticides on A. colemani. Evaluation of the “alternative host plant- phytophagous system” as a biological control strategy of M. persicae by the aphid parasitoid A. colemani; Fill:Andorno...

Micoparasitismo de Trichoderma spp. sobre el patógeno vegetal de suelo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum : Pruebas preliminares sobre el biocontrol de esta enfermedad; Mycoparasitism of Trichoderma spp. on the soilborne plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum : Preliminary assays on biological control of this disease

Menéndez, Ana Bernardina
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1996 Português
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65.83%
En este trabajo se estudió la capacidad de algunas especies de Trichoderma, en particular T. harzianum, como antagonistas del patógeno vegetal Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. En las pruebas de antagonismo "in vierto" se comprobé dicha capacidad en términos de la disminución del crecimiento de la colonia del patógeno y la reducción tanto de la viabilidad de los esclerocios como del desarrollo de otros nuevos. También se describió el proceso del micoparasitismo por parte del antagonista Trichoderma spp. sobre dos fases somóticas del patógeno: sus esclerocios y el micelio. En el primer caso se observó, con microscopía óptica, la colonización de los tejidos de los esclerocios infectados por parte del antagonista, comprobándose la total destrucción de la médula de los mismos. En el segundo, se observaron las interacciones hifales entre el micoparásito (T. harzianum BAFC cult. N§ 742) y el hospedante, tanto en cultivo dual como en un suelo estéril, con microscopía óptica y de barrido. En los cultivos duales, las hifas de T. harzianum crecieron hacia las de S. sclerotiorum enrollándose alrededor de ellas. En los últimos estadíos del proceso micoparasítico, se observaron enrollamientos o "coilings" muy densos y una degradación parcial de las paredes celulares de las hifas del patógeno. En suelo estéril...

Bionomics of Neolasioptera aculeatae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a promising biological control candidate against Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae)

Mc Kay,Fernando; Sosa,Alejandro J.; Heard,Tim A.
Fonte: Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina Publicador: Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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Field surveys conducted in North-central Argentina on Parkinsonia aculeata L. between 2008 and 2011 revealed the presence of the stem-galling midge Neolasioptera aculeatae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Bionomical and field host range studies were conducted to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of P . aculeata. Presence of N. aculeatae galls was restricted to the northern distribution of P. aculeata. Larvae and/or pupae were found by dissecting galls collected throughout the year on P. aculeata plants at different phenological stages. Emergence of N. aculeatae adults occurred 13 to 34 days from field collection and over an average period of 22 days. Field host range surveys indicated that of the 11 legume species sampled, N. aculeatae adults only emerged from galls collected on P. aculeata. The biological attributes of N. aculeatae and its restricted field host range suggests that it will be a promising biological control agent for P. aculeata.

Protecting ecosystems by way of biological control: cursory reflections on the main regulatory instruments for biological control agents, present and future

Alberts,R; Moolman,J
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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Although there are numerous threats to ecosystems and the resultant ecosystem services, alien and invasive plants (AIP) have been identified as being one of the major causes of ecosystem destruction. In addressing the threat of alien and invasive plants through the use of various mechanisms, the regulatory framework imposed by legislation is key in ensuring that that controlling AIPs does in fact not do more harm than good. One such control mechanism, which has the potential to do wonders or wreak havoc if not adroitly implemented, is that of using biological control agents. This contribution provides a brief overview on the three main regulatory instruments used to control biological control agents in South Africa, namely the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 43 of 1983, the Agricultural Pests Act 36 of 1983 and the National Environmental Management. Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004. It also considers possible future developments on the regulation of biological control agents.