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Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane

Silva-Olaya, A. M.; Cerri, C. E P; La Scala, N.; Dias, C. T S; Cerri, C. C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.55%
Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO 2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p < 0.001) between tillage method and time after tillage. By quantifying the accumulated emissions over the 44 days after soil tillage, we observed that tillage-induced emissions were higher after the CT system than the RT and MT systems, reaching 350.09 g m-2 of CO2 in CT, and 51.7 and 5.5 g m-2 of CO2 in RT and MT respectively. The amount of C lost in the form of CO2 due to soil tillage practices was significant and comparable to the estimated value of potential annual C accumulation resulting from changes in the harvesting system in Brazil from burning of plant residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO 2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile...

A time series sequestration and storage model of atmospheric carbon dioxide

Arce, G. L. A. F.; Carvalho, J. A.; Nascimento, L. F. C.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 59-67
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.48%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 11/19920-7; One of the main challenges of environment planning is to identify a model that connects all factors that determine the carbon cycle, that is: ocean-terrestrial ecosystem-anthropogenic emissions-atmosphere. Basic principle of mass conservation can be applied in statistical modeling with a historic time series to obtain the atmospheric CO2 concentration, making it possible to create scenarios that will help in the decision making process. A model that links all carbon cycle factors has been developed this article, focusing on the Boreal, Temperate, Tropical, and Polar thermal climatic zones to calculate atmospheric CO2 level. It was developed with nonparametric models based on carbon dioxide records from measurement stations: EIA (Energy Information Administration), CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), and SIO (Scripp Institution Oceanography). The advantage of the model developed here is that it is able to analyze different scenarios, considering both the behavior of particular countries or groups of countries in each thermal zone and their influence on the predicted concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Results show that in 2100...

Is Fuel-Switching a No-Regrets Environmental Policy? VAR Evidence on Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Performance in Portugal

Pereira, Alfredo Marvão; Pereira, Rui Manuel Marvão
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.64%
The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent reduction in aggregate energy consumption reduces output by €6,340 over the long term, an aggregate impact which hides a wide diversity of effects for different fuel types. More importantly, and since carbon dioxide emissions are linearly related to the amounts of fuel consumed, our results allow us to estimate the costs of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from different energy sources. We estimate that marginal abatement costs for carbon dioxide are €45.62 per ton of carbon dioxide per year for coal, €66.52 for oil, €91.07 for gas, €191.13 for electricity and €254.23 for biomass. An important policy implication is that, once the overall economic costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are considered, fuel switching is a no-regrets environmental policy capable of reducing carbon dioxide emissions without jeopardizing economic activity and indeed with the potential for generating favorable economic outcomes.

Carbon dioxide emissions,urbanization and globalization:a dynamic panel data

Leitão, Nuno Carlos
Fonte: Weissberg Publishing Publicador: Weissberg Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.39%
This study investigates the existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and its relationship with economic growth, energy consumption and globalization over the period of 1990-2010. We apply a dynamic panel data (GMM-system estimator) using the data of selected 18 countries. This estimator permits to solve the problems of serial correlation, heteroskedasticity and endogeneity for some explanatory variables. The environmental consequences of economic growth are according to environmental Kuznets (EKC) hypothesis. Globalization seems to be a main engine that provides a way to enhance production intensively by utilizing abundant domestic resources efficiently. The energy consumption has positive impact on CO2 emissions. Urbanization improves environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions, i.e an inverted-U shaped relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions.

The Effects of Domestic Climate Change Measures on International Competitiveness

Kee, Hiau Looi; Ma, Hong; Mani, Muthukumara
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries (called Annex I countries) have to reduce their combined emissions to 5 percent below 1990 levels in the first commitment period of 2008-12. Efforts to reduce emissions to meet Kyoto targets and beyond have raised issues of competitiveness in countries that are implementing these policies, as well as fear of leakage of carbon-intensive industries to non-implementing countries. This has also led to proposals for tariff or border tax adjustments to offset any adverse impact of capping carbon dioxide emissions. This paper examines the implications of climate change policies such as carbon tax and energy efficiency standards on competitiveness across industries, as well as issues related to leakage, if any, of carbon-intensive industries to developing countries. Although competitiveness issues have been much debated in the context of carbon taxation policies, the study finds no evidence that the energy intensive industries competitiveness is affected by carbon taxes. In fact...

Lock-in Effects of Road Expansion on CO2 Emissions : Results from a Core-Periphery Model of Beijing

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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76.52%
In the urban planning literature, it is frequently explicitly asserted or strongly implied that ongoing urban sprawl and decentralization can lead to development patterns that are unsustainable in the long run. One manifestation of such an outcome is that if extensive road investments occur, urban sprawl and decentralization are advanced and locked-in, making subsequent investments in public transit less effective in reducing vehicle kilometers traveled by car, gasoline use and carbon dioxide emissions. Using a simple core-periphery model of Beijing, the authors numerically assess this effect. The analysis confirms that improving the transit travel time in Beijing s core would reduce the city s overall carbon dioxide emissions, whereas the opposite would be the case if peripheral road capacity were expanded. This effect is robust to perturbations in the model s calibrated parameters. In particular, the effect persists for a wide range of assumptions about how location choice depends on travel time and a wide range of assumptions about other aspects of consumer preferences.

The Growth of Transport Sector CO2 Emissions and Underlying Factors in Latin America and the Caribbean

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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76.67%
This study examines the factors responsible for the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide emissions in 20 Latin American and Caribbean countries during 1980-2005 by decomposing the emissions growth into components associated with changes in fuel mix, modal shift, and economic growth, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. The key finding of the study is that economic growth and the changes in transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector carbon dioxide emissions growth in the countries considered. The results imply that fiscal policy instruments - such as subsidies to clean fuels and clean vehicles - would be more effective in reducing emissions in countries where the economic activity effect is the primary driver for transport sector carbon dioxide emissions growth. By contrast, regulatory policy instruments - such as vehicle efficiency standards and vehicle occupancy standards - would be more effective in countries where the transportation energy intensity effect is the main driver of carbon dioxide emissions growth. Both fiscal and regulatory policy instruments would be useful in countries where both economic activity and transportation energy intensity effects are responsible for driving transport sector carbon dioxide emissions growth.

The Little Green Data Book 2007

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.62%
The 2007 edition of the little green data book includes a new focus section, four introductory pages that focus on a specific issue related to development and the environment in this edition, carbon dioxide emissions. The reports deem human causation of climate change to be very likely. Late 2006 saw the publication of the Stern review on the economics of climate change, which emphasizes the major economic costs of climate change under different emission scenarios and suggests that early action to curb emissions will reduce costs substantially. As a response to this renewed attention to climate change, the focus section of the little green data book 2007 takes a closer look at carbon dioxide emissions.

The Little Green Data Book 2008

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
The 2008 edition of the little green data book includes a focus section, four introductory pages that focus on a specific issue related to development and the environment. This year the focus is on the damage from climate change and carbon dioxide emissions. As this focus shows, global warming can have negative effects on agriculture, health, infrastructure, and other economic activities effects that are likely to hit developing countries the hardest. While high-income countries emit more carbon dioxide than developing countries, emissions from developing countries are growing at a faster pace. And emissions per capita in high income countries are still five times higher than in developing countries.

Firm Competitiveness and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

Chan, Hei Sing; Li, Shanjun; Zhang, Fan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.64%
The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is the first international cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide and the largest carbon pricing regime in the world. A significant concern over the Emissions Trading Scheme has been the potential impact on the competitiveness of industry. Using data on 5,873 firms in ten European countries during 2001-2009, this paper assesses the impact on three variables through which the effects on firm competitiveness may manifest -- unit material costs, employment and revenue. The analysis focuses on the three most heavily-emitting industries under the program -- power, cement, and iron and steel. Empirical results indicate that the Emissions Trading Scheme has had different impacts across these three sectors. Although no impacts are found on any of the three variables in the cement and iron and steel industries, a positive effect is found on both material costs and revenue in the power sector. The effect on material costs likely reflects fuel-switching to reduce carbon dioxide emissions...

Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuels : A Rapid Assessment Method with Application to Six Cities

Lvovsky, Kseniya; Hughes, Gordon; Maddison, David; Ostro, Bart; Pearce, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Among the key external effects of fossil fuel contribution are urban air pollution, and changes in global climate. A study of six cities in developing countries, and transition economies estimates the magnitude of these effects, and, examines how various fuels, and pollution sources contribute to health damages, and other environmental costs. The study develops a simple, but robust method for rapid assessment of these damages. By linking the damage to a particular fuel use, or pollution source, the method makes possible cost-benefit analysis of pollution abatement measures. The findings show very high levels of environmental damage, and reveal large sectoral differences. By far the greatest share of the total damage, is that to human health, from exposure to ambient particulates, caused mainly by small pollution sources, such as vehicles, and household stoves. Large industries, and power plants account for a smaller proportion of health damage, but are the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which have an impact on global climate. The complex relationships between pollution sources...

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions through Joint Implementation of Projects

Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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96.65%
Efficient reduction of carbon dioxide emissions requires coordination of international efforts. Approaches proposed include carbon taxes, emission quotas, and jointly implemented energy projects. To reduce emissions efficiently, requires equalizing the marginal costs of reduction between countries. The apparently large differentials between the costs of reducing emissions in industrial and developing countries, implies a great potential for lowering the costs of reducing emissions by focusing on projects in developing countries. Most proposals for joint implementation of energy projects emphasize installing more technically efficient capital equipment, to allow reductions in energy use for any given mix of input, and output. But such increases in efficiency are likely to have potentially important second-round impacts: 1) Lowering the relative effective price of specific energy products. 2) Lowering the price of energy relative to other inputs. 3) Lowering the price of energy-intensive products relative to other products. The author explores the consequences of these second-round impacts...

More Climate Finance for Sustainable Transport

Ebinger, Jane O.; Vandycke, Nancy; Rogers, John Allen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Brief
Português
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66.55%
Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to stabilize warming at 2 degree Celsius, as agreed by the international community in 2009, will fall short if they do not include the transport sector. Transport is responsible for around 23 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions and emissions are expected to rise without further action to curb emission growth and invest in low carbon transport modes. Investment needs are estimated at around $3 trillion to increase the sustainability of existing and new transport systems and to mitigate climate change over the 2015-35 periods. This is in addition to existing annual investments estimated at $1-2 trillion. The actions taken today to send the right policy signals, and establish the enabling institutions and regulations to attract the necessary private finance will be critical to support this transformation. Significant investment opportunities exist in public transport systems, vehicle efficiency improvement, and reducing the need for travel through demand management...

What to expect from an International System of Tradeable Permits for Carbon Emissions

McKibbin, Warwick J; Shackleton, Robert; Wilcoxen, Peter J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 109411 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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76.34%
We use an econometrically-estimated multi-region, multi-sector general equilibrium model of the world economy to examine the effects of using a system of internationally-tradable emissions permits to control world carbon dioxide emissions. We focus, in particular, on the effects of the system on flows of trade and international capital. Our results show that international trade and capital flows significantly alter projections of the domestic effects of emissions mitigation policy, compared with analyses that ignore international capital flows, and that under some systems of international permit trading the United States is likely to become a significant permit seller, the opposite of the conventional wisdom.; no

The national-level energy ladder and its carbon implications

Burke, Paul John
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 20 pages
Português
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76.28%
This paper uses data for 134 countries for the period 1960–2010 to document an energy ladder that nations ascend as their economies develop. On average, economic development results in an overall substitution from the use of biomass to energy sourced from fossil fuels, and then increasingly towards nuclear power and certain low-carbon modern renewables such as wind power. The process results in the carbon intensity of energy evolving in an inverse-U manner as per capita incomes increase. Fossil fuel-poor countries climb more quickly to the low-carbon upper rungs of the national-level energy ladder and so typically experience larger reductions in the carbon intensity of energy as they develop. Leapfrogging to low-carbon energy sources on the upper rungs of the national-level energy ladder is one route via which developing countries can reduce the magnitudes of their expected upswings in carbon dioxide emissions.

Carbon dioxide emissions in the short run: the rate and sources of economic growth matter

Burke, Paul J.; Shahiduzzaman, Md; Stern, David I.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.34%
This paper investigates the short-run effects of economic growth on carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement for 189 countries over the period 1961–2010. Contrary to what has previously been reported, we conclude that there is no strong evidence that the emissions-income elasticity is larger during individual years of economic expansion as compared to recession. Significant evidence of asymmetry emerges when effects over longer periods are considered. We find that economic growth tends to increase emissions not only in the same year, but also in subsequent years. Delayed effects – especially noticeable in the road transport sector – mean that emissions tend to grow more quickly after booms and more slowly after recessions. Emissions are more sensitive to fluctuations in industrial value added than agricultural value added, with services being an intermediate case. On the expenditure side, growth in consumption and growth in investment have similar implications for national emissions. External shocks have a relatively large emissions impact, and the short-run emissions-income elasticity does not appear to decline as incomes increase. Economic growth and emissions have been more tightly linked in fossil-fuel rich countries.

The Environmental Implications of Russia's Accession to the World Trade Organization

Bohringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.; Turdyeva, Natalia
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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66.67%
This report investigates the environmental impacts of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization. A 10-region, 30-sector model of the Russian economy is developed. The model is innovative and more accurate empirically in that it contains foreign direct investment, imperfectly competitive sectors, and endogenous productivity effects triggered by World Trade Organization accession along with environmental emissions data in Russia for seven pollutants that are tracked for all 30 sectors in each of the 10 regions. The decomposition analysis shows that despite the fact that World Trade Organization accession allows Russia to import better technologies and reduce pollution from the "technique effect," on balance World Trade Organization accession alone will increase environmental pollution in Russia through a shift toward dirty industries (the "composition effect") and the expansion of output with its associated increase in pollution ("scale effect"). The paper assesses the costs of three types of environmental regulations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. The paper simultaneously implements a central case scenario with each of the carbon dioxide emission reduction policy initiatives. The analysis finds that the welfare gains of World Trade Organization accession are large enough to pay for the costs of any of the three environmental abatement policies...

Technological Learning, Energy Efficiency, and CO2 Emissions in China's Energy Intensive Industries

Rock, Michael T.; Toman, Michael; Cui, Yuanshang; Jiang, Kejun; Song, Yun; Wang, Yanjia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.63%
Since the onset of economic reforms in 1978, China has been remarkably successful in reducing the carbon dioxide intensities of gross domestic product and industrial production. Most analysts correctly attribute the rapid decline in the carbon dioxide intensity of industrial production to rising energy prices, increased openness to trade and investment, increased competition, and technological change. China's industrial and technology policies also have contributed to lower carbon dioxide intensities, by transforming industrial structure and improving enterprise level technological capabilities. Case studies of four energy intensive industries -- aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and paper -- show how the changes have put these industries on substantially lower carbon dioxide emissions trajectories. Although the changes have not led to absolute declines in carbon dioxide emissions, they have substantially weakened the link between industry growth and carbon dioxide emissions.

A STUDY OF ENERGY, CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND ECONOMICS IN MACHINING: MILLING AND SINGLE POINT INCREMENTAL FORMING

BRANKER, KADRA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.4%
A simple model that includes energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the economics of machining is proposed, which has been published in the highly respected and cited journal, Annals of CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). This is a timely analysis in current government discussions on a proposed carbon tax or a carbon cap and trade regime and greater energy efficiency. The new cost model is based on life cycle analysis methodology for the initial part production. An illustrative example is given showing that the cheapest electrical grid should not be chosen, if it also has the highest CO2 emissions. Accurate pricing is important, because the more expensive product was highly dependent on the carbon price. A comprehensive review of machining economic models is covered. However, there is a dearth of actual machining data in the literature. This work includes studies in milling and single point incremental forming (SPIF) which can be used by other manufacturing engineers in their machining economic model development. The first milling study involved simple straight cuts. In general, as feed rate (FD) increased (increasing the material removal rate, MRR), the energy consumed decreased as process time decreased. In contrast...

The materiality of the immaterial. Services sectors and CO2 emissions in Uruguay

Piaggio, Matías; Alcántara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio
Fonte: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Economia Aplicada Publicador: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Economia Aplicada
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.4%
This paper analyzes the carbon dioxide emissions of the services sectors subsystem of Uruguay in 2004. Services, with the exception of transport, are often considered intangible because of their low level of direct emissions. However, the provision of services requires inputs produced by other sectors, including several highly materialintensive sectors. Through input–output analysis we investigate the relationship between the services subsystem and the rest of the economy as regards carbon dioxide emissions. This approach allows us to study the importance of the set of services branches as a unit in the economic structure as well as to analyze in detail the relationship between the branches. The results depict that services' direct emissions are the main component, as a consequence of transport-related sectors. However, the pollution that the services subsystem makes the rest of the economy produce is very significant, and it is almost all explained by non-transport-related sectors. This analysis is useful for determining the sectors in which mitigation policies are more effective, and whether they would be better tackled through technical improvements and better practices or through demand policies.